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Mountains. 1. The lofty chain of the Himmaleh mountains stretches along the whole dorthern boundary, separating Hindoostap from Tibet. %. The western Ghauts commence at Cape Comorin, the southern extremity of Hindoostan, and run along the western coast of the peninsula to the river Tuptee in lat. 21° N. They are generally belween 3,000 and 4,000 feet high, and present towards the sea an abrupt and steep declivity. 3. The eastern Ghauts are a shorter range, commencing on the north side of the river Cavery, and ruoning nearly parallel with the eastern or Coromandel coast to the river Kistna. They are in some places 3,000 feet high, and divide the province of the Carnatie into two parts, called the Carnatic Bala-ghaut (or above the Ghauts) and the Carnatic Payeen-ghaut (or below the Ghauts.) 4. Thé Vindhya mountains commence in the province of Bahar and run from east to west through the provinces of Allahabad and Malwah, separating the waters which run north into the Ganges from those which run south into the Nerbuddah.
Face of the Country.] The northern part of Hiodoostan, included between the Himmaleh and Vindhya mountains, forms animmense plain, such as, under the rays of a tropical sun, is too often exposed to extensive aridity and desolation. It is preserved, however, from these evils by that mighty storehouse of waters contained in its great northern barrier of mountains. From every part of this chain vast floods are poured down, which spread their innumerable channels over the plains beneath. These streams, however, descending from the north, direct themselves either eastward to the Ganges, or westward to the Indus, and leave between the two rivers an extensive unwatered region, which forms a great sandy desert, approaching in its aspect to the most dreary parts of Arabia and Africa. Central Hindoostan is intersected by the Vindhya mountains, the western Ghauts and several inferior ranges proceeding from them. The country south of the Kistna, included between the western and eastern Ghauts, consists of a high table land, elevated 2,000 or 3,000 feet above the level of the sea.
Rivers.] The Ganges is the principal river. The source of this celebrated stream was for a long period involved in obscurity. A survey has, however, been recently made by order of the British Indian government, and it has been found to issue in a small stream, under the name of Bhagirathi, from under a mass of perpetual spow, accumulated on the southern side of the Himmaleb mountains, between 31° and 32° N. lat. and 78o and 79o E.
lon. In lat. 30° 9' N. it receives the Alcananda, and the · united stream, taking the name of the Ganges, pursues a southwesterly course for 30 or 40 miles, till it issues from the mountaios at Hurdwar, where it turns to the S. E. and after receiving numerous tributaries, divides at Sooty, in lat. 21° 26' N. the smaller arm here again takes the name of the Bhagirathi, which the Hindoos are taught to believe has run unmixed from its source with the less sacred rivers, and passing by Calcutta, discharges itself into the bay of Bengal ; while the larger stream continues its course under the name of Puddah, and after throwing off several branches receives the mighty Brahmaputra near the point where it discharges itself into the ocean. The lower part of the Delta of the Ganges, called the Sunderbunds, is an uninbabited country, overgrown with forests, and infested by tigers. The Ganges is computed to be 1500 miles in length, and at 500 miles from its mouth is, during the rainy season, 4 miles broad and 60 feet deep. Its principal tributaries are, 1. The Jumna, which rises in the Himmaleh mountains a little west of the sources of the Ganges, and after passing the cities of Delhi and Agra, receives the Chumbull, a great river, from the south, and falls into the Ganges at Allahabad. Its length may be estimated at 780 miles. 2. The Gogra, which rises in the Himmaleh mountains, and joins the Ganges near lat. 26° N. 3. The Brahmaputra or Burrampooter, which rises in Tibet on the north side of the Himmaleh mountains, near the sources of the Ganges, and after a long course to the east, turns to the west and afterwards to the south and joins the great eastern branch of the Ganges near its mouth.
The Indus or Scind is formed by two streams, one of which, called the Leh, rises on the N. side of the Himmaleh mountains, not far from the sources of the Ganges, and running in a N. W. direction meets the other branch near Leh or Luddack in lat. 36° N. The united stream taking a S. W. direction breaks through the mountains, and forming the western boundary of Hindoostan discharges itself by several mouths into the sea after a course of 1,300 miles. In lat. 28° 20' N. it is joined by the five rivers of the Punjab, united into one stream, called the Punjnud. The longest of the five rivers is the Setledge, which rises on the N. side of the Himmaleh mountains near the sources of the Ganges and Brabmaputra.
The Nerbuddah rises in the provioce of Gundwaneh, and running in a westerly direction for 750 miles falls into the gulf of Cambay. The Tuptee or Taptee runs parallel with the Nerbuddah, and passing by Surat falls into the gulf of Cambay 12 miles below.
The Mahanuddy rises near the source of the Nerbuddah, and running in a S. E. direction discharges itself into the bay of Bengal through several mouths in about lat. 20° N The Godavery rises in the Western Ghants about 70 miles N. E. of Bombay, and running in a S. E. direction for 800 miles, discharges itself by several mouths into the bay of Bengal between 16° and 17° N. dat. The Kistna or Krishna rises in the Western Ghauts and after
a circuitous course to the eastward of 650 miles empties itself into the bay of Bengal by several mouths near lat. 16° N. The Cavery rises also in the Western Ghauts, and passing by Seringa. patam, Trichinopoly, and Tanjore discharges itself by several mouths into the bay of Bengal.
Climate and Seasons.] The climate varies considerably according to the difference of latitude and elevation. The mountains on the northern frontier are covered with perpetual snow, while in the plains beneath and in the low country on the coasts of Southern Hindoostan, the heat is intense. The table land between the Eastern and Western Ghauts enjoys a more temperate and healthy climate than any other tract of similar extent within the tropics.
lo Bengal, the hot or dry season begins with March and continges to the end of May. From June to September is the rainy season, and the country is then deluged, the water descending like cataracts from the clouds : by the latter end of July, the Ganges and Brahmaputra have risen 32 feet, and all the lower parts of Bengal, contiguous to these two great rivers, are overflowed to an extent of above 100 miles in width. The three last months of the year are generally pleasant; but excessive fogs prevail in January and February. The periodical rains are also felt in Sindetic Hindoostan, except in Cashmere, whence they seem to be excluded by the surrounding mountains. In the southern part of the peninsula the chains of the Ghauts, supporting the high table land in the centre, intercept the great mass of the clouds, and the monsoons, which blow alternately from the N. E. and S.W. for six months in succession, occasion a rainy season on the windward side of the mountains only. The monsoon is from the S. W. from May to October, and during the rest of the year in the opposite direction.
Soil and Productions. An extensive tract on the east of the Indus has been already described as a sandy desert, and there are some marshy districts on the sea-shore, wbich are rendered untit for culture from the excessive supply of water; but notwithstanding these deductions, Hindoostan contains, perbaps, within its vast limits, a greater proportion of land capable of cultivation than, China excepted, any other country on the globe. The staple article of food and culture throughout the whole of India is rice, which is combined, however, with pulse and millet. Two crops are commonly raised in the year, one of rice, and the other of millet or pulse. Rice, depending entirely upon moisture, is the most precarious of all crops. It is not reckoned a scarcity wben it rises to four times the price of a cheap year. When the rains fail entirely, famine ensues, and brings with it a train of calamities, of which Europe happily is unable to form an idea. Among the other productions are sugar, cotton, tobacco, silk, indigo, opium, and saltpetre. The table land of Mysore produces also the fruits and vegetables of Europe.
Agriculture.] Agriculture has been honored and practised from the earliest ages. The methods employed, however, are im
perfect in the extreme. The plough merely scratches the ground; no idea is entertained of the advantages of a scientific rotation of crops ; and manure is almost entirely neglected. The only part of Indian hubsandry which can edify an European observer, is irrigation, in effecting which considerable skill as well as industry is displayed. Ponds, tanks and reservoirs are formed on a large scale for retaining water, which is raised from the lower grounds into the higher, and small canals are dug for distributing it over the fields.
Manufactures.] India has long been celebrated for her manu. factures, particularly for cotton goods, which are distinguished into muslins and calicoes. Both are manufactured in almost all India, but particularly in Bengal and the northern part of the coast of Coromandel. These superb fabrics, the pride of the East, have by British skill and capital been produced more cheaply and abundantly, but by no means of equal richness, beauty and durability. Yet the Hindoos know nothing of that splendid machinery on which the science of Europe has been exhausted. The weaver is a mere insulated individual. His instruments are simple, and all made by himself. With his own hands he carries the cotton through all the processes preparatory to its being put into the loom. He has no sure vent for his commodity, but mere. ly makes a web, as the tailor a coat, or the shoe-maker a pair of shoes, when a customer orders it.
Chief Towns. The cities of Hindoostan are in general built on one plan, with very narrow and crooked streets, a great numþer of reservoirs for water, and numerous gardens interpersed. The houses are variously built, some of brick, others of inud, and still more of bamboos and mats.
The following are the principal towns in Gangetic Hindoostan, 1. Calcutta, the capital of all the British possessions in India, and one of the largest cities in the world, is on the E. bank of the Bhagirathi or Hoogly river, about 100 miles from the sea. It is a place of immense commerce in sugar, salt, silks, muslins, calicoes, opium, &c. and is inhabited by merchants from every part of Asia and Europe. The houses of the natives are generally mud cottages, but those of the English are splendid brick palaces. The population is estimated at more than 500,000. 2. Moorshedabad, formerly the capital of Bengal, is on the E. bank of the Bbagirathi river, about 120 miles above Calcutta. 3. Patna is a celebrated city on the S. bank of the Ganges 250 miles N. W. of Calcutta. The population is estimated at 500,000. 4 Benares, the ancient seat of Brahminical learning, is on the N. bank of the Ganges 120 miles W. of Patna. It is denominated the Holy city," and the Hindoos conceive that a person dying here is cer. tain of paradise, a notion which contributes to the increase of its population. The number of inhabitants is estimated at 580,000, and during the festivals the concourse is great beyond calculation. 5. Allahabad, situated at the junction of the Jumpa with ibe Ganges, is resorted to every summer by multitudes of pilgrims from all parts of India. 6. Igra, on the Jumna, 800 miles N. W. of Cal. cutta, was at one time the capital of India and containod 800,000 inhabitants. It is still a populous city. 7. Delhi, on the Jumna, 150 miles N. W. of Agra, is the residence of the great Mogul, who is still nominally the emperor of Hiodoostan, but in fact is reduced to a state of the most humilating dependence, his family and establishment being supported entirely by revenues allotted to him for that purpose by the British. 8. Hurdwar or Haridwar, situated 86 miles N. of Delhi, on the W. bank of the Ganges, near the place where it issues from the mountains, is celebrated for its annual festival and fair, at which pilgrims are collected from all parts of India and the neighboring countries. Every twelfth year the number is much greater than usual and has been estimated at 2,000,000. 9. Dacca, 180 miles N. E. of Calcutta, is the most celebrated place in India for the manufacture of muslins.
The following are the principal towns in Sindetic Hindoostap. 1. Moultan is a large town situated near the Chunab, one of the five rivers of the Punjab, in lat. 30° 20' N. 2. Lahore, on the river Ravee, in lat. 31° 50' N. lon. 73° 48' E. was formerly the capital of Hiodoostan, and the great Moguls expended large sums kere in the erection of palaces and gardens. The population is estimated at 150,000. 3. Cashmere ur Serinagur stands in a beautiful country on the river Jhylum, in lat. 34° 20' N. loa. 73° 44' E. The population is.estimated at 150,000 or 200,000. 4. Attock, on the east bank of the Indus, is celebrated as the place where Alexander the Great, Tamerlane and Nadir Shah, crossed that river in their invasions of India.
Central Hindoostan contains.the following large towns, 1. Comhay, at the head of the gulf of the same name. 2. Surat, on the S. bank of the Taptee, 12 miles from its mouth, is a place of great trade, and is celebrated as the port where the Mahometans of India embark on their pilgrimage to Mecca. The population is estimated at 500,000 and is composed of a great variety of nations. 3. Bombay, 170 miles south of Surat, is on a small island, separated from the continent by a narrow strait, and connected with the large island of Salsette by a causeway. It is the capital of all the British settlements in this part of India, and carries on an extensive commerce with various parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Ship building has also been recently carried on to a great extent, and the city has become one of the most important naval arsenals of the British. The population is estimated at 220,000, of whom about three-fourths are Hindoos, 8,000 Parsees, 8,000 Mahometans, and 3,000 or 4,000 Jews. The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions have employed several missionaries in this city and its neighborhood since 1814, In 1819 they had translated the whole of the New Testament and a considerable part of the Old, into the Mahratta language, wbich is spoken not only in Bombay but by many millions on the neighboring continent. The schools established by the missionaaries contained in 1819 more than 1000 pupils. 4. Juggernaut, the seat of a famous Hindoo idol is on the coast of Orissa, in lat. 19° 19'N. More than 1,000,000 Hindoos annually visit ibe temple