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fect is produced by the locusts? 7. What effect is produced by the corals? 8. What parts of the world are troubled with the corals ? 9. What animals flourish in the temperate zone ? 10. What animals are found near the 60th degree of latitude ? 11. What parts of the world produce the best furs? 12. What ferocious animal inbabits the frigid zone? 13. What remarkable fish in the polar seas?

TEMPERATURE. The two leading causes which affect the tem. perature of any region are distance from the equator, and elevation above the level of the sea. In proportion as you go from the equator towards the poles the cold increases, and in proportion as you ascend above the level of the sea the cold increases. Hence, under the equator, low countries are excessively hot and unhealthy, but regions elevated 6,000 or 8,000 feet enjoy a delightful temperature, while at 13,000 or 14,000 feet, the climate is the same as in the frozen zone, and at 15,000 feet is the region of perpetual congelation, where ice never melts, and all mountains are covered above this height with eternal snow. The following table shows the mean temperature at the level of the sea, in all the successive latitudes, and the height at which perpetual congelation takes place. Latitude. Mean Temperature.

Perpelual Congelation.

Feel. 84° 2

15,207 82° 6

14,764
78° 1'

13,478
30
71° 1'

11,484
62° 6'

9,001 53° 6'

6,334 45° 0

3,818
38° 1'

1,778
33° 6
32° 0

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Questions. 1. What are the two leading causes which affect the temperature of any place ? 2. In ascending a lofty mountain does the climate become warmer or colder ? 3. What is the climate of low countries in the torrid zone? 4. What is the climate of places near the equalor, wbich are elevated 6,000 or 8,000 feet above the level of the sea ? 5. What is the climate at the height of 15,000 feet under the equator ? 6. What is the climate at 9,000 feet in the latitude of 40° ? 7. How high must a mountain rise in latitude 80° before its top will be covered with perpetual snow ? 8. What is the mean temperature at the level of the sea, under the equator ?

INDEX.

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Aberdeen
324 Aral sea

482 Barbadoes island
Abyssinia

588 Ararat mountain 486 Barbary states
Acapulco

230 Araucanians 295 Barbuda island
Acre
490 Archangel

366 Barca
591 Arequipa

* 274 Barcelona
Adige

449 Arkansas river 72, 221 Bassora
Adrianople
477 Arkansas territory

221 Batavia
Afghans
510 Armenia

491 Bath, England,
Africa
559 Arno river

449 Bath, Maine,
Agades
596 Arracan

529 Bathurst
Agra

517| Aruba island 255 Bavaria
Aix la Chapelle 426 Asben

596 Bayonne
Ajan coast

591 Ascension island 599 Beaufort, S. C.
Alabama state 169 Ashantee

579 Bedouins
Alabama river ib. Asia

481 Begherme
Aland isles
370 Assam

530 Belfast
Alatamaha river
166 Assumption

286 Belgrade
Albany
120 Astrachan

496 Bellows' falls
Aleppo

489 Atacama desert 284 Beloocbistan
Alessandria
453 Athens

477 Benares
Aleutian islands 496 Atlas mountains 560 Bencoolen
Alexandria, D. C. 146 Ava

529 Benguela
Alexandria, Egypt, 563 Augsburg,

408 Benin
Algiers

571 Augusta, Maine, 81 Ben Nevis
Alleghany river 133 Augusta, Georgia, 167 Berbera
Alps 301, 395, 447 Austerlitz

468 Berbice
Altay mountains 482 Australasia

553 Bergen
Altona
353 Austria

464 Bergoo
Amazon river 256 Axum

589 Berlin
Amboyna
553 Azores

601 Bermuda islands
America
52

Berne
Amherst college 100 Babylon

491 Beverly
Amsterdam
375 Badajos

436 Biafra
Amur river
484 Baden

415 Bilboa
Andes
255, 259 Bagdad

489 Biledulgerid
Andover institution 100 Bahama islands 246 Birman empire
Androscoggin river "79|Bahrein islands 502 Birmingham
Angola

581 Babr el Azrek 588 Black river
Angora
489 Baikal lake

494 Black sea
Anguilla island
248 Baku

496 Blakely
Anbalt
420 Balbec

491 Blue ridge
Annapolis
143 Bale

397 Bog river
Annobon island $99 Baltic sea

299 Bogdo mountains
Antigua island 250 Baltimore

142]Bokhara
Antilles
235 Bambarra

594 Bologna
Antwerp
376 Bambouk

594 Bombay
Apennines
448 Banca

551 Bona
Appalachicola riv.73, 223 Banda islands 553 Bonair island
Arabia
496 Bangor

81 Bonn

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298

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294

Bootan

543 Cape of Good Hope 581 Cochin, China 533
Borneo
551 Cape Henry
241 Coimbra

445
Bornou
595 Capetown
582 Cologne

426
Boshuanas
585 Cape Verde islands 600 Colombo

527
Bosphorus

473 Caraccas city 265 Colorado river 228
Boston

95 Caribbean islands 235 Columbia river 73, 224
Boulogne

389 Caribs, Indians, 267 Columbia college,
Bourbon
594 Carlisle

1361

N. Y. 124
Bourdeaux
388 Carlscrona

346 Columbia District 144
Bowdoin college 82 Carlsruhe

415 Columbia, S. C. 161
Brainerd
185 Carolina South 159 Columbus

195
Bravo del Norte Caroline islands 557 Como lake

449
rivers

Carpathian moun Comorro islands 594
Brazil

275
tains 301, 465 Conception

293
Brebers
569 Carthage

571 Concord
Bremen
421 Cartbagena

262 Congo river 5 75
Breslau
425 Carthagena, Spain 436 Congo coast

580
Brest
389 Cashmere
524 Connecticut

106
Bristol, R.I.
105 Caspian sea

482 Connecticut river 72, 107
Bristol, Eng. 307 Cassel

416 Constance lake 395
British India 522Castine

81 Constantina 572
Bromberg canal 424 Catania

458 Constantinople 476
Brown university. 105 Cauca river

260 Copenhagen 352
Bruges
378 Caucasian mountains 483 Copiapo

293
Bruan
468 Cayenne

270 Copts
Brunswick, Germany, 418 Celebes

552 Coquimbo
Brunswick, Maine, 80 Ceylon

527 Cordova, S. America 286
Brussels
376 Champlain lake 70, 89 Corea

544
Buda
469 Champlain canal 73, 123 Corinth

477
Buenos Ayres city 285 Chapala lake 228 Cork

334
Buffalo
122 Charlestown, Mass, 97 Corsica

393
Bukarest
477 Charleston, S. C. 161 Corydon

201
Bukaria
544 Chatahoochee river 166 Cossacks

368
Burlington, Vermont, 90 Cherbourg

388 Cosseir

564
Burrainpooter 485 Cherokee Indians 184Cotopaxi volcano, 259

Cherson

366 Council bluff
Cabenda
581 Chesuncook lake 79 Cracow,

372
Cabul

509, 510 Chiapa de los Indios 234 Creek Indians
Cadiz
433 Chicago river 203 Cronstadt

366
Caffraria
584 Chickasaw Indians 185 Cuba

238
Cagliari
453 Chili
290 Cuiaba

280
Cahokian
2 04 Chillicothe

195 Cuidad Real 235
Cairo
563 Chiloe archipelago 296 Cumana

266
Calcutta

517 Chimborazo mount'n 259 Cumberland river 188
Caledonian canal 320 China

534 Curacoa island 254
Callao
273 Chippeways
219 Cusco

273
Carobodia

532 Choctaw Indians 174 Cyprus
Cambridge university 315 Chowan river 156
Canada Lower 62 Christiania

340 Dahomey

580
Canada Upper 64 Christiansand 340 Dal river

344
Canaries
600 Church states of the 458 Damaras

585
Candahar
510 Cincinnati
194 Damascus

488
Candia
480 Circleville
196 Damietta

564
Candy
527 Cleveland
196 Dantzic

425
Cantabrian mount'ns 430 Cleves

427 Danube river 300, 466
Canton
537 Clyde river
319 Dardanelles

478
Cape Breton island 64 Cobbe

595 Darfur

595
Cape Cod peninsula 92 Cobi desert 485 Darmstadt

416
Cape Coast castle 579 Coblentz

427 Dartmonth college 86
Cape Fear river 156 Coburg

419 Dead sea

487

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250
431

233

Delaware state 138 Forth river

318 Grand isle

216
Delaware river 72, 132 Fort Howard 215Grand island, N. Y. 126
Delhi

518 Fort Gratiot 215 Grand river
Demerara
269 Foulahs

576 Grand river, Miss. 207
Denmark
351 Fox river

218 Grand river, U. C.
Derne
570 France
391 Great Britain

302
Deseada island 251 Francisco river 276 Greece

473
Detroit
214 Frankfort on the Greeks

473
Diarbekir

489

Maine 422 Greenland
Dismal swamp

155 Frankfort on the Green mountains 77, 89
Dnieper river 362

Oder 427 Green bay settlement 215
Dniester river 363 Frankfort, Kentucky,189 Greenock
Domboo

595 Franklin, Missouri, 210 Grenada jaland 253
Dongola

586 Fredericksburg, Va. 151 Guadaloupe island
Dort

377 Frederickston, N. B. 61 Guadalquiver river
Dover, Delaware, 140 Frederickstown, Md. 143 Guadiana river 431
Dresden
413 Freyberg

414Guanaxuato city
Drontheim

340 Friendly islands 558 Guancavelica
Druses

491 Funen island 35. Guaraunos, Indians, 266
Dublin
333

Guatimala
Duero river
431 Galla

591 Cuatimala city 234
Dundee
324 Gallam
577 Guayaquil

262
Dunkirk

389 Gallapagos islands 292 Guernsey island 317
Dusseldorf
4.7 Galway
335 Guiana

268
Dwight

222Gambia river 561 Guinea coast 578
Dwina
362 Ganges river 484, 514 Gypsies

471
Garda lake

4491
Earth

49 Garonne riser 39-4 Hæmus mountains
Ebro river
430 Gasconade river 207 Hague

377
Edinburgh
322 Gefle

347 Hainan island 542
Edwardsville

204 Genesee river 117 Halifax
Egypt

562 Geneva lake 395 Halle
Elba island
461 Geneva

397 Hallowell
Elbe river 402, 494Grenoa

452 Hamburg

491
Elliot
174 George lake

115 Hamilton college 1944
Elsinore

353 Georgetown, D.C. 146|Hampden Sidney
England
302 Georgetown, S. C. 1611

college 153
Enicei river
484 Georgetown, Demer. Hanover

410
Erie lake

ara, 270 Harrisburg

136
Erie canal 73, 192 Georgia

164 Hartford

103
Erzgebirge mts. 401 Ghauts

514 liartz mountains 401
Essequebo
269 Ghent

377 Harvard college 99
Etna

457 Giants causeway 337 Havannah
Euphrates river 485, 487 Gibraltar

441 Hayti
Europe
298 Gila river

228 Hebrides
Gilolo

553 Heckla mount
Fahlun
347 Glasgow

323 Herat
Farmington river 107 Gloucester

97 Herculaneum

210
Faroe islands 355 Goahiros, Indians, 266 Herculaneum, Italy, 455
Farther India 528 Gold coast

578|Hermon mount
Fayetteville 157 Gondar

589 Hesse Cassel 416
Feloops
576 Goree

577 Hesse Darmstadt 415
Fernando Po is).
599 Gotha

419 Hesse Homburg 417
Ferrol
436 Gotha Elf

344 Hildburghansen 419
Fez

573 Gothland island 349 Himmaleh mts. 482
Fezzan
596 Gottenburg

3461 Hindoo Coosh mts. 509
Florence
460 Gottingen
411 Hindoostan

512
Florida
222 Grain coast

578 Hispaniola
Flushing

378 Grampian mts. 320|Hoang-ho river
Formosa island 542) Granada

435)Hockhocking river 193

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Wobenzollere 420 Knoxville

184 Madras

319
Honduras bay 233 Konigsberg

425 Madrid

433
Hooestenbuc river 105 Kordofan

596 Maese river

374
Hot springs
222 Kuban river 494 Magadoxa

592
Hottentots
583 Kur river

494 Magdalena river
Huussa
595 Kurds
492 Magdeburg

426
Hudson river 72, 116|Kurile islands 496 Magellan straits
Hudson city
1211

Maggiore lako 449
Hull
308 Laccadives
528 Mahrattas

521
Humber river 305 Ladoga lake 361 Maine river

403
Huntsville
171 Ladrones
557 Maine state

79
Huron lake 70, 212La Guayra

265 Majorca island 440
Hydra
481 Lancaster
136 Malacca

530
Landan
408|Malaga

435
Iceland
356 Lanquedoc canal 385/ Malar lake

344
Illinois state
202 Laos
534 Malays

530
Ilinois river 203 Lapland

349 Maldives

528
Indiana
I 199 Lassa

644 Malemba

581
Indus river 485, 515 Leeds

311|Malstrom

342
Inbamubane
593 Leeward islands 247 Malta

463
Innspruck
468 Leghorn
461 Mamelukes

566
Jonian islands
463 Leipzic
413 Man isle of

317
Ipsambul temple 586 Leith

323 Manchester

310
Ireland
333 Lemberg

476 Mandan village 221
Ispahan
505 Lena river
484 Mandir goes

576
Italy
447 Lexington, Ky. 189 Manheim

415
Ivica island
441 Leyden

378 Mantchous country 546
Ivory coast

578 Libanus mountain 487 Mantua

Lichtenstein 421 Maracaibo lake
Jaloffs

576 Licking river 188 Maracaibo city 66
Jamaica
242 Liege

377 Maranham
James river 72, 149 Liffy river

331 Marblehead

97
Japan
546 Lima

273 Margarita island
Java
550 Limerick
335/Mariegalante

251
Jedo

547 Lipari islands 458 Marietta
Jersey isle

317 Lippe Detmold 420 Marquesas
Jerusalem
490 Lisbon
444 Marseilles

388
Jordal river 488 Liverpool

308 Martha's Vineyard 102
Juan Fernandez Luango

580 Martinico island
island 296 Loire river

384 Maryland
Jumna river 515|Lomond Loch 319 Mascat

500
Jura mountains 383 London

306 Massachusetts

92
Jurvay river 257 Londonderry 335 Masuah

590
Julay river

257 Long island, N. Y. 126 Mauritius island
Loochoo islands 542 Mayhew

174
Kaffers
584 Louisiana
175 Mayomba

580
Kautschatka 496 Louisville

189 Meaco

647
Kurskaskia river 203 Lubeck

422 Mecca

500
Kakaskia town 204 Lucca

462 Mecklenburg 417
Ka-sina
596 Luxor
565 Medina

500
Kelat

512 Lyme mountains 257 Mediterranean sea 299
Kenne
564 Lynchburg
151 Meinungen

419
Kennebeck river
79 Lynn

97 Melinda

592
Kentucky state 186 Lyons

887 Melville island 601
Kentucky river 189

Memphremagog lake 89
Kiachta
496 Macassar
552 Mendoza

286
Kiel cabal
352 Machjas

81 Menomonees

219
Killarney lake 337 Mackenzie's river 55 Mergui

529
Kingston, U. C. 65 Madagascar

594Merrimack river,N.U. 85
Kingston, Jamaica, 244 Madeira island 600 Merrimack river,
Kirghises
503 Madeira river

Missouri, 407

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198
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251
140

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