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Exports and Shipping of each state.

TABLE 11. Showing the value of the produce exported from each of the United States for the year 1820, distinguishing the domestic from the foreign produce ; also the amount of shipping belonging to each state in 1815.

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Pro-
Pro-

Pro

(ProDomestic por Foreign por

Total por

por States. Produce. iion. Produce. tion. Prodnce. tion. Shipping tion. Dollars.

per c.
Dollars. per c.

Dollars. per c. Tons. pere. Maine, 1,082,568 2.09 25,463 .14 1,608,031

1.59 N. H. 223,082 .43 17,718

.10

240,800 .34 29,744 22 Vermont 395,869 76

395,869 .56 Mase,

3,861,435 7.47 7,147,487 39.46 11,008,929 15.79 454,249 33. R. I.

569,902 1.10 502,860 2.78 1,072,76 1.54 38,196 Conn. 415,831

.80 6,101 .03 421,931 .65 60,091 IN. Y. 8,250,675 15.96 4,912,569 27.29 13,163,244 18.89 287,500 210 N. J. 20,531 .04

20,531 .03 31,200 2.0 Penn. 2,948,879 5.70 2,794,670 15.52 5,743,548 8.24 99,558 7.7 Dela. 89,948 .17

89,49€ .131 9,590 Md.

4,681,598 9.58 1,927,766 10.706,609,364 9.48 153,208 11.2 Col. Dis. 1,156,468 2.24 48,447 .26 1,204,912

1.73 21,753 1.6 Virginja, 4,549,137 8.80 8,820 .05 4,557,957 6.54 71,496 5.2 N. C. 807,944 1.56

375 .01

808,319 1.16 41,011 3.0 S.C.

8,690,539 16.81 192,401 1.06 8,882,940 12.74 37,168 9.3 Georgia, 6,525,013 12.62 69,610 .39 6,594,62: 9.46 15,288 1.1 Ohio, 2,218 .01

2,21€
.01

4191 Lou.

7,242,415 14.01 353,742 1.90 7,596,157 10.90 17,203 1.3 Missi. 96,6361

96,636

.14 Mich. T. 73,408 .14

145

.18

73,408) .101 1591

U. S.

151,689,640'100.00'18,008,029/100.0069,691,669/100.00 1,368,127100

* Included in Massachusetts.

Remarks. It must not be supposed that the domestic prodnce exported from any state is exclusively the produce or manufacture of the state from which it is exported. Louisiana has a large amount of exports, because it includes the produce of all the western states, which is toated down the Mississippi, and exported from New-Orleans. New Jersey has a very small amount, because almost all her produce is exported from New-York and Philadelphia. In some years, more than half the domestic produce exported from Massachusetts has consisted of cotton, rice, tobacco, tar, four, and other articles which had previously been brought coastwise from the southern and middle states. A very considerable proportion of the exports of New-York and Pennsylvania have also usually been ihe produce of other states. The productions of North Carolina are exported principally from the ports of Virginia and South Carolina.—The foreign produce is exported principally from the ports of Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore.

From the ninth column it appears that New-England and New. York own nearly two thirds of all the shipping of the United States. The states south of the Potomac own only one eighth part. Our staple articles of export are principally the growth of the southern states; but this produce is carried to foreign countries almost entirely in ships owned by northern merchants, and navigated by northern seamen. Hence, a natural foundation is established for the Union of the states.

Questions. 1. Which state was the first in amount of domestic exports in 1820 ? Which, next? Which, next? 2. What occasions the large amount from Louisiana ? 3. What occasions the small amount from New Jersey ? 4. What occasions the small amount from North Carolina ? 5. Which state owned most shipping in 1815? Which, next? Which, next ? 6. Which state exported the greatest quantity of foreign produce in 1820 ? Which, next? Which, next? Which, next? 7. How large a proportion of the shipping of the United States belonged to Massachusetts in 1815? 8. How large a proportion was owned by the states south of the Potomac ?

List of the Articles Exported. TABLE III. Showing the principal articles of domestic produce exported from the United States in 1817, arranged according to their value.

Proportion Articles erported.

Value. of the whole

per, cent. 1. Colton,

$ 22,628.000 33.12 2. Wheat, flour and biscuit,

18,432,000 26.98 3. Tobacco,

9,230,000 13.51 (viz. boards, stares, shin4. Lumber, gles, hoops, hewo timber, , 3,196,000 4.68

masts and spars,) 5. Rice,

2,879,000 3.48 6. Pot and pearl ashes,

1,967,000 2 88 7. Indian corn, and meal,

1,329,000

10+ 8. Dried and pickled fish,

1,328,000 1.94 9. Beef, tallow, hides and live cattle. 845,000 1.24 10. Skins and furs,

688,000 1.00 11. Rye and meal,

627,000 .92 12. Pork, bacon, lard and live bogs, 537,000 .78 13. Horses and mules,

432,000 .63 14. Soap and tallow candles,

358,000 .59 15. Gunpowder,

357,000 .52 16. Tar, pitch, rosin and turpentine, 345,000 .50 17.

343,000 spermaceti candles, 18. Flax-seed,

278,000 .40 19. Butter and cheese,

213,000

.

{ "and

.31

Remarks. The cotton was raised almost entirely in the states south of Virginia and Kentucky. The wheat and flour were raised principally in the middle and western states, and the tobacco in Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina. The lumber was cut chiefly in the forests of Maine, New Hampshire, and the low country of the Carolinas and Georgia. The rice grew undoubtedly in the swamps of the Carolinas, Georgia and Louisiana. The pot and pearl ashes came from New England and New York, and the Indian corn from every part of the Union. The dried fish are cod fish; the pickled fish are herrings, shad, salmon and mackerel. Almost all of them were caught by the fishermen of Massachusetts. The beef, tallow, hides and cattle were raised principally in the pastures of New England. The skins and furs were purchased from the Indian hunters. The rye, pork, horses, mules, soap and candles came chiefly from New England, but partly from the middle and western states. The tar, pitch, rosin and turpentine were obtained from the Carolina pincs. The whale oil, whale bone and spermaceti candles were the fruits of the enterprise of the Nantucket and New Bedford whale men.

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Questions. 1. What is the principal article of export from the United States? What portion of the whole is cotion? 2. What is the second article of export, in value ? How large a portion of the whole is wheat and tour? 3. Mention the seven articles next in value to wheat in their order. 4. Where is the cotton raised? 5. Where is the wheat raised ? the tobacco ? the luinber? the rice? 6. Who caught the fish? 7. Where were the cattle raised ? &c.

Increase and decrcase of Exports.

Table IV. Showing the increase and decrease in the quantity of the staple productions of the United States exported at differs ent periods.

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Remarks. It is worthy of remark in this table, that the amount of cotton exported has increased regularly from 100,000 pounds to more than 85,000,000. It is now the staple production of the United States, and constitutes one third of the whole value of our exports. This astonishing revolution in our agriculture and commerce is to be ascribed to the invention, by Mr. Whitnev, of a machine for cleansing upland cotton from its seeds. Before the invention of that machine, it was so difficult to cleanse the cotton, that the cultivation of it was not profitable. But now it is curitivaled in all the country south of Virginia and Kentucky, where the land will admit of it. The fourth and fifth colomos show that the amount of tobacco and rice has decreased. This was owing to the increase in the amount of cotion ; for, when the cultivation of cotton became protitable, the planters neglected tobacco, rice, indigo, and every other crop, and employed their slaves almost exclusively on their cotton plantations.

Questions. 1. Which of the exporis of the United States has increased most since 1790, cotton, four, tobacco, or rire ? 2. Which next? 3. Which has decreased ? 4. What occasioneel the increase in the cultivation of cotton ? 5. What occasioned the decrease in the cultivation of tobacco and rice ?

Destination of the Exports. TABLE V. Showing the annual value of the produce exported to each foreign country, calculated on the average of ten year, ending September 30, 1812.

(From Seybert's Statistical Annals.)

Pro

Annual por

Domestic Foreign

Total
Produce, Produce.

Produce.
Pro-

ProForeign countries. Annual

por

Annual por
value.
tion. value.

tion. valne, tion.

Dollars. per c. Dollars. per c. Dollars. per ce Russia,

307,717 0.82|1,019,303 3.33 1,327,020 1.95 Prussia,

96,030 0.25 178,948 0.58 274,979 0.44 Sweden and dominions, 1,400,863 3.741,015,741 3.32 2,416,605 3.55 Denmark and do. 1,832,827 4.891,961,150 6.42 3,793,977 5.56 Holland and do. 1,790,967 4.786,803,503|22.298,594,471 12.63 Great Britain & do. 16,863, 10244.99|1,812,674 5.99 18,665,777127.44 Germany,

736,552 1.96 1,695,506 5.54 2,432,059 3.57 France and dominions, 3,118,217 8.325,874,694/19.18 8,992,91213.19 Spain and do. 5,692,220 15.195,598,596/18.2811,190,817|16.45 Portugal and do. 4,154,099 11.09 696,284 2.27 4,851,283 7.13 JItaly,

152,968 0.401,881,681 6.15 2,034,649 2.99 Trieste & Austrian ports, 14,380 0.03 216,504 0.70 230,885 0.33 Turkey, Levant,&Egypt, 15,431 0.04 260,701 0.84 276,132 0.40 Barbary States,

93,287 0.24 179,743 0.58 273,031 0.40 Cape of Good Hope, 50,198 0.13 70,286 0.22 120,484 0.17 China,

193,430 0.511 139,634 0.45 333,065 0.49 Asia generally,

6,976 0.01 14,991 0.04 11,968 0.03 East Indies generally, 128,135 0.34 351,189 1.14 479,324 0.70 West Indies do. 1,123,275 2.99 390,057 1.27 1,513,332 2.2 Europe do.

158,293 0.42 458,268 1.49 616,661 0.900 Africa

do

213,819 0.57 227,395 0.74 441,214 0.62 South Sea,

4,366 0.01 20,164 0.06 24,529 0.00 Northwest coast,

19,011 0.05 147,7711 0.48 166.782 0.241 1 2 3

6

Remarks. The amount of exports to the various countries is very different in different years; but the British dominions always receive the largest portion of our domestic produce, particularly cotton. The Spanish, Portuguese and French dominions, have usually been next to the British.

The period to which the table refers was a period of war, during which the carrying trade of the continental powers fell into our hands. From the fourth column it appears that the pations for which we carried most were the Dutch, French, and Spanjards. Since the return of peace in 1815, the quantity of the foreign produce exported from this country, as appears from Table I. has been very small, compared with its amount from 1803 to 1812, and in 1816 and 1817 the largest portion of it went to

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