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CABUL,

Situation and Extent.] Cabul or Cabulistan is bounded N. by Independent Tartary, from which it it separated by the Hindeo Coosh and Parapomisan mountains ; E. by Hindoostan, from which it is separated by the Indus; S. by Beloochistan ; and W. by Per. sia. Besides the country included within these boundaries, the province of Balk in Tartary, Cashmere and several other countries on the east of the Indus, and a part of Beloochistan are in a greater or less degree dependent on the king of' Cabul. In its greatest extent the kingdom stretches from 24° to 37° N. lat. and from 60° 10 77o E. Ion, and contains according to Hassel more than 800,000 square miles.

Face of the Country.] The Hindoo Coosh and Parapomisan mountains run along the whole northern frontier. The Hindoo Coosh is a very lofty range, many of its summits being covered with perpetual snow, and some of them are scarcely inferior in height to those of the Himmaleh range. A branch of the Hindoo Coosh, called the ridge of Solimaun, proceeds in a southerly direction and sinks gradually into the plains of Sinde, at the mouth of the Indus. These two ranges, with branches striking off from them, traverse nearly the whole kingdom, except the tracts near the southern and western frontiers which are occupied by vast plains and sandy deserts.

Rivers.) The Indus is the principal river and forms the natural boundary on the side of Hindoostan. It receives very few important tributaries from this country. The largest is the Cabul, which rises in the mountains of Hindoo Coosh and passing by the city of Cabul joins the lodus at Attock. The flelmond waters the western part of the kingdom, and falls, beyond its frontier, into the lake of Zerrah or Durra.

Climate.] The climate exhibits the most striking varieties, in consequence of the abruptness with which the mountain rarges often rise from the deep plains beneath. A few hours journey carries the traveller from a place where snow never falls to another where it never melts. In some of the plains persons are often killed by the intensity of the hot wind, while regions of eternal ice are towering above.

Soil and Productions.] The soil is nearly as various as the climate. In well watered plains of moderate elevation, as those of Peshawer and Candabar, it is exceedingly fertile and produces two crops in the year. The loitier part of the mountain chains is of course condemned to perpetual ruggedness and sterility, wbile in the level districts of the south and west extensive deserts are produced by the absence of water. Agriculture is followed with assiduity. The grand process upon which its success depends is that of irrigation, which is practised in every part of

the kingdom. Wheat and barley are the staple productions. Fruits and vegetables of various kinds are also abundant.

Chief Towns.) Cabul, the capital and residence of the Shah, is on the river of the same name. It is a place of great trade, being resorted to by the Hindoos, Tarlars, and even the Chinese. The population is estimated at 200,000.

Peshawur, 150 miles E. of Cabul, is situated on several small streams which fall into Cabul river a few miles north of the city. It is occasionally the residence of the king and court, and is inhabited by persons from all parts of the east. The population is estimated at 100,000.

Candahar, situated on the Helmond, in lat. 33° N. lon. 65° 30° E. is a large town, well fortified, and standing on the great road between Persia and India, has a flourishing trade.

Herat is situated also on the high-road from Persia and Tartary to Hindoostao, and the route of all the caravans from time immemorial has passed through it; but it has also been on the route of all the invading armies, and has been often plundered and burnt. The king of Persia has recently sent an army against it. Ghizni, formerly the capital of a powerful empire extending from the river Ganges to the borders of Persia, bas now a small population and scarcely retains.a vestige of its former grandeur. Balk, a very ancient town on a branch of the Oxus, 250 miles N. E. of Herat, has 6,000 inhabitants.

Population. The population of the kingdom and its dependent territories, according to Elphinstone, is 14,000,000, of which number 4,300,000 are Afghans, 1,400,000 Belooches, 1,200,000 Tartars, 1,500,000 Tadschiks and Parsees, and 5,700,000 Hindoos. The Tadschiks are a mixture of Persians and Arabs, and constitute the settled population of Persia and of a great part of Cabulistan. The Parsees or Guebres are fire-worshippers, who in the seventh century were expelled from Persia, their original country, by the Mahometans, and found refuge in Cabulistan and Hindoostan, where they live in a very quiet, inoffensive manner, and have become quite wealthy by the industry and sagacity with which they prosecute commercial concerne.

Religion.] The Hindoos remain true to the religion of their native country. The Parsees have a religion of their own. They worship one supreme being, but reverence the sun, stars and fire as symbolical of him. Zoroaster is their law-giver and the Zendavesta their law-book. All the other classes of the popwlation are Mahometans; the Afghans and Belooches are of the Soonny sect, but the Tadschiks are Schütes.

Government and Army) The Afghans are the ruling people, and the khan of their principal tribe is the king of the whole country. The government, however, is by no means of that simple structure which is usual in Asiatic monarchies. Over the great tops, indeed, and the country in their immediate vicinity, the authority of the sovereign is direct and almost supreme, but the rest of the nation is divided into tribes, each under its own khan, who is nearly independent. Alliances are formed and

wars carried on by the different tribes between themselves, without any concern or interference of the sovereign. This form of government keeps every part of the country in a state of contingal tumult and ferment. The army of the king is estimated at 150,000 or 200,000 men, principally cavalry, but bis ability to raise this number depends on the co-operation of the different tribes.

Character.] The Afghans are in general a stout, well made people, of a swarthy complexion, brave, generous and sincere. Hospitality is a virtue for which the nation is eminently distinguished. Not only a stranger, but the bitterest enemy, beneath the roof of an Afghan, is in perfect security. Yet with this courtesy and humanity, are combined almost universally habits of plunder and robbery. The extent of these practices varies among different tribes, and in those placed uoder the immediate eye of the sovereign they are much restrained; but in the heights of the Solimaun ridge of mountains the tribes are all robbers, and some of them little better than savages. The Tadschiks are the most cultivated part of the population, and pay as much attention to literature as the same race in Persia.

BELOOCHISTAN.

Situation and Extent.] Beloochistan is bounded N. by Cabul, E. by Hindoostan; S. by the Indian ocean ; and W. by Persia. The area is estimated at 176,000 square miles.

Face of the Country. Until the late visit of Mr. Pottinger this country had not been traversed by Europeans since the rash and perilous return of Alexander the Great. It appears to be cova ered with numerous rugged chains of mountains, separated from each other by sandy deserts. The mountains are very losty, but do not bestow on the country their usual gift of fertilizing moisture. In a journey through the whole length of the country from east to west Mr. Pottinger never met a stream which would take a horse above the knee. The beds of mountain torrents are usually dry; but they are subject to the danger experienced by Alexander, of the water rushing down so suddenly and rapidly as to render escape difficult.

Inhabitants.] The number of the inhabitants is estimated at 3,000,00?. They consist principally of two tribes, the Belooches and the Brahooes; but there are also a considerable number of Hindoos and Parsees in the large towns. The Belooches are honorable robbers; plunder, on a small scale, being held by them

in the utmost contempt; but they frequently make incursions into the neighboring countries, and rushing out at midnight upon de voted villages, set them on fire, and kill or carry off men, women, children and flocks. T'he Brahooes are a peacable, mild, honest and industrious race, inhabiting the mountainous districts, and subsisting chiefly on their flocks. Both these nations are divided into numerous tribes, under separate chiefs, most of whom acknowledge the sovereignty of a khan or king, who resides at Kelat. Some of the tribes, however, are sulject to the king of Cabul.

Chief Towns. Kelat, the capital, is a well built town in lat. 29° 6' N. lon. 67° 57' E. It contains the royal palace and about 4,000 houses and has a lively trade.

HINDOOSTAN.

Situation and Extent. ] Hindoostan is bounded N. by Tibet; E. by Farther India; S. E. by the bay of Bengal; S. W. by the Indian ocean, and N. W. by the kingdom of Cabul. It has natural boundaries on all sides, viz. the Indus, the Himmaleh mountains, the bay of Bengal and the Indian ocean. It extends from 8° to 35° N. lat. and from 68° to 92° E. lon. The area is estimated at 1,020,000 geographical square miles.

Divisions.) Hindoostan is divided by Major Repnel into four parts. 1. Gangetic Hindoostan, or the part watered by the Ganges and its tributaries, lying in the N. E. 2. Sindetic Hindoosian, or the part watered by the Sinde or Indus, lying in the N. W. 3. Southern Hindoostan, or the part south of the river Kistna. 4. Central Hindoostan including all the country between the three first divisions. Each of these divisions is subdivided into several provinces, which are given in the following table, together with the state or govereign to whom they belong.

Provinces.
Nepaul,

Bengal,
Gangelic | Bahar,
Hindoos. { Allahabad,
tan. Oude,

Agra,
Delhi,

To whom belonging:
The British and the rajab of Nepaul.
The British,
The British.
The British, Mahrattas and several Hindoo chiess.
The British and the nabob of Oude. [doo chiefs.
The British, Mahrattas, Jauts & several other Hin-
The British and a nusuber of Hindoo & Seik chiefs.

Provinces,

To whom belonging.
Cashmere, The Afghans.
Sindetic Labore or
Hindoos-

S tan.

Moultan, The Afghans and several Hindoo and Seik chiefs.
Sinde, Several Mahonietan chiefs.
Ajmeer, The rajahs of Odeypore, Jypore, Joudpore, and

several other Hindoo chiefs, some of whom are

Mahrattas.
Gujerat inclu- The British, Mahrattas, and a number of in-

ding Cutch, dependent petty chiefs.

Malwah, The Mahrattas, and several other Hindoo chiefs. Central

Khandesh, The Mahrattas, Hindoos

Berar, The Mahrattas and Nizam.

Gundwana, The Mahrattas and several other Hindoo chiefs. tan,

Aurungabad, The Mahrattas and Nizam.
Hyderabad, Nizam.
Nandere, Nizam.
Orissa, The British and Mahrattas.
Circars, The British.
Bejapore, The Mahrattas and Nizam.
Mysore, The rajah of Mysore.

Cochin, The rajar of Cochin.
Southern Travancore, The rajah of Travancore.
Hindoos. { Canara,
tan.
Malabar,

The British.
Carnatic,
Travancore,

The following is given by Mr. Hamilton as an estimate of the extent and population of the territories belonging to each of the sovereign states or princes occupying this vast region,

British Possessions.
Under Bengal Presidency,

Madras Presidency,
Bombay Presidency,

Geographical square miles.

222,000
125,000
10,000

Population. 39,000,000 12,000,000 2,500,000

53,500,000

Total, 357,000
British allies and tributaries,
The Nizam,

76,000 The Peishwa,

53,000 Nahob of Oude,

13,000 The rajah of Mysore,

22,000 The rajahs of Travancore & Cochin, 5,000

8,000,000 5,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000

500,000

17,500,000

Total, 169,000
Independent Principalities.
Under Sciodia, Holkar and other

Mahratta chiefs,
Nagpoor rajah,

58,000
rajah of Nepaul,

63,000 rajah of Labore and the Seiks, 54,000

}75,000

6,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 4,000,000

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