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and has 34.000 inhabitants. Laybach, in the kingdom of Illyria, 28 miles N. E. of Trieste, has 11,000 inhabitants. Botzen, in the Tyrol, on the Eisach, a branch of the Adige, is celebrated for its great fairs, of which four are held annually. Population 8,000.

Pest, the largest town in Hungary, is 130 miles E. S. E. of VienDa, on the E. bank of the Danube. The university, the only one in Hungary, is richly endowed, and has 40 professors and between 700 and 800 students. The manufactures are various and the trade extensive, particularly at the fairs which are annually held here. Population 42,000. Buda, the capital of Hungary, is on the west bank of the Danube, opposite Pest, with which it is connected by a bridge of boats. It is famous for its baths, which are efficacious in palsy and similar complaints. Population 30,000. Presburg, the former capital of Hungary, is on the N. bank of the Danube 38 miles east of Vienna. It contains 30,000 inhabitants.

The following are the other considerable towns in the Hungarian states. Schemnitz is a large mining town 83 miles N. E. of Presburg. The mines of Schemnitz are the most extensive in Hungary, and the works are now at a great depth, the tunnel for drawing off the water being more than 1,100 feet below the surface. The chief metals are gold, silver, and lead. Population 23,000, of whom 12,000 are enployed in or about the mines. Cremnitz is another celebrated mining town 18 miles N. W. of Schemnitz, with a population of 10,000. Esseck, the largest town in Sclavonia, is on the right bank of the Drave, two miles above its influx into the Danube, and has 9,000 inhabitants. Agram, the capital of Croatia, is 145 miles S. of Vienna, near the left bank of the Save, and has 17,000 inhabitants. Zara, the capital of Dalmatia, is a strongly fortified town and sea-port on the Adriatic, in lon. 15° 38' E. lat. 44° 16' N. Population 5,000, Clausenburg, the capital of Transylvania, is on the Samos, a branch of the Theiss, and contains 14,000 inhabitants. Hermannstadı, formerly the capital of Transylvania, is 90 miles E. S. E. of Clausenburg and has 16,000 inhabitants. Cronstadt is a large trading town, with 23,000 inhabitants.

Milan, the capital of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, is on the small river Olona, in a beautiful plain between the Tesino and the Adda. Its public buildings are remarkably magnificent The cathedral is the grandest and most imposing specimen of Gothic architecture extant, and after St. Peter's at Rome, and St. Paul's of London, is the finest church in Europe. The hospitals of Milan are numerous and on a large scale. The princi pal literary institutions are the university, and the Ambrosian college, the last of which has a library of 140,000 volumes and 15,000 manuscripts. The population of Milan in 1820 was 135,000.

Venice is a famous city situated in a bay of the Adriatic on 72 small islands, which are connected together by 450 bridges, the longest and most beautiful of which is the Rialto. The city is in. Tersected in every direction by canals, which answer the purpose

of streets, passengers being carried to the various parts of the town in covered boats called gondolas. The city has no fortifications, but is well protected from attack by a shallow marsby lake 5 miles broad, which separates it from the continent. The houses in Venice are all of stone, but most of them are mean buildings. Some of the public buildings are very fine and contain beautiful paintings. The city has considerable trade and manufactures and 109,000 inhabitants, of whom 2,500 are Jews and about 20,000 beggars.

Mantua is situated principally on two islands, formed by the river Mincio 70 miles E. S. E. of Milan, and is both by nature and art one of the strongest places in Europe. In the centre of one of the squares stands Virgil's monument, a column of marble, resting on a pedestal of the same material, with a bronze statue of the poet at the top. The population in 1780 was nearly 30,000 but at present does not exceed 23,000.

The following are the other considerable towns in Austrian Italy. Padua is on the Brenta, 20 miles west of Venice, and contains 31,000 inhabitants. Its university was formerly celebrated thronghout Europe, and resorted to by crowds of students from countries beyond the Alps : it has now 39 professors, but on an average not more than 300 students. Cremona stands in a beautiful plain on the Po, 38 miles S. E. of Milan, and contains 30.000 inhabitants. Brescia is a large city 43 miles E. of Milan, containing 40,000 inhabitants. Lodi, on the Adda, 17 miles S. E. of Milan, contains 17,000 inhabitants. One of the most daring exploits of Bonaparte's military career was performed here in 1796, by forcing with the bayonet the passage of the bridge over the Adda, though defended by 10,000 Austrians. Pavia, on the Tesino, 4 miles from the spot where it joins the Po, has a university and 23,000 inhabitants. Verona is a fortified town on the Adige and contains 55,000 inhabitants. In the Guildhall of the city are the statues of 5 illustrious natives of Verona, viz. Catullus, Marcus Æmilius, Cornelius Nepos, the elder Pliny and Vitruvius. Here also is still to be seen a celebrated Roman amphitheatre large enough to accommodate 22,000 spectators.

Lemberg, the capital of Galicia, stands on the Pelten, a branch of the Dniester, in lon. 24° E. lat. 49° 50' N. and contains 44,000 inhabitants. It is the principal thoroughfare from Odessa and other ports on the Black sea to Vienna and the rest of Germany, and has an annual fair on a very large scale. Brody, 70 miles E of Lemberg, has 24,000 inbabitants, of whom 16,000 are Jews. It carries on an extensive commerce with Turkey, Russia and Poland.

Military District.) The military district is a narrow tract of country extending along the whole Turkish border through Croatia, Sclavonia, Hungary and Transylvania. This district is under a military constitution, all the men who inhabit it being regarded as soldiers ; and it is their duty to keep guard on the border day and night. The population of the military district is more than 900,000, of whom 100,000 are able to bear arms, aad

from this number a body of about 45,000 are kept constantly in service, without any expense to the state in time of peace. These troops are distinguished for their bodily strength, bravery and loyalty.

Population.] The population is nearly 28,000,000, and consists principally of five great races in the following order: 1. Sclavonians, in the Hungarian states, Galicia, Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, about 11,750,000; 2 Magyars or proper Hungarians, about 4,000,000; 3. Germans, about 5,000,000; 4. Italians, almost 5,000,000; 5. Wallachians, about 1,400,000. There are besides nearly 300,000 gypsies, chiefly in Hungary and Transylvania, and 400,000 Jews, with a few Greeks and Armenians.

Gypsies.] This singular race of people are dispersed over almost every country in Europe, but are most numerous in the Austrian dominions. They made their first appearance in Germany in the 16th century, and bistorians are not agreed as to their origin, some considering them as Egyptians who agreed to leave their country and disperse in small parties over the world, while others regard them as of Hindoo origin. Their whole number in Europe is believed to exceed 700,000. England endeavoured to expel them in 1530; France in 1560; and Spain in 1591; but never with complete success. For three centuries they have continued the same, wherever they have gone. Their swarıhy complexion, their physiognomy, and their manners and habits have not been affected by the lapse of time, the variation of elimate, and influence of example. In the neighborhood of civilized life they continue barbarous; and in the midst of cities and villages, they live in tents and holes of the earth, and wander from place to place as fugitives and vagabonds. The women are fortune-tellers, and the majority of both sexes are lazy beggars and thieves.

Religion. The established religion is the Roman Catholic; but in Hungary, Transylvania and Sclavonia, members of the Protestant and Greek churches have long been settled and in the enjoyment of considerable privileges. Indeed since the time of Joseph II. who commenced his reign in 1765, free toleration has been granted to all sects throughout the Austrian dominions. The number of the various sects is estimated as follows : Roman Catholics, nearly 22,000,000; Greek Christians, 2,500,000; Lutherans and Calvinists, 3,000,000; Jews, 400,000, and Unitarians, 42,000.

Education and Language.] There are universities at Vienna, Prague, Innspruck, Lemberg, Pest, Padua and Milan. Since the time of Joseph II. Austria has had a national literature, which is not confined to the German part of her population, but extends to the Sclavonians, Magvars, Greeks and Jews, and among these nations is still in a progressive state, but among the Italians it is stationary. The German language is the language used in the courts of justice throughout a large portion of the empire, but in many parts of Hungary Latin is the language of business and of literature, and in Italy, the Italian.

Government. The government is monarchical, but in some provinces the emperor has much more power than in others. In Hungary his power is limited by the diet, which is composed of four states or classes, 1st, the Catholic prelates ; 2d, the higher nobility ; 3d, the representatives of the inferior nobles; and 4th, the representatives of the royal free towns. The Tyrolese also possess many privileges. Austrian Italy was erected into a kingdom by an edict of the emperor in 1815, and though inseparable from the Austriañ empire, it has its own constitution, at the head of which is a prince of the imperial family, with the title of viceroy. Galicia bears the title of kingdom, and is governed by a viceroy; and in 1817 a liberal constitution was published, and a representative government established. Bohemia and Morasia have each an assembly of states but their power is merely nominal. The administration of the whole empire centres in Vienna, and is composed of a number of boards, under the name of councils, chanceries and conferences. In the German diet, Austria presides, and has one vote; in the general assembly she has four totes.

Revenue and Debt.] T'he annual revenue is estimated at about 60,000,000 dollars. The public debt before the French revolution was $90,000,000; in 1805, more than $350,000,000, and now more than $650,000,000.

Army and Navy.) The army on the peace establishment consists of 220,000 infantry, 36,000 cavalry, with about 15,000 artil. lery. For the protection of trade, a few frigates and other armed vessels are kept up on the Adriatic ; while on the Danube, towards the Turkish frontier, are stationed the vessels called tschaiken, manned by about 1,000 soldiers and seamen.

Manufactures and Commerce.] Austria has recently become a manufacturing state, and has not only made herself in this respect almost independent of foreign nations, but manufactured goods are to some extent articles of export. In the Hungarian states there is very little industry. The provinces which are most distinguished for their manufactures are Bohemia, Moravia, and the part of Lower Austria which lies below the Ens. Commerce is carried on partly by sea but principally by land. The principal sea.ports are Trieste and Venice. The principal centres of the land trade are Vienna, Prague, Brunn, Brody, Botzen, Pest and stadt.

TURKEY

Situation and Extent.) The Turkish empire lies in the centre of the Eastern continent, embracing a portion of Europe, Asia and Africa. Turkey in Europe is bounded N. by the Austrian dominions and Russia; E. by the Black sea, the sea of Marmora and the Archipelago ; S. by the Mediterranean; and W. by the Ionian sea, the Adriatic sea and Dalmatia. It extends from 34° 30 to 48° N. lat. and from 18° to 29° E. lon. The area is estimated at 206,000 square miles.

Divisions. Turkey in Europe is commonly divided into the following provinces :

Pop. on a sq. m

23 38 47

59

Provinces,

Square miles. Population I. Moldavia,

17,000 400,000 II. Wallachia,

24,658 950,000 III. Servia,

20,165 960,000 IV. Bosnia with Turkish Croatia and Herze 16,000

850,000 govina, V. Bulgaria,

88,000 1,800,000 VI. Rumelia,

35,990 2,200,000 VII. Albania,

48,526 1,920,000 1. Macedonia,

15,780 700,000 2. Albania proper,

15,210 207.000 3. Thessaly,

3,618 300,000 4. Livadia,

6,028 249,000 5. Morea.

7,890 464,000 VIII. Province of the Captain Pacha,

1,863 340,000 1. Province of Gallipoli, 833 100,000

2. Islands of the Archipelago, 1,030 140.000 IX. Candia or Crete, 4,218 281,000

47
61
40
44
13
83
41
59

129

124 136 66

Total,

206,000 9,600,000

46

Straits.] The Bosphorus or straits of Constantinople connects the Black sea with the sea of Marmora. The strait of the Dardanelles, (the ancient Hellespont,) connects the sea of Marmora with the Archipelago. The strait of Otranto connects the gulf of Venice with the Mediterranean.

Peninsulas.) Greece, or the country inhabited by the descendants of the ancient Greeks, embracing all that portion of Turkey which lies south of the parallel of 41° 30' N. lat. is a peninsula, jutting out into the Mediterranean and separated by the Ionian sea from Italy on the west and by the Archipelago from Asia Minor on the east. At the southern extremity of this peninsula is the sub-peninsula of the Morea (the ancient Peloponnesus)

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