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fect is produced by the locusts? 7. What effect is produced by the corals ? 8. What parts of the world are troubled with the corals? 9. What animals Aourish in the temperate zone ? 10. What animals are found near the 60th degree of latitude ? 11. What parts of the world produce the best furs ? 12. What ferocious animal inhabits the frigid zone ? 13. What remarkable fish in the polar seas?

TEMPERATURE. The two leading causes which affect the temperature of any region are distance from the equator, and elevation above the level of the sea. In proportion as you go from the equator towards the poles the cold increases, and in proportion as you ascend above the level of the sea the cold increases. Hence, uoder the equator, low countries are excessively hot and unhealthy, but regions elevated 6,000 or 8,000 feet enjoy a delightful temperature, while at 13,000 or 14,000 feet, the climate is the same as in the frozen zone, and at 15,000 feet is the region of perpetual congelation, where ice never melts, and all mountains are covered above this height with eternal snow. The following table shows the mean tenperature at the level of the sea, in all the successive latitudes, and the height at which perpetual congelation takes place. Latitude. Mean Temperature.

Perpetual Congelation.

Feet.
0
84° 2'

15,207
10
82° 6'

14,764
20
78° 1'

13,478
30
71° 1'

11,484
40
62° 6'

9,001
50
53° 6'

6,334
60
45° 0

3,818
70
38° 1'

1,778
33° 6'

457 32° 0'

0

80 90

Questions. 1. What are the two leading causes which affect the temperature of any place ? 2. In ascending a lofty mountain does the climate become warmer or colder ? 3. What is the climate of low countries in the torrid zone ? 4. What is the climate of places near the equator, which are elevated 6,000 or 8,000 feet above the level of the sea ? 5. What is the climate at the height of 15,000 feet under the equator ? 6. What is the climate at 9,000 feet in the latitude of 40°? 7. How high must a mountain rise in latitude 80° before its top will be covered with perpetual snow? 8. What is the mean temperature at the level of the sea, under the equator ?

INDEX.

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Aberdeen
324 Aral sea

482 Barbadoes island
Abyssinia

588 Ararat mountain 486 Barbary states
Acapulco
230 Araucanians

295 Barbuda island
Acre
490 Archangel

366 Barca
Adel
591 Arequipa

274 Barcelona
Adige

449 Arkansas river 72, 221 Bassora
Adrianople
477 Arkansas territory

221 Batavia
Afghans
510 Armenia

491 Bath, England,
Africa
559 Arno river

449 Bath, Maine,
Agades
596 Arracan

529|Bathurst
Agra

517 Aruba island 255 Bavaria
Aix la Chapelle 426 Asben

596 Bayonne
Ajan coast

591 Ascension island 599 Beaufort, S. C.
Alabama state 169 Ashantee

579 Bedouins
Alabama river
ib. Asia

481 Begherme
Aland isles
370 Assam

530 Belfast
Alatamaha river

166 Assumption 286 Belgrade
Albany
120 Astrachan

496 Bellows' falls
Aleppo

489 Atacama desert 284 Beloochistan
Alessandria
453 Athens

477 Benares
Aleutian islands 496 Atlas mountains 560 Bencoolen
Alexandria, D. C.
146|Aya

529 Benguela
Alexandria, Egypt, 563 Augsburg

408 Benin
Algiers
571 Augusta, Maine,

81 Ben Nevis
Alleghany river 133 Augusta, Georgia, 167 Berbera
Alps 301, 395, 447 Austerlitz

468 Berbice
Altay mountains 482 Australasia

553 Bergen
Altona
353 Austria

464 Bergoo
Amazon river
256 Axum

589 Berlin
Amboyna
553 Azores

601 Bermuda islands
America
52

Berne
Amherst college 100 Babylon

491 Beverly
Amsterdam
375|Badajos

436 Biafra
Amur river
484 Baden

415 Bilboa
Andes
255, 259 Bagdad

489 Biledulgerid
Andover institution 100 Bahama islands 246 Birman empire
Androscoggin river 179 Bahrein islands

502 Birmingham
Angola

581 Babr el Azrek 588 Black river
Angora
489 Baikal lake

494 Black sea
Anguilla island 248 Baku

496 Blakely
Anhalt
420 Balbec

491 Blue ridge
Annapolis
143 Bale

397 Bog river
Annobon island
$99 Baltic sea

299 Bogdo mountains
Antigua island 250 Baltimore

142]Bokhara
Antilles
235 Bambarra

579
320
591
269
340
595
425

298
397
97

579
435

572
528
311
207
299
170
148
362

434

503

594 Bologna
Antwerp
376 Bambouk

594 Bombay
Apennines
448 Banca

551 Bona
Appalachicola riv.73, 223 Banda islands 553 Bonair island
Arabia
496 Bangor

81 Bonn

518
572

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294

Bootan

543 Cape of Good Hope 581 Cochin, China 533
Borneo
551 Cape Henry
241 Coimbra

445
Bornou
595 Capetown
582 Cologne

426
Boshuanas
585 Cape Verde islands 600 Colombo

527
Bosphorus

473 Caraccas city 265 Colorado river 228
Boston

95 Caribbean islands 235 Columbia river 73, 224
Boulogne

389 Caribs, Indians, 267 Columbia college,
Bourbon
594 Carlisle

1361

N. Y. 124
Bourdeaux
388 Carlscrona

346 Columbia District 144
Bowdoin college 82 Carlsruhe

415 Columbia, S. C. 161
Brainerd
185 Carolina South 159 Columbus

195
Bravo del Norte Caroline islands 557 Como lake

449
rivers

Carpathian moun Comorro islands 594
Brazil

275
tains 301, 465 Conception

293
Brebers
569 Carthage

571 Concord
Bremen
421 Cartbagena

262 Congo river 5 75
Breslau
425 Carthagena, Spain 436 Congo coast

580
Brest
389 Cashmere
524 Connecticut

106
Bristol, R.I.
105 Caspian sea

482 Connecticut river 72, 107
Bristol, Eng. 307 Cassel

416 Constance lake 395
British India 522Castine

81 Constantina 572
Bromberg canal 424 Catania

458 Constantinople 476
Brown university. 105 Cauca river

260 Copenhagen 352
Bruges
378 Caucasian mountains 483 Copiapo

293
Bruan
468 Cayenne

270 Copts
Brunswick, Germany, 418 Celebes

552 Coquimbo
Brunswick, Maine, 80 Ceylon

527 Cordova, S. America 286
Brussels
376 Champlain lake 70, 89 Corea

544
Buda
469 Champlain canal 73, 123 Corinth

477
Buenos Ayres city 285 Chapala lake 228 Cork

334
Buffalo
122 Charlestown, Mass, 97 Corsica

393
Bukarest
477 Charleston, S. C. 161 Corydon

201
Bukaria
544 Chatahoochee river 166 Cossacks

368
Burlington, Vermont, 90 Cherbourg

388 Cosseir

564
Burrainpooter 485 Cherokee Indians 184Cotopaxi volcano, 259

Cherson

366 Council bluff
Cabenda
581 Chesuncook lake 79 Cracow,

372
Cabul

509, 510 Chiapa de los Indios 234 Creek Indians
Cadiz
433 Chicago river 203 Cronstadt

366
Caffraria
584 Chickasaw Indians 185 Cuba

238
Cagliari
453 Chili
290 Cuiaba

280
Cahokian
2 04 Chillicothe

195 Cuidad Real 235
Cairo
563 Chiloe archipelago 296 Cumana

266
Calcutta

517 Chimborazo mount'n 259 Cumberland river 188
Caledonian canal 320 China

534 Curacoa island 254
Callao
273 Chippeways
219 Cusco

273
Carobodia

532 Choctaw Indians 174 Cyprus
Cambridge university 315 Chowan river 156
Canada Lower 62 Christiania

340 Dahomey

580
Canada Upper 64 Christiansand 340 Dal river

344
Canaries
600 Church states of the 458 Damaras

585
Candahar
510 Cincinnati
194 Damascus

488
Candia
480 Circleville
196 Damietta

564
Candy
527 Cleveland
196 Dantzic

425
Cantabrian mount'ns 430 Cleves

427 Danube river 300, 466
Canton
537 Clyde river
319 Dardanelles

478
Cape Breton island 64 Cobbe

595 Darfur

595
Cape Cod peninsula 92 Cobi desert 485 Darmstadt

416
Cape Coast castle 579 Coblentz

427 Dartmonth college 86
Cape Fear river 156 Coburg

419 Dead sea

487

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473

253
250

431

Delaware state 138|Forth river

318 Grand isle

216
Delaware river 72, 13-2 Fort Howard 215 Grand island, N. Y. 126
Delhi
518 Fort Gratiot
215 Grand river

276
Demerara
269 Foulahs

576 Grand river, Miss.
Denmark
351 Fox river

218 Grand river, U. C. 65
Derne
570 France
381 Great Britain

302
Deseada island 251 Francisco river 276 Greece
Detroit
214 Frankfort on the Greeks

478
Diarbekir

489
Maine 422 Greenland

56
Distal swamp

155 Frankfort on the Green mountains 77, 89
Dnieper river 362

Oder 427 Green bay settlement 215
Dniester river 363 Frankfort, Kentucky,189 Greenock
Domboo

595 Franklin, Missouri, 210 Grenada island
Dongola

586 Fredericksburg, Va. 151 Guadaloupe island
Dort

377 Frederickston, N. B. 61 Guadalquiver river 431
Dover, Delaware, 140 Frederickstown, Md. 143 Guadiana river
Dresden
413 Freyberg

414 Guanaxuato city
Drontheim
340 Friendly islands 5584

Guancavelica

274
Druses
491 Funen island

353 Guaraunos, Indians, 266
Dublin
3331

Guatimala
Duero rirer
431 Galla

591 Guatimala city 234
Dundee
324 Gallam

577 Guayaquil
Dunkirk
389 Gallapagos islands 292 Guernsey island

317
Dusseldorf
427 Galway
335 Guiana

268
Dwight
222 Gambia river 561 Guinea coast

578
Dwina
362 Ganges river 484, 514 Gypsies

471
Garda lake

449
Earth

49 Garonne river 384 Hæmus mountains
Ebro river
430 Gasconade river 207 Hague

377
Edinburgh
392 Gefle
347 Hainan island

542
Edwardsville 204 Genesee river 117 Halifax
Egypt
562 Geneva lake
395 Halle

426
Elba island
461 Geneva

397 Hallowell
Elbe river 402, 424, Genoa

459 Hamburg

421
Elliot

174 George lake 115 Hamilton college
Elsinore

353 Georgetown, D. C. 146 Hampden Sidney
England
302 Georgetown, S. C. 1611

college 153
Enicei river
484 Georgetown, Demer Hanover

410
Erie lake

70
ara, 270 Harrisburg

135
Erie canal 73, 129Georgia

164 Hartford

108
Erzgebirge mts. 401 Ghauts

514 Hartz mountains 401
Essequebo
269 Ghent

377 Harvard college 99
Etna
457 Giants causeway

337 Havannah
Euphrates river 485, 487 Gibraltar

441 Hayti
Europe
298 Gila river

228 Hebrides
Gilolo

553 Heckla mount
Fahlun
347 Glasgow
323 Herat

510
Farmington river 107 Gloucester

97 Herculaneum
Faroe islands 355 Goahiros, Indians, 266 Herculaneum, Italy, 456
Farther India 528 Gold coast

578 Hermon mount
Fayetteville
157 Gondar

589 Hesse Cassel
Feloops
576 Goree

577 Hesse Darmstadt
Fernando Po is). 599 Gotha

419 Hesse Homburg
Ferrol
436 Gotha Elf

344 Hildburghausen 419
Fez

573 Gothland island 349 Himmaleh mts.
Fezzan
596 Gottenburg

346 Hindoo Coosh mts. 509
Florence
460 Gottingen
411 Hindoostan

512
Florida
222 Grain coast

578|Hispaniola
Flushing

378 Grampian mts. 320|Hoang-ho river
Formosa island 542|Granada

435 Hockhocking river 193

124

239
338
356

210

497

416

415

66

Hohenzollera 420 Knoxville

184 Madras

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Honduras bay. 233 Konigsberg

425 Madrid

433
Hooestenbuc river 10% Kordofan

696 Maese river

374
Hot springs
222 Kuban river 494 Magadoxa

592
Hottentots
583 Kur river

494 Magdalena river 260
Huussa
595 Kurds
492 Magdeburg

426
Hudson river 72, 116 Kurile islands 496 Magellan straits 297
Hudson city
121

Maggiore lake 449
Hull
308 Laccadives
528 Mahrattas

521
Humber river 305 Ladoga lake 36 1 Maine river

403
Huntsville
171 Ladrones
557 Maine state

79
Huron lake 70, 212 La Guayra 265 Majorca island 440
Hydra
481 Lancaster
136 Malacca

530
Landan
408 Malaga

435
Iceland
356 Lanquedoc eanal 385/ Malar lake

344
Illinois state
202 Laos
534 Malays

530
Iliinois river 203 Lapland

349 Maldives

528
Indiana
199 Lassa
544 Malemba

581
Indus river 485, 515 Leeds

31 1 Malstrom

342
Inhambane
593 Leeward islands 247 Malta

463
Iunspruck
468 Leghorn
461 Mamelukes

566
lomian isiands
463 Leipzic
413 Man isle of

317
Ipsamnbul temple 586 Leith

323 Manchester

310
Ireland
330 Lemberg
476 Mandan village

221
Ispahan
505 Lena river
484 Mandi goes

576
Italy
447 Lexington, Ky. 189 Manheim

415
Ivica island
441 Leyden

378 Mantchoos country 546
Ivory coast
578 Libanus mountain 487 Mantua

470
Lichtenstein
421 Maracaibo lake

264
Jaloffs

576 Licking river 188 Maracaibo city
Jamaica
242 Liege
377 Varanham

279
James river 72, 149 Liffy river

331 Marblehead

97
Japan
546 Lima

273 Margarita island
Java
550, Limerick

335 Mariegalante
Jedo

547|Lipari islands 458 Marietta
Jersey isle

317 Lippe Detmold 420 Marquesas
Jerusalem
490 Lisbon
444 Marseilles

388
Jordalı rirer 488 Liverpool

308 Martha's Vineyard

102
Juan Fernandez

Luango
580 Martinico island

251
island 296 Loire river

384 Maryland

140
Jumna river
515 Lomond Loch 319 Mascat

500
Jura mountains 383 London

306 Massachusetts 92
Juruay river 257 Londonderry 335 Masuah

590
Jutay river

2571
Long island, N. Y. 126 Mauritius island

599
Loochoo islands 542 Mayhew

174
Kaffers
584 Louisiana
175 Mayomba

580
Kamutschatka 496 Louisville

189 Meaco

547
Kaskaskia river 203 Lubeck

422 Mecca

500
Ko kaskia towa 204 Lucca

462 Mecklenburg 417
Kasina
596 Luxor
565 Medina

500
Kelat

512|Lyme mountains 257 Mediterranean sea 299
Kenne
564 Lynchburg
151 Meinungen

419
Kennebeck river 79 Lyon

97 Melinda

592
Kentucky state
186 Lyons

887 Melville island 601
Kentucky river 188

Memphremagog lake 89
Kiachta
496 Macassar
552 Mendoza

286
Kiel canal
352 Machjas

81 Menomonees 219
Killarney lake 337 Mackenzie's river 55Mergui

529
Kingston, U. C. 65 ladagascar 594 Merrimack river,N.H. 85
Kingston, Jamaica, 244 Madeira island 600 Merrimack river,
Kirghises
503 Madeira river

Missouri, 407

268
251
196
559

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