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Natural Features.] The papal territory is traversed from N. *V. to S. E. by the Apennines, which serve to moderate the violent heats of summer and give rise to a number of streams, the only one of which possessed of any interest is the Tiber. On the coast of the Mediterranean, between the mouth of the Ti. ber and the Neapolitan frontier are the Pontine marshes, which corrupt the atmosphere for many miles around. Many attempts have been made to drain these marshes, first by the Roman emperors and at a later period by the popes, but bitherto without complete success. The soil here is naturally rich, but not a twentieth part is in any tolerable state of cultivation, and the country appears rather like a desert than the abode of civilized men. The rest of the territory is generally fertile and produces corn, wine, fruits, &c.
Chief Towns.] Rome, the residence of the pope, and formerly the seat of the Roman empire, and the capital of the world, is built chiefly on the left or eastern bank of the Tiber, 15 miles from its mouth. The space inclosed by the walls approaches to the form of a square, and is ahout 13 miles in cir. cuit, but two thirds of this space is now covered with vineyards, corn fields or villas. The city abounds with splendid monuments of its ancient magnificence, such as columns, temples, amphitheatres, aqueducts, baths, statues, triumphal arches, &c. Among the ancient edifices is the Pantheon, a structure distinguished equally for solidity and elegance. A still more imposing object is the amphitheatre of Vespasian, which is the largest amphitheatre ever erected, being of an oval form, 581 feet long and 481 broad. Trajan's pillar still stands on the spot where it was erected by that emperor, and is still covered with the admirable bas reliefs, representing his expedition against the Dacians. It is of marble, 133 feet high; 11 feet in diameter at the base and 10 at the top. No city in Europe is superior to modern Rome in the number and magnificence of its churches. The principal is that of St. Peter's, in which the arts of architecture, sculpture and painting, are all displayed in the highest perfection. It was commenced in 1506, and no less than 18 successive popes were employed in its construction. The most celebrated architects of modern times, Bramante, Raphael, Michael Angelo and others have displayed their talents on this vast undertaking, the total expense of which must bave amounted to at least £12,000,000 sterling. Entering a circular court formed by a vast colonnade, the spectator is struck by the majestic front of the building, extending 400 feet in length and rising to the height of 180. The eye is at the same time gratified with the majestic dome, rising from the central part of the roof of the church, to the height of 424 feet, reckoning from the ground. The interior of the church corresponds perfectly with its outward grandeur. The Vatican is a palace belonging to the pope, and forming not one but an assemblage of edifices. Its extent is immense, and the number of its rooms is estimated at 10,000. The library of the Vatican is said to contain 500,000
volumes, and is the largest in the world. Rome has long been a resort for painters, sculptors, and architects from various countries. The population in 1817 was 131,000.
Bologna, the second city in size and opulence, is situated at the foot of the Apennines, between two small rivers, in lat. 44° 30' N. and lon. 11° 21' E. The churches are of ingenious and costly architecture and adorned in the interior with beautiful paintings. Here is a famous university, frequented by foreigners from varions parts of Europe. The manufactures are of considerable importance, particularly those of silk. Population, 63,000. Civita Vecchia is a sea-port on a bay of the Mediterranean, 38 miles N. W. of Rome. Population 9,000. Ancona is a celebrated trading town on the gulf of Venice. It is situated on a projecting point of land, is well fortified and has a fine harbor. Population 20,000.
Government, Revenue, &c.] The pope is ipvested with abso lute power, both spiritual and temporal. The candidates for the papacy must be members of the college of cardinals, to which body belongs the election of the pope. Their number is nominally 70, but is seldom complete. All the cities in the papal ter ritory are governed by prelates appointed by the pope. The revenue is about £600,000. The army does not contain more than 4,000 men.
5. GRAND DUTCHY OF TUSCANY.
Situation, Extent and Divisions. Tuscany is bounded N. by Modena and the States of the church; E. and S. E. by the States of the church ; W. by the Mediterranean, and N. W. by Lucca. It extends from 42° 15' to 44° 12' N. lat. and from 10° to 12° 30' E. lon. Besides the country included in these boundaries there are several small detached territories. The area of the whole is estimated at 8,500 square miles, and the population at 1,180,000. The grand dutchy is divided into three districts, which derive their names from three of the principal towns, viz. Florence, Pisa, and Siena.
Natural Features.] The Apennines run along the northern and eastern frontier, separating the grand dutchy from the States of the church. The country below the mountains is agreeably diversified with fruitful bills, vallies and plains watered by numerous streams, the principal of which is the Arno. The climate is healthy except along the coasts where the exhalations from the swamps corrupt the air.
Chief Towns.] Florence, the capital of Tuscany and one of the finest cities in Italy, stands on both sides of the Arno, in a beautiful valley at the foot of the Apennines. Its streets and squares are adorned with pillars, fountains and statues. But the grand collection of works of art is in the Medicean gallery, known throughout Europe as the gallery of Florence. It is more than
500 feet long, and replenished with busts, statues and paintings. Here is the celebrated Venus de Medicis, and other beautiful specimens of art, carried off for a time by the French, but restored in 1815. Population 75,000.
Leghorn, situated in a marshy district on the coast, 12 miles S. of the mouth of the Arno, has more commerce than any other city in Italy. It is the residence of consuls from all the principal states in Europe and is annually visited by upwards of 4,000 ves sels. It supplies the interior of Italy with the produce of the rest of Europe, of Levant and of the colonies. Among the ex. ports are straw hats which are celebrated for their fineness. The harbor is shallow and difficult to enter. The population in 1819 was 50,000, of whom 8000 were Jews.
Pisa stands on both sides of the Arno, 4 miles from its mouth. It is celebrated for its university which was long a distinguished nursery of literature, and is still one of the principal seats of education in Tuscany. It has 40 professors. The population is 17,000. Siena, situated in a pleasant and healthy district 30 miles S. by E. of Florence, has little trade, but reckons among its in, habitants an uncommon number of gentry and literati. Population 24,000.
Government, 8:c.] The grand duke is an unlimited monarch. The revenue is stated at 3,000,000 dollars. The army contains about 2,500 men.
Island.] Elba is a small island lying off the coast of Tuscany and separated from it by the channel of Piombino. It contains 150 square miles and 14,000 inhabitants. Its general aspect is mountainous, and it produces wines, fruits and iron ore, all of which are exported. It is chiefly celebrated, however, as the residence of Bonaparte from May 1814 to 26th Feb. 1815, when he sailed on his fatal expedition to France.
6. DUTCHY OF PARMA,
The dutchy of Parma is bounded N. by the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom; E. by Modena ; S. by a detached portion of Tuscany, and W. by Sardinia. It is divided into four districts, viz. Parma, Piacenza, Borgo San Domino and Guastalla. It contains 2,280 square miles and 377,000 inhabitants. The southern part of the territory is traversed by several branches of the Apennines, but the northern part consists of extensive plains. The principal river is the Po, which runs along the northern border and here receives the Taro, the Trebia and a number of smaller streams, all of which rise in the Apennines and traverse the dutchy from south to north. The soil is fertile and well cultivated. The power of the sovereign is not limited ly any repre, sentative assembly. By the treaty of Paris in 1814 this dutchy was given to the ex-empress Maria Louisa, the wife of Napoleon
Bonaparte, and on her death it will devolve to Spain. The revenue is £160,000.
Chief Towns.] Parma, the capital, is on a small river of the same name. It has 30,000 inhabitants, and a university with about 400 students. Piacenza or Placentia is near the Po, not far from the spot where it is joined by the Trebia. It has 20,000 inhabitants. Guastalla, situated on the Po at the confluence of the Crostollo, 21 miles N. E. of Parma, has 5,500 inhabitants.
7. DUTCHY OF MODENA.
The dutchy of Modena is bounded N. by the Lombardo-Venetiap kingdom from which it is separated by the river Po; E. by the States of the church ; S. E. by Tuscany and Lucca; S. W. by the Mediterranean ; and W. by Parma. The area is estimated at 2,060 square miles, and the population àt 370,000. It consists of eight distriets, viz. Modena, Reggio, Mirandola, Correggio, Carpi, Novellara, Massa and Carrara. The soutbero part of the territory is intersected by the Apennines; the porthern part has a gently undulating surface with a fertile soil, and is watered by the Crostolo, the Panaro, and the Secchia. This dutchy is possessed in full sovereignty by a lateral branch of the house of Austria, the archduke Francis of Este. The revenue is computed at £140,000 sterling ; the army at 1,500 men.
Chief Towns.) Modena, the capital, is in a delightful plain between the rivers Panaro and Secchia, and contains 20,000 inhabitants. Reggio, 12 miles west of Modena, has 13,300 inhabitants. Massa, situated 2 miles from the coast of the Mediterranean, has 10,000 inhabitants. Carrara, celebrated for its beautiful marble, is 5 miles N. W. of Massa. Mirandola, 16 miles N. E. of Modena, is a regularly fortified town and contains 8,200 inhabitants.
8. DUTCHY OF LUCCA.
The dutchy of Lucca is bounded N. by Modena ; E. and S. by Tuscany; and W. by the Mediterranean. It contains 420 square miles and 138,000 inhabitants. The territory is traversed by the Apennines,and two thirds of its surface are supposed to be covered by mountains and defiles ; the remainder comprises the delightful plain around the city, and a number of fertile vallies. From the middle of the 15th century till 1805 it was an independent republic. In 1805 its government was changed by the French, and in 1815 it was erected by the Congress of Vienna into a dutchy and given to the infanta of Spain, Maria Louisa. Lucca, the capital, is situated in a fertile plain on the Serchio, and has a university and 18,000 inhabitants.
9. REPUBLIC OF SAN MARINO.
This small republic is in lat. 42° 56' N. lon. 12° 24' E. and is entirely surrounded by the papal dominions. Its territory consists only of a mountain 2,000 feet in height, with a small tract lying along its base ; the area of the whole does not exceed 40 square miles. The population is 7,000. It is governed by its own laws, but is under the protection of the pope. This petty state boasts an existence of many centuries.
Malta is an island in the Mediterranean lying 50 miles S. from the coast of Sicily. It belongs to the British, together with the two small islands of Gozzo and Cerrino, which are separated from it only by a parrow channel. The area of the three islands is 170 square miles, and the number of inhabitants 90,000, of whom above 75,000 are in Malta, which is thus one of the most populous spots on the globe. The soil is formed of a reddish loamy mould, lying on a basis of rock and seldom exceeding 12 or 15 inches in depth. Every spot is cultivated with the greatest care ; and soil, when deticient, is supplied io ship loads from Sicily. The fields are surrounded with small inclosures of stone to prevent the earth being washed away by the rains. From 1530 to 1798 Malta was in possession of the knights of St. John of Jerusalem, who highly distinguished themselves on many occasions by their valiant resistance to the Turks. In 1798 the island fell into the hands of the French and svon after was taken by the British, and was confirmed to them by the treaty of Paris in 1814. The island is very strongly furtitied. In no fortress in Europe are the defences more imposing. ln Gibraltar admiration is excited by the work of nature ; in Malta, by the work of art. Valetta, the capital of the island, is situated on a peninsula which projects into the sea, and contains 32,000 inhabitants an unusual proportion of whom are foreigners from many different countries. Valetta has two harbors, one on each side of the promontory on which the town is situated.
The Ionian islands, sometimes called the Republic of the Seven islands, is a small and recently coastituted republic, consisting of seven principal islands, and a number of islets extending along the S. W. coast of Turkey from 30° to 40° N. lat and from 190 30 to 23° 10' E. lon. The seven principal islands are Corfus