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Sorelle is on the S. side of the St. Lawrence, half way between Montreal and Three Rivers, 45 miles from each.
Population.] Lower Canada contains about 300,000 inhabitants, a majority of whom are of French origin. The principal settlements are along the banks of the St. Lawrence.
Religion.] A majority of the inhabitants are of the Roman Catholic religion ; but Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, and other Protestant sects are fast increasing in numbers.
History.) This country was settled by the French in 1608, and remained in their possession until 1753, when an English army, under General Wolf, took Quebec; and soon after, the whole prorince surrendered to the British.
At the commencement of the American revolution in 1775, this province was invaded by the American troops ;-Montreal was taken, and an attack was made upon Quebec, but it failed; General Montgomery was slain, and his troops were routed.
Manufactures and Commerce.) Ship-building is carried on at Quebec and Sorelle with considerable success. Flour, biscuit, and pot-ashes, are extensively manufactured for exportation. The sugar consumed in the interior is manufactured from the sap of the maple. A few coarse linen and woollen cloths are made for home consumption.
The imports of Canada, before the conquest by the British, in the most flourishing years, amounted to 160,000l. sterling, and its exports to 80,0001. Twelve vessels only were engaged in the fishery, and six in the West India trade. The exports, at that time, consisted wholly of furs and fish. In 1802 the exports exceeded half a million sterling. Besides furs and fish, there were exported in that year 1,010,000 bushels of wheat, 38,000 barrels of Hour, 32,000 cwt. of biscuit, large quantities of pot-ashes, and considerable quantites of American ginseng. In the export of these articles 211 vessels were employed, amounting to 36,000 tons. In 1810, the number of vessels had increased to 661, and their tonbage amounted to 143,393.
Climate.] Winter commences early in November, and lasts till April. The cold is so intense that the largest rivers are frozen over, and even the mercury in the thermometer often reduced to a solid state. The ice on the rivers is usually two feet thick, and that close to the banks of the St. Lawrence, is commonly 6 feet. The snow usually lies from 4 to 6 feet deep. The spring is extremely short, and vegetation surprisingly rapid. The thermometer, in July and August, frequently rises above 30° and sometimes above 90°
Face of the country, &c.] Several ranges of mountains run from the coast into the interior, in parallel ridges. The valleys between, have a fertile soil, yielding grass and grain in abundance. The greater part of the country is still covered with forests.
Rivers.] The St. Lawrence runs through this province from southwest to northeast, and empties into the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
The Outax'as river empties into the St. Lawrence, near Montreal. It rises in the high lands; between Lake Huron and Hudson's Bay.—The Sorelle and the St. Francis empty into the St. Lawrence from the south, between Montreal and Quebec. The Sorelle is the outlet of Lake Champlain.—The Chaudiere comes from the south, and empties into the St. Lawrence near Quebec.
Natural Curiosities.] The celebrated falls of Montmorency are near the mouth of a river of the same name, which empties into the St. Lawrence, 9 miles below Quebec. The river pours over a precipice, and instantly falls perpendicularly to the astonishing depth of 246 feet, presenting a scene of wonderful beauty and grandeur. These falls are in full view, as you sail up and down the St. Lawrence.
Island. The island of Cape Breton, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence is attached to this province. It lies northeast of Nova Scotia, from which it is separated by a narrow strait, called the Gut of Canso. In 1743, when this island belonged to France, the fisheries on its shores were very productive, and employed no less than 27,000 seamen. At present, the principal employment of the inhabitants is the working of the coal mines. The population of the island is about 3,000.
Situation.] Upper Canada is that peninsular tract of country which lies between the river Outawas and the great Lakes, Ontario, Erie and Huron. It is bounded on the east, south and west by the United States, from which it is separated by the St. Lawrence and the Lakes ; on the northeast by Lower Canada, from which it is separated by Outawas river; on the northwest by New Britain.
Divisions.] The settled part of this province is divided into 8 districts, which are subdivided into 24 counties, and these are again divided into 156 townships.
Population.] Upper Canada is a newly settled country, and the population increases with great rapidity. In 1783 it was estimat
ed at only 10,000 ; in 1814 at 83,000. It will probably continue to increase rapidly for many years. The settlements, at present; are confined to the neighborhood of the St. Lawrence, and the shores of the great lakes ; but they are fast extending into the interior. The settlers are principally emigrants from the United States.
Face of the Country, Soil, fc.] The country on the St. Law rence and the lakes is a fine level country, with a rich soil, well adapted for cultivation. There is a great quantity of fertile land, at present unoccupied, in this province, but the settlements are fast extending over it. Much of the interior of the province has bever been explored.
Chief Towns.} York is the seat of government. It is regularly laid out, on the northwest side of Lake Ontario, has a beantiful and commodious barbor, and about 3,000 inhabitants.
Kingston stands at the egress of the St. Lawrence from Lake Ontario. It is the most flourishing town in the province, and contains about 2,000 inhabitants. It has an excellent harbor, and in time of war is the principal station for the British shipping on Lake Ontario.
Newark is at the mouth of Niagara river where it enters Lake Ontario. Queenstown is on the same river, 7 miles from Newark. Chippeway is on the same river, 10 miles above Queenstown, and 3 above Niagara falls. Fort Erie is at the head of Niagara river, at its egress from Lake Erie. Mulden and Sandwich are south of Detroit, on the river which connects Lake St. Clair with Lake Erie.
Lakes. Besides the great Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron, which are on the boundary of the province, there is a chain of small lakes stretching from Lake Huron to Lake Ontario. The first is Lake Simcoe, which discharges itself through Severn river into Lake Huron. Near Lake Simcoe are the Shallow lakes which run through a short river into Rice lake. Rice lake empties itself through Trent river into the Bay of Quinti, which opens into Lake Ontario near Kingston. Lake Nepisingui is a large lake, which empties itself into the north side of Lake Hü. rod, through French river.
Rivers. The following rivers make a part of the boundary of the province ; Outowas river, which separates it from Lower Canada ; the St. Lawrence, which separates it from New York ; Niagay river, which connects Lake Erie with Lake Ontario, and separates the province from New York; the river St. Clair, which connects Lake Huron with Lake St. Clair and separates the province from Michigan Territory.
Grand river is a large stream, which falls into Lake Erie, near the east end. The land for six miles on each side of this river, from its mouth to its source, is in the possession of the Six Nations of Indians.
The Thames rises near the sources of Grand river, and flows southwest into Lake St. Clair.
Bay.] The bay of Quinti is a long narrow harbor, at the northeast end of Lake Ontario. It is 70 miles long, and from 1 to 6 broad, and affords safe navigation through its whole length.
Commerce.) The commerce of this province hitherto, has been carried on principally through the St. Lawrence; but wben the great capal from Lake Erie to Hudson river is completed, the trade of the western part of the province will probably go through that channel. The principal exports are wheat, and other agricultural productions.
Religion.] The inhabitants have recently emigrated from various parts of the United States, and, as might be expected, are of many different religious denominations. The Methodists are most numerous; next to them are the Baptists and Presbyterians Like all newly settled countries the province is poorly supplied with regular ministers.
Roads.] Tolerably good roads have been made at the expense of the government, through all the principal settlements. Nearly the whole revenue of the province has, for several years, been expended by the King in opening new roads.
Climate.] The province is in a more southern latitude than Lower Canada, and the climate is much warmer.
Situation. New Britain comprehends all that part of British America, which lies north and northwest of Upper and Lower Canada. It is a vast country, extending from the Atlantic Ocean on the east, to the Pacific on the west ; and from Canada and the United States on the south, to the Frozen Ocean on the north.
Divisions.] Hudson's Bay divides this country into two parts, the eastern and the western. The eastern is subdivided into Labrador and East Main ; and the western into New South Wales and New North Wales.
Face of the Country.} This is a dreary desolate country. The surface, to a great extent, is paked rock, or covered with a soil so thin, that nothing but muss and shrubs, or stinted trees can grow upon it. There are innumerable lakes and ponds of fresh water scattered over the whole country.
Bays.] The two principal bays are Baffin's and Hudson's.The southern part of Hudson's Bay is called James' Bay.
Lakes. The small lakes are too many to be enumerated. The three largest are Slave Lake, Athapescow Lake or Lake of the hills, and Lake Winnipeg.
Rivers.) Mackenzie's river, which is the outlet of Slave Lake, and Nelson's river, which is the outlet of Lake Winnipeg, are among the greatest rivers in North America. Unjiguh and
Sthapescow rivers are the remote sources of Mackenzie's river; and the Saskatchawine is the remote source of Nelson's river.
Churchill and Severn rivers emply into the western side of Hudeon's Bay. Albany, Moose and Rupert rivers empty into the southern part of James Bay.
Productions.] The climate is so cold, and the soil so barren, that nothing of the vegetable kind can flourish here. Wild animals are abundant. The principal are beavers, bears, deer, raccoons and musquashes.
Fur trade.] New Britain is the region of the fur trade. On all the principal lakes, and at the mouths and forks of nearly all the considerable rivers, there are trading houses, establisbed by the English. Here the Indians bring the furs of the animals which they kill in hunting, and sell them for blankets, guns, powder, beads, &c.
The fur trade is carried on by two companies of merchants ; the Hudson 8 Bay Company, and the Northwest Company. The trade of the former is confined to the neighborhood of Hudson's Bay; that of the latter extends from Lake Winnipeg to the Rocky mountains and the Frozen Ocean.
The northwest company was formed in 1783, and is composed principally of Montreal merchants. They employ in the concero 50 clerks, 71 interpreters and clerks, 1120 canoe-men, 35 guides, and about 140 canoes. Each
canoe will carry about 3,400 lbs. weight, and is navigated by 8 or 10 men. These ca: noes compose two fleets, each of which starts every other year from Montreal, loaded with coarse linen and woollen cloths, blankets, arms, ammunition, tobacco, hats, shoes, stockings, &c. obtained from England', and spirituous liquors and provisions purchased in Canada. These goods are carried to the Indian country and exchanged for furs.
Mode of travelling.) The only mode of travelling, in this desolate country, is in birch bark canoes. With these the inhabi. tants pass up and down the rivers and lakes, and when they meet with a rapid, or wish to pass from one river to another, they get out of the canoe and carry it on their shoulders. In this way, the men engaged in the fur trade travel thousands of miles, and carry all their goods.
Settlements.] The Moravian missionaries have 3 small settlements among the Esquimaux Indians, on the coast of Labrador, viz. Okkak Nair, and Hopedale. These, and the forts and houses established by those engaged in the fur trade, are the only settlements of white men. The principal forts are Fort Chepewyan on Athapescow Lake, Churchill, at the mouth of Churchill river, and York at the mouth of Nelson's river.
Inhabitants.] The Esquimaux Indians inhabit the coast of Labrador, and the shores of the Frozen Ocean. They are of the same race with the Greenlanders. Like them they live principally on seals and whales, and confine themselves to the sea coast, The interior is inhabited by various tribes of Knisteneaux and Chepewyan Indians. Their number is unknown.