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Table VIII. A statement of the American and Foreigo lottnage entered into the United States from 1789 to the 31st of December 1820, showing the whole tonnage employed in the foreign trade.

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Remarks. While we were subject to Great Britain, nearly one half of the shipping employed in our foreign trade was owned by British merchants; and even for several years after the adoption of our present constitution, more than one third part of it beJonged to foreigners. With a view to increase our own shipping, Congress, in 1790, passed an act imposing a duty of 50 cents per ton on all foreign vessels entering the ports of the United States, while American vessels paid only six cents per ton. An act was also passed increasing the duties on all goods imported in foreign vessels, 10 per cent. beyond wbat was paid on the same articles when imported in American ships. These doties are usually called “ the discriminating duties," and their effect on American shipping was exceedingly beneficial. To counteract the effect of

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these laws, the British parliament, in 1797, imposed duties on American goods imported into Great Britain in American vessels, beyond what was paid on the same articles imported in British ships. The Americans were also made subject to a duty on exports from Great Britain, double that which was paid by European nations. In 1815 a convention was concluded between the United States and Great Britain, by which the discriminating duties of both nations were abolished so far as they related to vessels engaged in the direct trade between the United States and the British dominions in Europe. The trade, however, between the United States and the British possessions in the West Indies and on the continent of North America, was not affected by the convention. This trade was carried on principally by British vessels; the vessels of the United States being in a great measure excluded from it, by the rigorous enforcement of the colonial system of Great Britain. To counteract the injurious operations of this system on our shipping, a law was passed in 1818 closing the ports of the United States against all British vessels coming from any port in the colonies which is closed against the vessels of the United States.

The effect of the various regulations above recited, and of some other causes, may be traced in the table. The discriminating duties imposed in 1790, in the course of a few years, almost excluded foreiga vessels from our ports. Within six years after those duties were levied, the American tonnage employed in our foreign trade nearly doubled, while that of foreigners, which originally was more than 40 per cent of the whole, was reduced to less than one sixteenth part. Notwithstanding the acts of the British parliament in 1797, the American tonnage increased with unprecedented rapidity daring the continuance of the wars in Europe. Our vessels, not being liable to pay a war insurance, could carry goods cheaper than those of the belligerent nations, and were sought after for the transportation of every species of merchandize. In 1808 and the three subsequent years, the tonnage employed in the foreign trade was much diminished by the embargo and non-intercourse acts of our own government; and in 1812, 13 and '14, the war with Great Britain reduced it still farther, especially that part of it which belonged to our own citizens. After the establishment of general peace in Europe, and the conclusion of the convention with Great Britain in 1815, the amount of foreign shipping greatly increased, till the passage of the law in 1818 which cut off that portion of it employed in the trade between the United States and the British possessions in the West Indies and on the continent of North America.

Questions. 1. How large a proportion of the tonnage employed in the foreign trade of the United States in 1790, belonged to foreigners ? 2. How large a proportion, in 1796 ? 3. How large a proportion, in 1814 ? 4. What occasioned the great increase of American shipping employed in foreign trade between 1790 abel 1796 ? 5. What occasioned the diminution in 1808 and the sabsequent years?

TABLE. IX. Showing the tonnage of the United States for each year, from 1789 to 1820, distinguishing the amount employed in the foreign trade, coasting trade and fisheries.

Registered Enrolled and

Enrolled Tonnage licensed ton- Enrolled and employed in nage in the in the

licensed in the Foreign coasting Whale the Cod Total Ton

Trade. trade. Fishery. | fishery. Dage.

Years.

1789 1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819

123,893 346,254 363,110 411,438 367,734 438.862 529,470 576,733 597,777 603,376 669,197 669,921 718,549 560,380 597,157 672,530 749,341 808,284 848,306 769,063 910,059 984,269 768,852 760,624 674,853 674,632 854,294 800,759 809,724 606,188 612,930

68,607 103,775 106,494 120,957 122,070 184,204 184,396 217,839 237,402 251,442 246,640 272,491 274,551 289,622 299,060 317,536 332,662 340,539 349,027 420,819 405,161 405,346 420,361 477,970 471,107 466,156 475,664 522,164 525,029 549,374 571,058

4,139 3,162 2,363 1,103 763 592 651 736

580 1,143

323 898 728 907 724 573 339

54 941 788

561 1,229 1,168

9,0627 201,562 28,3481 478,377 32,5421 502,146 32,0627 564,437 40,1627 491,780 28,670 628,816 30,933 747,963 34,962 831,900 40,628 876,012 42,745 898,328 29,978 946,408 29,426 972,492 39,380 1,033,218 41,520 892, 101 51,812 949,147 52,013

1,042,403 57,465 1,140,368 59,182 1,208,735 69,305 1,268,548 51,997 1,242,595 34,485 1,350,281 34,827 1,424,783 43,232 1,232,502 30,458 1,269,997 20,877 1,166,628 17,855 1,159,208 36,937 1,368, 127 48,125 1,372,218 65,1577

1,399,911 69,7227 1,165, 184 76,7627 1,260,751

† These numbers include the enrolled tonnage employed in the whale fishery.

Remarks. The tonnage of the United States increased with astonishing rapidity from 1790 to 1810, when it arrived at its maximum, and amounted to 1,424,783 tons; an amount far greater than that of any other pation in the world except Great Britajn; and greater than that of Great Britain and Ireland united, in 1788. The tonnage of all the natiops of Europe in 1676, according to Sir William Petty, was only 2,000,000 tons, or about one third more than that of the United States 20 years alter the formation of our present

government. The most rapid increase was id the tonnage employed in the foreign trade. The reasons for

this have been given in the Remarks on Table VIII. The tonnage employed in the coasting irade has been subject to none of the fluctuations of that employed in the foreigri (rade, but has regularly as well as rapidly advanced from 103,775 tons in 1790, to 571,058 tons in 1819, having increased more than five fold in less than 30 years.

The tonnage employed in the fisheries has not progressed with the same rapidity. Before the revolutionary war the state of Massachusetts alone employed 24,000 tons of shipping and about 4,000 seamen in the whale fishery ; and 28,000 tons of shipping and 4,000 seamen in the cod fishery. These fisheries were des troyed during the revolutionary war, and for many years afterwards did not regain their original importance. To encourage them, Congress, in 1792, granted a bounty to the owners and seamen of the vessels employed in the bank or cod fisheries, and in 1814 this bounty was considerably increased. During the late war with Great Britain our fishermed sustained heavy losses, but since the return of peace they have resumed their occupations, and the fisheries are now in a more flourishing state than at any period since the declaration of our independence. In 1818 there were in the districts of New-Bedford and Nantucket, 72 vessels engaged in the whale fishery, whose aggregate tonnage was 17,158 tons ; and this number has since very considerably increased. The tonnage employed in the fisheries is almost exclusively owned in Massachusetts. No state south of New-York ever owned a single vessel employed in the whale fishery.

Questions. 1. In what year was the tonnage of the United States the greatest ? 2. What was its amount in 1810,? 3. How does this compare with the amount belonging to other nations ? 4. Which species of our tonnage has increased most regularly? 5. What was the amount of the tonnage employed in the coasting trade in 1790? 6. What was its amount in 1819 ? 7. Which of the United States is most interested in the fisheries? 8. What amount of tonnage was employed by Massachusetts in the fisheries before the resolutionary war? 9. What amount of tonnage was employed in the fisheries hy all the United States in 1819 ? 10. How did the amount in 1919 compare with previous years?

REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. TABLE I. Showing the receipts at the Treasury of the United States, for each year, from the commencement of the present government to 1815.

neous

2

5

6 Loans and Miscella- Aggregate Internal* Treasury

amount of Years. Customs.

Revenue. notes. receipts. receipts. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. 1791 4,399,472

311 361,391 10,167 4,771,342 1792 3,433,070 209,060 5,102,498 17,828 8,772,458 1793 4,255,306 349,386 1,797,272 48,230 6,450,195 1794 4,801,065 304,138 4,007,950 326,701 9,439,855 1795 5,588,461 360,755 3,396,424 170,117 9,515,758 1796 6,567,787 554,415 320,000 1,297,926 8,740,329 1797 7,548,649 725,348 70,000 413,783 8,753,780 1798 7,106,061 696,843 200,000 176,265 8,179,170 1799 6,610,449 837,848 5,000,000 98,515 12,546,813 1800 9,080,932 1,637,314 1,565,229 130,502 12,413,978 1801 10,750,778 1,833,553

361,123 12,945,455 1802 12,438,235 1,056,306

1,501,251 | 14,995,793 1803 10,479,417 473,401

111,278 11,064,097 1804 11,098,565 620,647

107,094 11,826,307 1805 12,936,487 608,245

15,960 13,560,693 1806 14,667,698 884,628

7,604 15,559,931 1807 15,845,521 523,205

84,112 16,398,019 1808 16,363,550 680,169

11,970 17,060,661 1809 7,296,020 360,690

117,160 7,773,473 1810 8,583,309 696,888 2,750,000 179,602 12,134,214 1811 13,313,222 1,068,173

208,052 14,422,634 1812 8,958,777 809,128 12,837,900 97,737 22,639,037 1813 13,224,623 887,351 26,184, 135 253,006 40,524,844 1814 5,998,772 5,072,079 23,327, 286 429,668 | 34,878,432 1815 7,282,942 8,269,541 35,264,320 6,973/51,283,946

The numbers in this column include not only the duties on spirits distilled, carriages, sales at auction, licences granted to retailers, sugar refined, stamps, &c. which are commonly termed internal duties; but also the proceeds of the direct tax, postage of letters, sales of public lands, and fees Ok letters patent, fines, penalties and forfeitures.

TABLE II. Showing the aggregate receipts of the Treasury from the 4th of March, 1789, to the 31st of March, 1815.

Total

Apuual Proportion Receipts. amount. arerage.

of the whole. From the customs, 222,530,374 8,558,860

90.05 internal revenue, 9,016,342 346,782

3.65 direct taxes, 4,476,826 172,185

1.81 postage of letters, 747,388 28,745

.30 sales of public lands, 8,658,369 333,014 3.50 miscellaneous sources, 1,590,001 61,154

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