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Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Theaki or Ithaca, Cerigo and Paxo. The coasts of these islands are rugged and difficult of access, and their harbors insecure, with the exception of those of Theaki and Cephalonia, to which, in consequence, most of the shipping belongs. The surface is generally uneven, and contains a number of barren rocks and hills, interspersed, however, with fertile plains and vallies. The productions are corn, vines, olives, currants, cotton, honey, wax, &c. Vines and olives form the chief source of income to the inhabitants. These islands within a few years bave repeatedly changed masters, having been sometimes in the hands of the French, sometimes of the English, and sometimes under the protection of Russia and Turkey. In the arrangements made at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, it was agreed that the republic should be put under the protection of Great Britain. A constitution for this small state was soon after drawn up and ratified by the British government in July 1817. It vests the legislative power in a senate of 29 representatives from the different islands, as mentioned in the following table.
The inhabitants are partly Italians, but principally Greeks The Greek religion and Greek language are also most prevalent. The principal occupations are navigation, commerce and agriculture,
Situation and Extent.] The Austrian empire is comparatively of modern origin, and at different periods has received various important augmentations. It einbraces about one third of Germany, nearly a quarter of Italy, a portion of ancient Poland, the whole kingdom of Hungary, and several smaller states, and is thus inhabited by nations varying in their origin, language, religion and modes of lite, yet forming at the present day a firm and compact body politic. It is bouuded N. by Saxony, Prussia,
the free city of Cracow, and the Russian empire ; E: by Russia and Turkey ; S. by Turkey, the Adriatic sea, and the river Po, (which separates it from the States of the church, Modena and Parma ;) W. by the kingdom of Sardinia, (from which it is separated by the river Tesino and Lago Maggiore) Switzerland and Bavaria. It extends from 42° 21' to 51° N. lat. and from 8° 30' to 26° 41' E. lon. The area is estimated at 267,674 square miles.
Divisions. The following table exhibits the size and population of the component parts of this great monarchy.
a sq m. I. German States,
80,894 9,482,000 117 1. Lower Aostria or the
15,334 Archdutchy of Austria,
1,850,000 121 2. Inner Austria or Stiria,
8,800 795,000 90 3. The Kingdom of Illyria, 13,506 1,170,000 87 4. Upper Austria or the Tyrol, 11,448 747,000 65 5. Bohemia,
20,900 3,200,000 153 6. Moravia,
9,084 1,374,000 151 7. Austrian Silesia,
1,822 346,000 190 II. Aistrian Poland or the
33,638 3,778,000 112 III. The Hungarian States, 134,398 10,698,000 79
1. The kingdom of Hungary 88,660 7,515,000 85 2. Sclavonia,
6,776 528,000 78 3. Croatia,
8,272 650,000 78 4. Dalmatia,
6,050 305,000 5. Transylvania,
24,640 1,700,000 69 IV. Austrian Italy,
18,290 4,014,000 219 1. The government of Milan, 8,340 2,082,000 248 2. The government of Venice,
267,674 27,972,000 105
Mountains.] The Carpathian mountains separate Hungary from Galicia, and Transylvania from Turkey. Branches proceed from the main range and encircle Transylvania on all sides as with a huge wall, through which there are 14 narrow passes, opening communications with the neighboring country. The highest summit in the range is the Lomnitz, 8,316 feet high. The Sudetic chain separates Moravia and Bohemia from Silesia and Saxony. The part between Silesia and Bohemia is called also the Riesengebirge mountains, and the part between Bohemia and Saxony the Erzgebirge or Metallic mountains. The Bohmeré wald, or Bohemian Forest, is a chain of mountains separating Bohemia from Bavaria. The Alps proceeding in numerous branches from Switzerland, form the boundary between Germany and Italy, and under the names of Noric, Carnic and Julian Alps, overspread
all the German provinces south of the Danube, viz. Lower Austria, Stiria, Tyrol, and the kingdom of Illyria. Some of these branches proceed for a short distance into Hungary, and gradually sink away into plains, wbile others run in a N. E. direction and connect the Alps with the Carpathian mountains, the Sudetic chain and the Bohmerwald. The highest summits of the Alps in the Austrian empire, are the Orteles in the Tyrol, 14,466 teet high, and the Great-Glockner on the borders of the Tyrol and the kingdom of Illyria, 12,978 feet.
Face of the Country.) A large portion of the surface of the Austrian empire is covered with mountains. The most mountainous districts are the Tyrol and the other German provinces south of the Danube. Croatia, Sclavonia, and Dalmatia are also traversed by mountain ranges. Bohemia and Transylvania are completely encircled by great chains of mountains, while in ibe interior they are traversed by inferior ridges. Moravia has mountain barriers on the west, north and east, but is open towards the south. In the other provinces there are several very extensive plains. The principal of these is the great plain of Hungary which occupies all the central and southern portions of that country, and even extends over the Danube into Turkey. The plains of Galicia commence at the foot of the Carpathian mountains, and form a part of that immense level tract which terminates only on the Baltic, the White sea, and at the foot of the Ural mountains. Austrian Italy is anotber vast plain watered by the Po, and its branches.
Rivers.) The principal river is the Danube, which comes from Bavaria and runs from west to east through the province of Lower Austria into Hungary, where it turns to the south and then to the S. E. and becomes for a short distance the boundary between Hungary and Turkey, after which its course lies wholly in Turkey. The principal tributaries which it receives in the Austria dominions are, the T'raun ; the Ens; the March or Morava, which brings with it the tributary waters of nearly the whole of Moravia ; the Raab ; the Waag ; and the Theiss, the largest river in Hungary, which rises in the Carpathian mountains on the borders of Galicia and Transylvania, and pursuing a circuitous course through the northern and central portions of the kingdom, joins the Danube 19 miles N. W. of Belgrade on the Turkish frontier, after a course of 450 miles.
The other considerable rivers are, 1. The Elbe, which rises in Bohemia, in the Riesengebirge mountains, and after receiving the Iser, the Moldau, and the Eger, which bring with them the waters of the whole valley of Bohemia, pierces through an opening in the mountains on the northern boundary and passes into Saxony. 2. The Vistula, which rises in Austrian Silesia, in the Carpathian mountains, and after passing by the free city of Cracow, flows through Galicia into the new kingdom of Poland. 3. The Dniester which rises in the Carpathian mountains, in Galicia, and after traversing a great part of that province passes into Russia. 4. The Po, which forms the southern boundary of Aus
trian Italy. 5. The Adige, the Brenta, the Piave and the Tagliamento, which discharge themselves into the gulf of Venice north of the Po.
Lakes.] The principal lakes are, the Neusiedler See, in the west of Hungary near the German frontier, 30 miles long and 10 broad; the Balaton or Platten See, 40 miles long and 3 or 4 broad, lying about 70 miles S. E. of the Neusiedler See; lake Garda, lake Iseo, the lake of Como and the Lago Maggiore, all of which are in Italy.
Climate.) In the Italian provinces, in Sclavonia, Croatia, and the level tracts in Hungary the climate is very mild, but in the southern part of Hungary and in Sclavonia it is unhealthy on account of the morasses. In the mountainous districts the air is much solder, and the winter earlier and longer than in the low country, yet the vallies between the mountain ranges frequently have : a warm climale. The climate of Galicia is colder than that of other parts of the empire in the same latitude.
Soil and Productions. Notwithstanding the mountainous sur. face, the soil is on the whole very fertile. The most fertile tracts are the plains of Lombardy, Hungary and Galicia. Few countries on the globe can compare with the Austrian empire in the variety, richness and abundance of its natural products. In Lombardy and the southern part of Hungary are found the olivetree, rice and most of the southern fruits; corn and wine are abundant in the southern parts of Hungary, in Transylvania, and all the German and Hungarian states below lat. 49o ; flax, and grain of various kinds flourish luxuriantly in Galicia.
No country except France produces wines in such plenty and variety and of so fine a quality. The Hungarian wines, particularly those of Tokay are very celebrated. The mountains afford all the metals except platina in great quantities and of an excellent quality. Wood is abundant, particularly on the Carpathian mountains, which are covered with an almost uninterrupted forest. Fish abound in the rivers, particularly in the Theiss, which excels in this respect every other river in Europe.
Agriculture.] The state of agriculture is very different in different provinces. The plains of Hungary and Galicia are tinely adapted for the production of corn, but agriculture is so imperfectly understood here that the quantity raised is but little more than sufficient for the supply of the country. Hungary abounds with excellent pasture lands, but they are altogether the work of nature ; the inclosure, the draining and the irrigation of meadows being all unknown. In Austrian Italy, on the other hand, agriculture is carried to the highest perfection.
Minerals.] The Austrian empire is very rich in mineral productions. Hungary and Transylvania excel in this respect every other part of Europe, particularly in the amount of gold. Silver, copper and lead are also abundant in these countries; iron, in Styria ; tin, in Bohemia ; quicksilver, at Idria, in the kingdom of Illyria; and zinc, coal, salt, and many other minerals in various places. Galicia is famous for its salt mines, the most celebrated
of which are at Wielicza, 8 miles south of Cracow, where the pits bave been sunk to a great depth, and galleries and subterrane. ous chambers of immense size have been formed. The principal mine is more than a mile long, 1,000 feet broad, 743 feet deep, and has been worked above 600 years.
Chief Towns.] Vienna, the capital of the Austrian empire, and the largest city in Germany, is pleasantly situated on the right side of the Danube, where it receives a small river called the Vien, which passes through the city and suburbs, lon. 16° 23' E. lat. 48° 13' N. The houses are built of stone and are generally 6 or 7 stories high. Among them are numerous and beautiful palaces, but many of the streets are narrow and crooked. The university of Vienna was founded in 1365, and has been particu, larly celebrated for its medical school. The library of the unię versity contains 90,000 volumes and the imperial library 300,000, The charitable institutions are numerous, and in one of the hospitals there are annually received 16,000 patients. The mortality of this city is thought to be greater than that of any other place in Europe, and it is commonly said that one in 20 dies an. Dually. The population is 240,000.
Prague, the capital of Bohemia, is on the Moldau, in lat. 50° 5' N. Its university is the oldest in Germany, having been founded in 1348, and has at present 40 professors, 900 students, and a library of 100,000 volumes. Linen, cottons and silks are manufactured extensively at Prague. The population is 85,000, of whom 7,000 are Jews.
Trieste, the largest town in the kingdom of Illyria, is an important sea-port on the Adriatic, at the N. E. part or the gulf of Trieste. Its commerce is very extensive, it being estimated that 3,000 vessels enter and leave the port annually. The population is 36,000.
Brunn, the capital of Moravia, is 75 miles N. of Vienna. It has 25,000 inhabitants, who are engaged principally in the manufac. ture of fine cloth and silks. Austerlitz, 12 miles E. S. E. of Brunn is celebrated for the great battle fought near it, on the 2d December 1805, between the French commanded by Bonaparte and the united forces of Austria and Russia, which ended in the total discomfiture of the Austro-Russian army.
The following are the other principal towns in the German part of the Austrian empire.
Innspruck, the capital of the Tyrol, iş situated at the conflux of the Sill and the lon and has 10,000 inhabitants. Troppau, the principal town in Austrian Silesia, is on the Oppa, a branch of the Oder, and has 9,700 inhabitants. Lintz, on the Danube at the in. Aux of the Traun, has a great woollen manufactory established by government, which gives employment directly or indirectly to 25,000 individuals in the town and surrounding country. Popula. tion 17,000. Salzburg, in Lower Austria, is romantically situated amidst lofty mountains on the Salza, a branch of the lon, in lon, 13° E. lat. 47° 18' N, and contains 13.000 inhabitants. Gratz, the largest town in Stiria, is on the Muhr, a branch of the Drave,