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Mount Ararat, a little west of lake Van, and running in a S. E. direction, parallel with the Tigris, passes through the southwestern provinces of Persia, and parallel with the coast of the Persian gulf till it terminates near the straits of Ormus.

The Bogdo is a chain of mountains whose loftiest summits rise near the centre of Asia to the height of more than 20,000 feet above the level of the ocean. It is said to send forth branches in all directions, towards the Altay mountains, the Moos Tag, the Belur Tag and the mountains of China, but all this part of Asia is as yet very imperfectly known.

Rivers.] The following are the principal rivers which discharge themselves into the Arctic ocean. 1. The Oby, which rises in the Chinese dominions in the centre of Asia and after piercing the Altay mountains, pursues a direction on the whole west of porth, through the whole breadth of the Russian empire and discharges itself into the sea of Oby, after a course of more than 2,000 miles. Its principal tributary is the Irtish, which rises also in the centre of Asia near Mount Bogdo, and after flowing through the lake Nor Zaizan enters the Russian territory and joins the Oby in lat. 61° N. 2. The Enicei or Jenisey, which rises also on the south side of the Allay mountains near lat. 49° N. lon. 1000 E. runs in a direction a little west of north and discharges itself into the Arctic ocean in lon. 80° E. after a course of more than 2,000 miles. 3 The Lena, which rises in the mountains west of lake Baikal in lon. 107° E. lat. 52° 30' N. and running at first in a northeasterly and afterwards in a northerly direction discharges itself into the Arctic ocean after a course of nearly 2,000 miles.

The principal rivers which fall into the Pacific ocean are, 1. The Amur or Saghalien Oula, which rises in 49° N. lat. and 109° E. Ion, and flowing on the whole in a direction N. of E. falls into a bay of the sea of Okhotsk opposite the northern part of the island of Sagbalien in lat. 53° N. 2. The Hoang-ho or Yellow river, which rises in the unknown regions of central Asia, and pursuing at first an easterly course enters China proper near its N. W. corner, where it turns and runs in a noriberly direction for 500 miles, and then making a complete bend proceeds towards the south for about the same distance, after which it resumes its original direction and falls into the sea near ląt. 34° N. after a course of nearly 2,000 miles. 3. The Yang-tse-Kiang rises also in the unknown regions of central Asia, and after entering China pursues a direction N. of E. through the middle of the kingdom and falls into the sea about a hundred miles from the Hoang-ho. 4. I'he Cambodia (called also by many other names,) is a large river which discharges itself into the China sea near lat. 10° N. lon. 106° E. It is supposed that it rises in the mountains of Tibet, but the countries which it traverses are almost wholly unknown.

The principal rivers which fall into the Indian ocean are, 1. The Ganges, which rises on the south side of the central and loftiest part of the Himmaleh mountains between 31° and 32° N lat. and 78o and 79° E, lon. and running on the whole in a S. F.

direction discharges itself into the bay of Bengal through many mouths after a course of 1,500 miles, during which it receives numerous tributaries. The Burrampooter or Brahmaputra, its principal tributary, rises on the north side of the Himmaleh mountains not far from the sources of the Ganges, and after flowing for more than half its course in an easterly direction, breaks through the mountains, and turning to the west and afterwards to the south joins the Ganges near its mouth. 2. The Indus is formed by two streams, both of wbich rise in Little Tibet between the Himmaleh and Moos Tay mountains. After their union the river takes a southwesterly direction and breaking through the mountains, runs along the western boundary of Hindoostan, and discharges itself through many mouths into the sea after a course of 1,300 miles. 3. The Euphrates is formed by two streams, which rise in the mountains of Armenia, and unite near lat. 39° N. and lon. 39o E. After their union the river runs on the whole in a southeasterly direction and falls into the head of the Persian gulf. Its whole length is more than 1,500 miles, and its principal tributary is the Tigris, which joins it 130 miles from its mouih.

The principal rivers which fall into the Caspian sea and the sea of Aral are, 1. The Volga, which discharges itself into the northern part of the Caspian through 70 mouths. 2. The Oxus or Amu, which rises in the southeastern part of Independent Tartary on the western declivity of the Belur Tag mountains, and receiving the waters from the northern face of the Hindoo Coosh chain, flows in a N. W. direction and discharges itself into the sea of Aral on its southern side, after a course of more than 1,200 miles. 3. The Sir or Sihon, which rises also on the western declivity of the Belur Tag mountains, and after a N. W. course of nearly 600 miles falls into the sea of Aral on its eastern side.

Face of the Country.) Next to the great mountain chains which traverse this continent, the most remarkable feature in the face of the country is the bigh table land which occupies nearly the whole of central Asia, and is supposed to be the most elevated and extensive tract of table land on the globe. It commences on the northern side of the Himmaleh chain, and is said to extend to the Altay mountains on the north and beyond China proper on the N. E. The western part is traversed by ranges of lofty mountains; but the eastern is occupied by the desert of Cobi or Shamo, which is an immense plain, extending from 889 to 112° E. Ion. nearly 2,000 miles long and 500 broad, and cove ering an area of about 1,000,000 square miles. It contains numerous salt lakes, and is destitute of vegetation, except on the scattered oases or ferlile spots, where a few wandering savages ob tain a scanty subsistence.


Situation and Extent.] Turkey in 'Asia is bounded N. by the sea of Marmora, the Black sea and Russia ; E. by Persia ; S. by Arabia and W. by the Mediterranean and the Archipelago. It extends from 30° to 42° N. lat. and from 26° to 19° E. lon. The area is estimated at about 500,000 square miles, without including the Syrian desert.

Divisions. Asiatic Turkey is divided into 17 pachalics, most of which derive their names from their principal towns; but the different parts of the country are still best known by other names, and both are therefore given in the following table.

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Pachalics. 1. Anatolia,

2. Siwas,
Asia Minor also 3. Trebisond,
Anatolia, 4. Konieh,

5. Merasche,
6. Adana,

7. Aleppo, Syria, (includ 8. Tripoli, ing Palestine,)

9. Acre,
10. Damascus,

11. Diarbekir, Mesopotamia

12. Orfa, also Algeziras,

13. Mosul,

14. Kars, Turkish Ar

15. Van, menia,

16. Erzerum, Irak Arabi, { 17. Bagdad,

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Besides the pachalics mentioned above, there is a province composed of the island of Cyprus and of a small district on the continent adjacent to it on the north. All the islands in the Archipelago belong to the government of the Captain pacha io European Turkey.

Mountains ] Armenia is througbout its whole extent a mountainous country. Mount Ararat is the highest summit and is believed by the Armenians to be the place on which Noah's ark rested after the flood had subsided. Its summit is 9,500 feet above the level of the sea and is covered with perpetual snow. The mount Taurus chain, called hy the Turks Kurun, proceeds in a westerly direction from the mountains of Armenia towards Asia Minor, and divides into two branches, the principal of which, still bearing the name of Taurus, runs parallel with the southern coast of Asia Minor, at no great distance, and terminates at cape Keli

doni near lop. 30° E. while the northern branch proceeds under various names along the coast of the Black sea. They are connected together in several places by spurs or short ridges proceeding from one to the other.

Mount Libanus, the ancient Lebanon, so celebrated in scripture poetry, runs parallel with the coast of Syria, at the distance of 30 or 40 miles, between 33° and 34° 30' N. lat. Its highest summit is 10,200 feet above the level of the sea and is covered with perpetual snow. To the east of Libanus and separated from it by a fertile valley, is the parallel chain of Antilibanus. They are both connected with the Mount Taurus chain on the north.

Mount Hermon is one of the summits of Antilihanu“, which rises near lat. 33° N, to the height of 8,949 feet above the level of the sea. The celebrated Mount Carmel is a fertile and woody mountain extending for several miles along the shore of the Mediterranean, immediately south of Acre, and rising in some places to the height of 2,000 feet.

Lakes. The largest lake is the Dead sea or Aspholtites lake in the southern part of Palestine, between 31° and 32° N. lat. It is 60 or 70 miles long from north to south, by 10 or 15 broad, and though it receives the Jordan and several smaller sueams it has no outlet. The waters of the lake are srongly impregnated with various saline substances, and their specific gravity is greater than any hitherto discovered. Great quantities of asphaltum or mineral pitch are always seen floating on the surface of the lake, and on the south side there is a mountain 9 miles long composed entirely of sal gem. Five cities including Sodom and Gomorrah, situated on this spot, were all swallowed up, according to Scripture, to satisfy divine vengeance for their unparalleled iniquity. Many absurd fables were formerly circulated respecting the Dead sea. It was affirmed that iron swims on its surface while light substances sink to the bottom; that the pestiferous vapors which issue from it are fatal to the birds attempting to Ay across, and that a kind of fruit called the apple of Sodom grows op its banks, which is of a beautiful external appearance, but never ripens, and when opened discloses nothing but ashes. Modern travellers pronounce all these stories fabulous.

The lake of Genesareth, called also the sea of Tiberias and the sea of Galilee, lies about 60 miles north of the Dead sea. It is 15 miles long and broad, and abounds with fish. The river Jordan passes through it. Lake Van, about 60 miles S. W. of mount Ararat, is a body of salt water 50 miles long and 30 broad.

Rivers.] 1. The Euphrates is formed by two streams, both of which rise in the mountains of Armenia, one near Erzerum, and the other between mountArarat and lake Van. After their union the river pursues a southerly direction till it pierces the chain of Mount Taurus, where it turns to the S. E. and flowing majestically through a broad valley discharges itself into the Persian gulf about 50 miles below Bassora. After its junction with the Tigris it is called Shat ub Arab. 2. The Tigris is form

ed by several branches which unite in the mountains of Armenia, and running a little east of south, passes by Mosul and Bagdad, and joins the Euphrates at Korna near lat. 31° N. after a course of 800 miles. 3. The Kizil Irmac; the ancient Halys, the principal river in Asia Minor, discharges itself into the Black sea in lon. 36° 17' E. 4. The Jordan rises in the northern part of Palestine' near mount Hermon, and proceeding in a southerly direction passes through the lake of Genesareth and discharges itself into the Dead sea.

Face of the Country:] Armenia is mountainous, and Asia Minor is also intersected in almost every direction by mountain ranges. The western part of Syria, lying along the shore of the Mediterranean, and extending 50 or 60 miies inland, is traversed by the Libanus and Antilibanus and various short branches proceeding from them. The rest of the country, extending from these monntains to the Persian border, and including the tracts watered by the Euphrates and Tigris in the lower part of their course is almost wholly a level country; and the part between the Eaphrates and the Syrian mountains is a sandy desert, which extends south into Arabia, and is sometimes called the Syrian, and sometimes the Arabian desert.

Soil and Productions.) In Armenia, owing to its mountainous and elevated situation, the cilmate is colder than might be expected from its latitude, but the general appearance of the country is described as delightful, and the lower parts especially are diversified with extensive plains and beautiful vallies of great fertility Asia Minor is naturally a very fertile country, but its fine plains and vallies in many parts lie uncultivated, or are merely used for pasture, but districts, formerly the loveliest and most healthy, are now covered with swamps, which corrupt the air, and where in ancient times there was a crowded population, you may now travel for miles without meeting a human being ; yet wherever it is attempted the soil still produces luxuriantly the vine, the olive, the mulberry, cotton, tobacco and various delicious fruits. The same description applies to the western part of Syria, particularly to Palestine, which according to the best informed travellers displays a truly luxuriant fertility, and corresponds entirely to the description of the promised land. In Mesopotamia, or the country included between the Euphrates and the Tigris, the lands immediately on the banks of the Euphrates and along the mountains which skirt its northern border, are fertile, but the whole interior is a barren waste.

Chief Towns.] Damascus is situated on the east side of the mountains of Syria, in a fertile plain, amiélst extensive and beautiful gardens watered by the branches of the river Barrady, which soon after terminates its course in a morass on the S. E. side of the city. It has extensive manufactures of silks and cotton goods, and was formerly celebrated for the best swords and sabres in the world, which were made of steel and iron of so fine a quality that they would bend to the wilt without breaking, but the art is now lost. The silk cloth called damask takes

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