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Falls formerly presented an obstruction, but a canal has been made around them, and the river is now navigable for batteaux for 230 miles above the city. 6. The Savannah, which forms the bouodary between South Carolina and Georgia, and falls into the Atlantic in lat. 32° N. It is aavigable for large vessels to Savannah, 18 miles; and for boats to Augusta, 340 miles further.
The following are the principal rivers, which rise south of the Alleghany mountains and fall into the gulf of Mexico. 1. The Appalachicola, which discharges itself into the western part of Apalachy bay in Florida. It is formed by the union of the Chatahoochee and Flint rivers, the former of which rises in the northern part of Georgia, and flowing south recejves Flint river at the S. V. extremity of Georgia. During the latter part of its course the Chatahoochee forms the boundary between Georgia and Alabama. 2. The Mobile, in Alabama, which discharges itself into Mobile bay. It is formed by two large rivers, the Alabama and Tombigbee, which unite near lat. 31° N. after hap. ing pursued, each, a separate course of many hundred miles.
The principal rivers west of the Rocky mountains are the Columbia and its branches. Columbia river rises in the Rocky mountains near lat. 55° N. and running S. W falls into the Pacific ocean in lat. 46° 15' N. after a course of 1,500 miles. Its principal tributaries are Clarke's river, Lexis' river, and the Mulinomah or Wallannut, all of which join it on the left bank. Vessels of 300 tops may ascend the Columbia to the mouth of the Multnomah, 125 miles, and large sloops to the head of the tide, 60 miles further.
Inland Navigation.) Numerous canals have been proposed for connecting the great rivers, bays and lakes, in various parts of the country, some of which are already completed, and others in a course of execution. The principal are the following : 1 The Middlesex canal, which lies wholly in Massachusetts. It is 31 miles long and coonects Boston harbor with Merrimack river, thus opening an easy communication between Boston and the interior of New Hampshire. It was completed in 1804. 2. The Champlain canal, which lies wholly in N. Y. is 22 miles long and connects lake Champlain with the Hudson. It was completed in 1820. 3. The Erie canal, extending from lake Erie to the Hudson, 350 miles, is the greatest work of the kind ever undertaken in America. It is wbolly in the state of New York, and will probably be completed in 1823, at an expense of about $5,000,000. 4. A canal has been proposed to connect James river with the Ohio. The board of public works in Virginia have recently reported in favor of its practicability and expediency. 5. The Chesapeake and Albemorle canal lies partly in Virginia and partly in North Carolina, and connects Chesapeake bay with Albemarle sound. 6. The Santee canals, 24 miles long, is wholly in South Carolina, and connects Santee river with Charleston harbor. 9. A canal for sloops from Massachusetts bay to Buzzard's bay across the isthmus which connects the peninsula of cape Cod with the continent has been proposed, and a company has been incorporated
by the legislature of Massachusetts for carrying the plan into execution. 8. A canal for sloops has been proposed through the centre of New Jersey, designed to connect, with the aid or intervening streams, New York bay with Delaware river. A company was incorporated in New Jersey many years ago for this purpose, and a survey of the intended route was made froin which the practicability of the plan was ascertained. 9. A canal has been commenced across the isthmus which separates Delaware river from Chesapeake bay. 10. Two canals bave been proposed for connecting rivers which fall into lake Erie with navigable branches of the Ohio, and Congress have granied 100,000 acres of land for carrying each of these plans into execution. 11. A canal has been proposed to connect the head waters of Illinois river with lake Michigan, and Congress have also appropriated 100,000 acress of land towards defraving the exo pense of this project. Besides these there are numerous other canals of minor importance, particularly around the falls in the great rivers.
Climate. The territory of the United States, extending through 24 degrees of latitude, presents of course a great variety of climate. As a general remark, however, it is every where much colder than in the same parallels in Europe, and the difference has been commonly estimated as equivalent to 8 or 10 degrees of latitude. The country on the Ohio has been commonly considered warmer in the same parallels than the Atlantic states. The difference was supposed by Mr. Jefferson to equal what would result from three degrees of latitude. Accurate observations, however, which have been made at Ciocionari for a series of years, prove that there is no foundation for this opinion; or at least, if there be a difference, it cannot equal one third of what has been mentioned. The opinion that the climate or the Ohio is more moist and more liable to sudden and extreme changes than that of the eastern states is equally erroneous. In the flat country of the southern states the summers are hot and unhealthy ; the months of July, August and September are here denominated the sickly season, but the rest of the year is generally mild and pleasant. In New England the climate is healthy, but in the spring of the year bleak and piercing east winds prevail, which are very disagreeable. In Plorida, the climate is favorable to the production of tropical fruits, and it is supposed that coffee, cocoa and sugar might be raised there abundantly.
Soil and Productions. The soil is generally fertile and capable of supporting a dense population. The principal production of the states south of Virginia and Kentucky, is cotton. Tobacco is raised in large quantities in Maryland and Virginia. Wheat is the staple production of the Middle and Western States. In the Eastern states a considerable portion of the soil is devoted to pasturage. Rice is cultivated to a considerable extent in the swamps of Georgia and the Carolinas. The sugar cane flourishes in Loujsiana as high as the parallel of 30° N. lat. The vipe has, within a few years, been successfully cultivated in ladiana, and it is sup
posed that the climate would be equally favorable in Virginie, ihr Carolinas, Kentucky and Tennessee.
Population. The population of the United Stater, in 1790, was 3,929,326 ; in 1800, 5,305,666 ; in 1810, 7,239,903, and in 1820, 9,625,734; of whom 1,631,456 were slaves and 233,398 free black... The population increases very regolarly at the rate of about 3 per cent. per annum, doubling in less iban 25 years. The inbabitants consist of whites, negroes and Indians. The negroes are generally slaves, and are principally confined to the states south of Pennsylvania and the river Ohio. All the whites are of European origin ; principally English. The New-Englanders, Virgiovane, and Carolinians are almost purely English. Next 10 the English are the Germuns, who are very nemerous in the Middle states, particularly in Pennsylvania. Next to the Germans are the Dutch, who are most numerous in New York. The French con-titute nearly half the population of Louisiana. The Irish and Scotch are found in the Middle states, in the back parts of Virginia, and in all the principal cities of the Union. Very jutle is known about the Indians west of the Mississippi. The 4 principal trihes on the east of the Mississippi are the Creeks, Choctaws, Cherokees, and Chickasaws. These tribes live within the chartered lim ts of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and TenDessee.
Religion.) The principal religious denominations are Presby. terians and Congregationalists, who have together more than 2.500 congregations; the Baptists, who have more than 2,000 congregations; the Friends, who bave more than 500 societies; and the Episcopalians, who have about 300. The Methodists, also, are very numerous. The Baptists and Methodists are found in all parts of the United States; the Congregationalits are almost wholly in New-England; the Presbyterians are scattered over the Middle and Southern states ; the Friends are most oumerous in Pennsylvania and the adjoining states, and the Episcopalsans in New York, Connecticut, Maryland and Virginia." Germnan Lutherans, German Calvinists, and Moravians are also numerous in the Middle states.
Government. The United States are a federal republic. Each of the states is independent, and has the exclusive control of all concerns merely local ; but the defence of the country, the regulation of commerce, and all the general interests of the confederacy are committed, by the constitution of the United States, to a general government. The legislative power is vested in a Congress, consisting of a Senate and House of Representatives.
The Senate is composed of two members from each state, chosen by their Legislatures for 6 years. The Representatives are chosen by the people biennially, each state being entitled to a pomber proportioned to its free population, and in the slave-holding states every five slaves are allowed to count the same as tbree freemen. The President and Vice President are chosen for four years by electors appointed for the purpose, and eacb state appoints as many electors as the whole number of its Sena
tors and Representatives. The salary of the President is $25,000 per annum ; of the Vice President, $5,000. The principal officers in the executive department are the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, the Attorney General, and the Postmaster General.
Army and Nuvy.) The army, in 1820, consisted of 10,000 men, occupying numerous posts along the maritime and inland frontier, The navy at present (1822) consists of 7 ships of the line, 8 frigates and 23 smaller vessels ; besides 4 ships of the line and 37 smaller vessels on the great lakes. The officers are 31 captains, 31 masters commandants, 196 lieutenants and 336 midshipmen.
Revenve.] The revenue of the United States, in 1819, was $21,435,700. More than nine-tenths of the revenue bave been usually derived from duties on imports. The sale of public lands for several years past has also yielded a considerable sum, and the amount from this source is rapidly increasing. The internal revenue and direct taxes on houses and lands yield very little, being only resorted to in cases of emergency.
Public Debt.] The public debt contracted in support of the war of independence, amounted in 1791, to $75,463, 167. During the long peace between 1783 and 1812 the country was prosperous, and the debt was gradually reduced to $36,656,932. The war of 1812, '13, and '14, increased it again more than three-fold, and in 1816 it was $123,016,375. It has since been greatly reduced, and in October 1st, 1820, was $91,680,090.
Commerce and Manufactures.] The commerce of the United States consists principally in the exchange of agricultural produce for the manufactures of other parts of the world, and the productions of tropical climates. The whole value of the exporis in 1821 was $61,974.382, of which $43,671,894 was domestic produce. The principal article is cotton; the quantity of which has been continually and rapidly increasing for more than 30 years. In 1790 the amount exported was only 100,000 pounds; in 1795, 1,300,000 ; 1800, 17,789,803; in 1804, 35,034,175; and in 1817, 85,649,328 pounds, the value of which was $22,628,000. Next in importance to cotton are wheat and flour, of which the amount exported in 1817 was 1,479,198 barrels, and the value $18,432,000. Tobacco, lumber, rice, pot and pearl asbes, Indian coro, fish, beef and pork are also exported in large quantities. The principal articles imported may be arranged in the following order; manufactured goods, principally from Great Britain ; sugar, rum, wine, molasses, brandy, coffee and teas.-The shipa ping belonging to the United States in 1818 was 1,166,185 tons. It is owned principally in New-England and New York. The states south of the Potomac own only one eight part. The ana nual value of the manufactures of the United States was estis mated in 1810, at $172,762,876.
NEW ENGLAND OR EASTERN STATES
Situation and Extent.] New England is bounded N. by Lower Ganada ; E. by New Brunswick ; S. E. and S. by the Atlantic ocean; and W. by New-York. The area is estimated at 65,000
Sea-coast.] The ocean washes New England for about 700 miles. The coast is bold and abounds with fine harbors. Perhaps no country in the world has greater advantages for navigation. In this respect Maine is peculiarly distinguished.
Mountains.) There are several ranges of mountains which traverse the western part of New-England from north to south. 1. The Green mountain range commences in the N. W. part of Vermont, a little below the parallel of 45° N. lat. and running in a southerly direction through Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut, terminates at New-Haven on Long Island sound, in a noble bluff called West rock. It is nearly 300 miles in length, and the highest summits are about 4,000 feet above the level of the ocean. 2. The Taghkannuc range is a western branch of the Green mountain range. It leaves the principal chain a little below Middlebury, nearly opposite the southern extremity of lake Champlain, and running almost parallel with the Green mountain raoge, along the western boundaries of Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut, terminates also on Long Island sound, 20 miles S.W. of New-Haven. 3. The White mountain range commences in the northern part of New Hampsbire, and running in a south erly direction, forms the height of land between Connecticut and Merrimack rivers, after which it passes into Massachusetts, and a little below Northampton divides into two branches. The westera branch, called the Mount Tom range, crosses Connecticut river, and running in a direction a little west of south, terminates at New-Haven, in a bluff called East rock, about iwo miles from the southern extremity of the Green mountain range. 'The eastern branch, called the Lyme range, runs directly south and terminates at Lyme, situated on the east bank of Connecticut river at its mouth. The highest summit of the White mountain range is more than 6,000 feet above the level of the ocean,
Productions.) Grass is undoubtedly the most valuable object of culture in New-England. One hundred acres of the best grazing-land under the direction of a skilful farmer, will yield as much net profit as 150 of the best arable land under the same direction. After grass, maize is the most valuable crop in this country. It is extensively the food of man, being palatable, wholesome, and capable of being used agreeably in more modes of cookery than any other grain. It is also the best food for cuttle and swine. Wheat grows well wherever the ground is sufficiently dry, in all the countries westward of the Lyme and White pouptajo ranges; and in many places eastward of that limit. Ap