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TABLE VII. Showing what number of the free wbite populatioo were under 10 years of age ; between 10 and 16; 16 and 26, &c. according to the census of 1820.

Free White Males.

Free Wite Females

States.

years of age

Of 10 and
under 16.

Of 16 and
under 26.

Of 26 and under 45.

or 45 and

upwards.

Under ten
years of age

OR 16 and
under 26.

OP 20 and under 45.

for 11, and

Va,

Maine, 49,217| 24,528 28,530 27,742 19,178 46,565 23,98 30,823 28,24 N. H.

35,466 19,672 22,703 22,956 18,413 34,599 18,899 24,806 25,797 Mass.

70,993 33,573 49,506 54,414 38,668 69,260 39,308 52,805 57,721 4. R. I

11,530 5,860 7,596 7,618 5,869 10,917 5,769 8,407 8.671 Conn. 36,848 20,68% 25,831 25,632 21,814 35,299 19,833 27,205 29,01: Vt. 35,708 19,241 24,137 22,035 16,189 35,327 18,577 24,713 33,68 E N. Y.

222,608104,297132,753 138,634 81,259|| 216,513101,904 132,499,129,894 i N. J. 42,055) 19,970 24,639 24,418 18,537) 39,921 19,504 25,637 21,04 Pa. 175,381 77,050102,550 97,144 64,494|| 166,710 78,425101,404 94,345 55 Dela.

9,071 4,448 5,516 5,607 3,263 8,657 4,311 5,573 5,5371 Md. 41,511| 18,952 26,404 27,916 16,960 39,454 19,578 27,293 20,34713

103,963 45,762 58,863 57,898 38,245 98,435 45,766 62,411 55,995 N. C. 75,488 32,912 39,527 36,264 25,453 70,998 33, 101| 42,253 33,069 s. C. 41,701 17,825 23,354 21,578 13,589 38,963 18,305 23,150 20,407 Geo. 35,444 14,743 19,483 17,874 10,860 33, 1771 14,937 18,6415,365 g Ala.

17,103 6,281 9,336 9,055 4,064 15,810 6,289 7,993 6,625 Missi. 8,104 3,216 4,560 5,110 2,296) 7,220 3,176 3,791 3,101 l. Lou.

11,817 4,710 8,747 11,236 4,829 11,062 5,484 6,708 5,695 ... Tenn. 67,746 28.497 31,028 27,349 18,780 63,419 27,770 31,569 27,931 1 Ken.

83,050 36,004 41,328 38,178 25,136 77,641 35,120 41,905 35,4833 Ohio, 111,683 45,858 57,008 54,432 31,620 106,036 44,106 53,337 48,797 Ind. 29,629 11,454 14,428 14,07% 7,066 27,684 10,707 13,635 12,009 i

10,554 4,227 6,224 5,755 2,641 9,558 4,018 4,842 4.106 is Misso.

10,677 4,250 6,537 6,62% 2,909 9,766 3,978 5,076 4,205 16 MichT 1,220 559 1,334 1,661 6091 1,130 525 692 595 Jark.'T. 2,420 985/ 1,427 1,453

2,142 900 1,179 9341 Col.D. 3,276 1,540 2,171 2,893 1,291 3,319 1,640 2,518 2,615 1,5 Total, 1,344,263612,102755,520765,546 494,7351,279,622604,912 780,865 736,068 462,44 1 3

7

9 10

686

2

4

6

8

TABLE VIII. Comparing the ages of the Slares with those of the free colored population of the United States.

Males.

Females.

Classes.

Slaves,

22.36 13.20 10.64 5.03 Free colored, 20.42! 10.30 10.04 7.53 Total Blacks, 22.10 : 12.84' 10.56 5.35

21.10 13.16 9.92 4.59 19.66 19.34 11.641 7.11 20.901 13.05 10.15 : 5.05

of

Remarks. The proportion of free colored persons over 45 years age is much greater than thai of the slaves. It cannot be inferred from this circumstance that there is any thing in the situation of the slaves prejudicial to long lile. The difference is doubtless owing to the emancipation of slaves who are advanced in life. The proportion of free colored females between 26 and 45 is much greater than that of the female slaves between the same ages; yet the free colored children under 14 years of age are less numerous ihao the children of the slaves. This serms 10 indicate that the slaves are increasing fister than the free colored persons, and of course that their condition is happier.

Table IX. Comparing the ages of the white and black population of the United States.

Males.

females.

Classes.

Whités,
Blacks,

34.52 9.74 6.29
34.92 | 10.56 5.35

33.91 9.37 5.88
33.95 10.15 5.05

Remarks. From this table it appears that 12.17 per cent of the white population are upwards of 45 years old, while of the blacks the proportion is only 10.40 per cent. making a difference of nearly one sixth in favor of the longevity of the whites. If we make the comparison, bowever, with the whites of the southerii states, the result would be less favorable. In the states south of Pennsylvania and the river Ohio, including Missouri and Louisiana, only 11.23 per cent. of the white population are more than 45 years old.

.

TABLE X. Showing the number of free blacks and slaves in each of the United States in 1820; together with the whole oumber of blacks and whites, and the proportion which each clase forms of the whole population.

48

Proportion of Black..

the whole

Whites.
States. Free

Total

population. Blacks. Slaves. Blacks.

Blacks. Whites,

per ct. Iper ct. Maine, 929 None. 929 297,340 0.31

99.69 N. Hampshire, 786 None.

786 243,236

0.32

99.68 Massachusetts, 6,740 None. 6,740 516,419

1.28 98.72 Rhode Island, 3,554 3,602 79,413 4.34

95.66 Connecticut, 7,870 97 7,967 267,181 2.89 97.11 Vermont,

918 None. 918 234,846 0.39 99.61 New York, 29,279 10,088 39,3671,332,744 3.67 96.33 New Jersey,

12,460 7,557 20,017 257,409 7.21 92.79 Pennsylvania, 30,202 211 30,413 1,017,094 2.90 97.10 Delaware, 12,958 4,509 17,467 55,282 24.02 75.98 Maryland, 39,730 107,398 147,128 260,222 36.12 63.88

Virginia, 36,889 425,153 462,042 603,008 43.37 56.63 N. Carolina, 14,612 205,017 219,629 419,200 34.38 65.62 S. Carolioa, -6,714 251,783 258,497 231,812 52.72

47.28 Georgia, 1,763 149,676 151,439 189,566 44.42 55.58 Alabama,

571
41,879 42,450 85,451 33.19

66.81 Mississippi, 458 32,814 33,272 42,176 44.12

55.98 Louisiana, 10,476 69,064 79,540 72,383 51.85

49.15 Tennessee,

2,729 80,097 82,826 339,797 19.59 80,41 Kentucky, 2,759 126,732 129,491 434,644 22.94

77.06 Ohio, 4,723 None. 4,723 576,572 0.81

99.19 Indiana,

1,230 190 1,420 145,758 0.96 99,04 (Hinois, 457 917 1,374 53,788 2.49

97.51 Missouri,

347 10,222 10,569 56,018 15.89 84.11 Michigan Ter. 174

None.

174 8,591 1.97 93.03 Arkansas Ter.

1,617 1,676 12,582 | 11.80 88.20 Columbia Dis. 4,048 6,377 10,425 22,614 31.59 68.41 |

59

Total,

233,400 11,531,436 /1,764,836 7,856,269 / 18.33 81.67

Questions. 1. In which four states are the free blacks most numerous ? 2. Which state contains the greatest number of slaves ? Which, next? Which, next? Which, next? 3. Mention the states in which there are no slaves. 4. In which states do the blacks form the majority of the population ? 5. In which, do they constitute more than one third part? 6. In which do they constitute less than 5 per cent of the population ?

TABLE XI. Showing the number of persons engaged in Agriculture, Commerce, and Manufactures, and also the number of foreigners not naturalized in each of the United States ; together with the proportion which each class forms of the whole popularion.

18,640 4.5

Persons engaged in

Foreigners, not Agriculture. Compiuerce. 1 Manufactures. naturalized,

Propor Num- Propor. Num- ¡Propor. Num. Propor. States. Number. tion. ber. tion.

ber. tion. ber. tion, Maine, 55,031 18.54,297 1.5 7,643 2.5 1,680

.5 N. H. 62,384 21.4 1,068

8,699 3.5

124

.05 Mass. 63,460 12.1 13,301 2.5 33,464 6.4 3,425 R. I.

12,559 15.1 1,162 1.4 6,0911 7.3 237 Conn, 50,518 18.4 3,581 1.3 17,541 6.4

568 Vt.

50,951 21.6 776 .3 8,484 3.6 935 N. Y. 247,648 18.0 9,113 .66 60,038 4.3 15,101 1.1 N. J. 40,812 14.4 | 1,830 .66 15,941 5.7 1,529 Pa.

140,801 13.47,083 .6760,215 5.7 10,728 1.0 Dela. 13,259 18.2

533) .73
2,821 4.0

331
Md.
79,135 19.4 4,771 1.2

3,776 Vir. 276,422 25.9 | 4,509 .4

32,336 3.0

2,142 N. C. 174,196 27.3 | 2,551 .4

11,844 1.8

415

.06 S. C. 161,560 32.9 2,588 .5 6,488 1.3 1,205 Geo. 101,185 29.6 | 2,139 .6

3,557 1:0

453

.1 Ala. 30,642 24.0 452 .3

1,412 1.1 162 .1 Miss, 22,033 29.2 294

.4 650 .9

181 Lou, 53,941 35.1 6,251 4.1

3,145 2.0 Tenn, 101,919 24.1 882

7,860 1.8 312 .07 132,161 23.4 1,617 .3

11,779 2.0

529 .1 Ohio, 110,991 19.0 1,459 .2 18,956 3.3

3,495
Ind.
31,074 21.1

429
.3
3,229 2.2

833 .5 Illi. 12,395 22.5 233 1,007 1.8

598 1.1 Misso. 14,247 21.4 495 .8

1,952 3.0

497 .8 MichT 1,468 16.6 392 4.4 1961 2.0 656 7.5 Ark.'T. 3,613 25.4

79 .5

179 1.2 34 .2 Col.n. 853 2.6 512 1.6

2,184 6.6 564 1.7

6,0411 4.0

Ken,

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Remarks. From this table it appears that 2,065,499 persons in the United States, or more than one fifth of the whole population, are engaged in agriculture. This number includes only those who are thus engaged hy actoal occupation, children, and females generally being excluded. It embraces, therefore, about two thirds of all the males over ten years of age. The slave-holding states are most agricultural, the proportion being usually from one quarter to one third of the whole population, while in the other states it generally falls below 20 per cent. or one fifth.

Magsachusetts has much the largest number engaged in commerce ; but Michigan terrilory has the largest proportion. This uncommon proportion in Michigan is owing to the number of persons in that territory engaged in the fur trade. Louisana has also an nocommon proportion; which is to be ascribed

to the great number of merchants in the city of New Orleans, where the commerce of a large portion of the westero country is transacted.

The sixth column includes not merely manufacturers, in the comnion sense of the term, but mechanics also, and artificers of every kind, whose lahor is preeminently of the hand, and not upon the field.-Rhode Island has a greater proportion of popolation engaged in manufactures than any other state, and next in order are Mas-achusetts and Connecticut. Pennsylvania and New Jersey also rank very high as manufacturing siates. The District of Columbia shows a very large proportion of manufacturers, because it is composed almost wholly of cities for the same reason it has scarcely any persons engaged in agriculture.

Tbe general result is, that only 421,644 persons, or 3.80 per cent, of the population, are engaged in commerce and manufactures; that is, those engaged in agriculture are nearly five times as numerous as the merchants, manufacturers and mechanics taken together. This result is very different from that of the census of England in 1811. That kingdom contained 10,488,000 inhabitants, of whom 1,789,631, or 17 per cent. were employed in trade, manufactures and handicraft, and only 1,524,227, or 14.5 per cent. in agriculture.

Questions. 1. How large a proportion of the population of the United States is engaged in agriculture? 2. How large a proportion in commerce and manufactures ? 3. Which states are most agricultural ? 4. Which state has the smallest proportion of inhabitants engaged in agriculture? Which next? Which next? 5. Which state has the largest number of persons engaged in commerce ? Which has the largest proportion? Whicb next! 6. Which state bas the largest proportion of population engaged in manufactures ? Which next? Which next ?' 7. Which state has the greatest number of foreigners not naturalized ? Which next? 8. Which class of men are most numerous in Great Britain, those employed in agriculture, or those employed in trade, manufactures and handicraft ? 9. Which are most numerous in this country? 10. How much more numerous are they?

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