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TABLE XII. Showing the population of the six largest cities in the United States in 1820; and distinguishing the number of whites, slaves and free blacks, together with the males and females in each class.

Whites. Slaves. Free blacks.
Cities. Males. 'Females, Males. Females. Males.(Feroales. Total,
Boston, 20,114 21,450 None None

759
931

4.1,298 New York, * 155,312 57,508 177 341 | 4,194 6,174 123,706 Philadelphia, * 25,855 29,232 None 33,156 4,423 69,802 Baltimore, 23,922 24,153 1,778 2,188 4,363 5,962 6:2,738 Charleston, 5,323 5,328 5,695 6,957 623

852

24,100 New Orleans, 8,266 5,318 | 2,709 4,646 | 2,422 3,805 27,170

Table XIII. Showing the proportion of the sexes in each of the six principal cities in the United States.

Number of Females to every bonerasi Cities.

Whites.

Slaves. Free blacks. Boston,

106.70

None

122.66 107.00 New York,*

104.00 194.00 147.21 107.42 Philadelphia, * 113.30

None
140.00

116.06 Baltimore,

101.00 123.00 137.00 107.67 Charleston,

100.00
122.00

136.75 113.25 New Orleans,

64.38

171.00 157.00 103.52 • New York includes the city and county; Philadelphia, nerely the city.

Remarks on Tables XII and XIII. From these tables it ap. pears that in all our great cities the females are moje nuinervos than the males. In the city of New-Orleans, indeed, ihe alite males are much more nunierous than the white females, but the deficiency is more than compensated by the excess of females among the slaves and free blacks. This uniform excess of lemales is perhaps to be attributed to the fact that many of the males are engaged in occupations in which there is unusua! risk of life ; many of them also are sailors, who are absent ac the time of taking the census, and being withont a fixed place of res. idence are omitted. In the city of Charleston other causes seem to have operated, because the excess of females is there, principally among the slaves; and this suggests the thought, that in the other cities the difference may be ascribed in part to an unusual demand for female domestic servants. But however we may ac. count for it, the excess is very great. The average of all the cities gives nearly 109 females to 100 males, while the average of the whole United States, as appears from Table V. gives but 97 females to 100 inales, making the females ju our cities about 12 'per cent. more numerous than in the country at large.

TABLE XIV. Showing the ages of the free white persons in each of the six principal cities of the United States, io 1820.

Free White Males.

Free White Females.

Under ten.

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45 and up-
wards.

Under ten.

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26 to 45.

45 and up

Cities.

warde.

Boston, 5,2892,416 3,564 7,3451,500 5,399 2,965 4,544 5,9732,569 N. York, 15,8987,06611,017 14,8726,459 15,9838,335 13,120 13,7016,369 Philadel. 7,2473,305 5,921 6,3322,980 7,1554,1607,215 7,0653,637

Baltimore, 6,991 3,107 5,147 6,0972,580 6,8273,530 5,617 5,5202,639 Charleston 1,408 649 1,147 1,305 814 1,359 825 1,113 1,192 841 IN.Orleans,' 1,477| 495 1,784 3,565/ 945) 1,500 885) 1,327 1,0161 590

TABLE XV. Showing what proportions of the free wbite persons in each of the six principal cities of the United States are ander ten years of age, between 10 and 16, &c. distinguisbing the males from the femaļes.

Free White Males,

Free White Females.

Under ten.

10 to 16,

26 to 26.

26 to 45.

45 and up

wards.

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Cities.

16 to 26.

Boston, 12.74 5.82 8.58 17.70 3.61 13.00 7.14 10.95 14.40 6.19
N. York, 14.09 6.26 9.7613,18 5.72 14.16 7.39 11.63 12.14 5.64
Philadel. 13.17 6.00 10.7611.51 5.42 13.00 7.56 13.12 12.84' 6.61
Baltimore, 14,56 6,47 10,7212.70 5.37 | 14.22 7.35 11,70 11.50 5.49
Charleston 13.28 6.12 10.8212.31 7.68 12.82 7.78 10.50 11.24 7.93
N.Orleans, 10.86 3.6413,12 26.21 6.95 11.03 6.50 9.76 7,47 4.34
1
2 3

5 6 7 8 9 10 i 11

Remarks on Tables XIV and XV. From columns 9 and 10 it appears that the proportion of females between 16 and 45 is very large, being on an average, about 24 per cent. of the pop• ulation, while in the country at large according to Table Vi. it is only 19,30 per cent. At the same time the proportion of children under 10 years of age is very small, being on an arerage less than 28 per cent while the average of the whole United States gives 33.29 per cent. From this it appears that the causes which operate to retard the increase of population exist to a much greater extept in our cities than elsewhere. If the number of children under 10 years of age is a fair criterion of the number of married females between 16 and 45, then, among the sáme number of women, there are twice as many married in the new states as in our large cities,

It is a singular fact that in every one of the cities mentioned in the table, the females under 16 years of age are more numerous

than the males, while in every stale in the Union the fact is the reverse, and in the new states especially, the excess of males among the children is very great. From Table VII. it appears that in the newly settled states of Alabama, Mississippi, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, taken collectively, there are, among the children under ten years of age, 76,067 boys and 70,038 girls; that is, for every 100 boys there are only 92 girls ; while in the old states of New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and the District of Columbia there are 158,113 boys and 153,384 girls, that is, for every 100 boys there are 97 girls; and from Table XIV. it appears that in our six largest cities, taken collectively, there are, under ten years of age, 38,310 boys and 38,223 girls; that is, for every 100 boys there are nearly 100 girls. This seems to indicate, that the state of society which is most favorable to the increase of population, is peculiarly favorable to the increase of males; or perhaps, to be more particular, that the proportion of males among the offspring of early marriages is unusually great. If this is so, then the excess of females in the New-England states is not to be attributed wholly to the emigration of the males, and the very great excess of females in England is not wholly owing to the number of men who have perished in her wars.

COMMERCE.

TABLE I. Showing the estimated value of the domestic and foreign produce, exported from the United States to foreigo countries during each year from 1790 to 1820.

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Remarks. The domestic produce is the produce of our own agriculture,forests, manufactures and fisheries. The foreign produce is the produce of the agriculture and manufactures of foreign countries. During the long wars in Europe which followed the French revolution, and lasted, with scarcely an interruption, till the general peace in 1815, the maritime superiority o: Great Britain prevented the continental powers from maintaining a direct intercourse with their colonial possessions and other foreign countries. In this state of things, the United States, being the principal neutral power, enjoyed the benefits of the carrying trade between the different European countries and other parts of the world. To satisfy the laws of war and the commercial regulations which were made in reference to this subject, the produce was first brought froin the foreign countries to the United States and

landed; after which it was re-exported. From the above table it appears that the carrying trade was very extensive between 1796 and 1807, the value of the foreign produce exported duriog that period being equal to that of the domestic produce, and in 1806 and 1807, when it had arrived at its maximum, greatly exceeding it. From 1807 to 1811 this trade, with all our ex. port trade, was almost ruined by the embargo and non-intercourse acis of our own goveromeot; and during the war with Great Britain in 1812 '13 and '14, it was still farther reduced, especially during the last year of the war, when it was nearly annihilated. Since the returu of peace the nations of Europe have become, to a great extent, their owo carriers, and the export of foreign produce bas consequently been very much diminished, but ihe value of the domestic produce exported has been greater than at any previous period. The total value of the exports, however, has never been so great as in 1805 '6 and '7.

Questions. I. In which three years was the value of foreigo produce exported from the United States the greatest ? 2. In which five years was the value of domestic produce the greatest? 3. In wbich year was the value of the total produce exported, the greatest ? 4. In which was it the smallest ? 5. Why was it so small in 1814? 6. Why was it so swall in 1808 ?

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