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rounded by the sea, while strong fortifications across the isthmur secure it from attack by land. The bay of Cadiz is a vast basin, inclosed between the continent and the projecting tongue of land, and is one of the finest bays in the world, being more than 30 miles in circumference, with excellent anchoring ground, while the neighboring mountains protect it to a considerable extent from the winds. It is defended by four forts, and is the grand rendezvous of the Spanish navy. On an island in the bay there are 12 docks, and a grand arsenal with ample supplies of naval stores. The streets are narrow, but clean, well paved and well lighted. The town and the country-seats in its neighborhood make a beautiful appearance from the harbor. The manufactures of Cadiz are ipsignificant but the commerce is very extensive. It has long been the principal commercial town in Spain, and particularly the centre of trade with America and the West Indies. Large quantities of salt are made in the neighborhood for exportation. The popnlation is estimated at 70.000 souls, many of whom are Irish, Italian, French, English and Dutch.
Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia, and one of the most flourishing cities in Spain, is a strongly fortified town on the shore of the Mediterranean on a plain, encircled at a short distance by hills in the form of an amphitheatre. The barbor is deep, spacious and secure, but difficult of entrance. The commerce of Barcelona is more extensive than that of any city in Spain except Cadiz. The manufactures consist of silk, cotton and woollen goods, sboes, glass, cutlery and fire-arms, all of which are ex. ported in considerable quantities, together with wine and brandy. Among the principal imports are corn, cod-fish and rice. The population, including the suburbs, is estimated at 140,000.
Valencia, the capital of the province of the same dame, stands on the Guadalaviar about a mile and an half from its mouth, in the midst of a fertile and beautiful country, which is every where crowded with villages and orchards. It has no harbor, but only a bad road without anchorage or shelter. Vessels seldom approach nearer than half a league, and receive and discharge their cargoes by means of boats. The city is chiefly noted for its silk manufactures, which are among the most extensive in Europe, giving employment to 25,000 persons and consuming yearly 900,000 lbs. of raw silk. The irade of the towo is extensive, notwithstanding its unfavorable situation, and the population is estimated at more than 100,100.
Seville stands in a large circular plain, on the left side of the Guadalquivir, 54 miles from its mouth, in the midst of a country well cultivated and adorned with villas and orchards. It is the most extensive city in Spain, and is said to have bad formerly when in possession of the Moors, a population of 400,000 souls. li is surrounded by an old wall, 5 or 6 miles in circumference, and containing 166 turreis. After the discovery of America, Seville was invested with the monopoly of the trade between that country and Spain, but the difficulty of navigating the Guadalquivir with large vess els, led to its transfer to Cadiz. Vessels
drawing more than 10 feet water are obliged to unload 8 miles below Seville, and the largest vessels sto; at the onih of the river. The manu actures of sijk, lea her, and some Olher articles, is carried on to a considerable extent. Here also is the royal tobacco manufactory, which supplies the whole kingdom with cigars, snuff aod tobacco, and gives employment to 1,500 persons and 190 horses or mules. The population of Seville is est mated at 100,00).
Granada, a celebrated city in the province of the same name, is romantically situated on the river Xenil or Genil, 123 miles E, of Seville, on two bills at the extremity of an immense plain surrounded by lofty mountains. The town makes a fine appear. ance to the approaching traveller, the houses rising one above another, with turrets and gilded cupolas, and the whole crowned by the Alhambra, or palace of the ancient Moorish kings, and in the back ground the Sierra Nivada covered with soow; but on entering the gates this grandeur disappears ; the streets are found to be narrow and irregular, and the buildings bear visible marks of decay. The Alhambra however still retains much of its ancient magnificence and is the grand ornament of the city. Its chambers are all paved with marble, and ornamented with mare ble pillars. The population of Granada is estimated at 67,000. They are employed chiefly in manufacturing silk stuffs, woollen goods and other articles.
Malaga, celebrated for its wines, is situated on the coast of Granada, at the bottom of a deep bay, with a large plain to the north, while on the east and west it is sheltered by lofty mountains, whose sides are covered with vineyards and plantations of olive, almond, orange and lemon trees. The harbor is easy of entrance, perfectly sheltered from all winds, sufficiently capacious to contain about 400 ships, and so deep that vessels of the largest burden can come up close to the quays. The town is fortified and contains 52,000 inhabitants.
Saragossa, the capital of Aragon, stands in an extensive and fertile plain on the right bank of the Ebro, which here receives the Guerva, a considerable stream, from the south, and the Gallego, which has its source in the Pyrenees, from the north. Without being regularly fortified it is surrounded by an earthen wall, and is entered by 12 gates. The houses are built throughout of brick. It contains 55,000 inhabitants and a university founded in 1478. Saragossa is celebrated for its dreadful sieges by the French in 1808 and 1809, in which the Spaniards displayed the most unyielding fortitude.
Pampeluna, the capital of Navarre, is situated on the Arga, a branch of the Ebro. It stands partly on an eminence and partly on a plain, and is surrounded by mountains at the distance of 6 or 8 miles. The town is walled and has two citadels, and has long been accounted one of the principal strong holds in the north of Spain. Population, 14,000.
Bilboa, the capital of Biscay proper, is on a small river a out 6 miles from the sea. It has a spacious harbor, and carries on.
an extensive commerce ; the wool of Spain being mostly export, ed through this channel to England, France, Holland and other countries, while the whole of the north of Spain is supplied from this place with foreign merchandize. Population 15,000. Alcant is a well built maritime town in the province of Valencia on a peninsula, in a bay of the Mediterranean, at the bottom of a rocky mountain, on the summit of which is the castle. The commerce of the town is considerable, especially in wine and soap. Population 17,000.
Ferrol, an important sea-port and one of the principal stations of the Spanish navy, is on the north coast of Galicia at the influx of a small river into the bay of Corunna. The harbor is deep, safe and capacious, and the entrance narrow and well defended by forts. The town is strongly fortified. Here are marine barracks for the accommodation of 6,000 men, dock-yards, arsenals, ropewalks and magazines of naval stores of all kinds. Population 10,000. Carthagena, the principal station of the navy in the Mediterranean, is an old and well known sea-port on the coast of Murcia, founded by the Carthaginian general, Asdrubal. The harbor is the best in the Mediterranean, if not in Europe. It consists of a natural basin of great depth, reaching close to the town and secured from every wind by the surrounding hills and by an island near the entrance. The town stands on a peninsula in this basin and contains 25,000 inhabitants.
Aranjuez, the residence of the court during a part of the year, is on the Tagus, 20 miles from Madrid, with which it is connected by a superb road, constructed on the model of the ancient Roman roads. Here is a beautiful royal palace with elegant gardens. Population 10,000. Escurial is a village of 2,000 inhabitants, situated in a dreary uncultivated country, 20 miles N. W. of Madrid, but celebrated for its palace, which is a magnificent structure erected at an expense of £3,000,000 sterling. St. Ildefonso is a small town 40 miles north of Madrid, containing the royal palace of La Granja with its beautiful gardens. It is the highest royal residence in Europe, being at an elevation of 3,800 feet above the level of the sea. Population 4,300,
The other considerable towns are, 1. Burgos, the capital of the province of the same name, which is op the river Arlanzon, 112 miles N. of Madrid, and has considerable commerce in the exportation of the wool of Old Castile, most of which passes through this town to Bilboa. Population 9,000. 2. Salamanca, celebrated for its university, is 153 miles W.N.W. of Madrid, on the river Tormes, a branch of the Duero. Population 13,600. 3. Badajos, the capital of Estremadura, is in a beautiful plain on the Guadiana. It was always a place of strength and now forms an important barrier fortress on the side of Portugal, from which it is distant only 41 miles. It was taken by storm by the British, under lord Wellington, after a memorable conflict on the 6th of April 1812. Population 14,500. 4. Toledo is on the Tagus, 32 miles S. S. W. of Madrid, on a rock almost surrounded by the river. Two centuries ago it is said to have contained 200,000 in
babitants, but the number is now reduced to 25,000. It'was formerly celebrated for the exquisite temper of its sword blades, 5. Xerez de la Frontera, 15 miles N. N E. of Cadiz, contains 40,000 inbabitants. Its environs are celebrated for the excellent wine corruptly called Sherry. 6. Ecija is beautifully situated on the west bank of the Xenil or Genil, 55 miles E. N. E. of Seville, and contains 28,000 inhabitants. 7. Cordova, the capital of the province of the same name, is an old and famous city at the foot of a hranch of the Sierra Morena, on the north bank of the Guadalquivir, which is navigable to this place for small vessels. Population 30,000. 8. Jaen, the capital of the province of the same name, is 36 miles N. of Granada, and contains 27,500 inhabitants. 9. Murcia is on the Segura, in the midst of a spacious and beautisul valley containing large numbers of mulberry trees. It has an extensive establishment for twisting silk. Population 35,000.
Education.] The universities of Spain, formerly 24 in number, have been gradually reduced to 11, and of these, few are either well conducted or much frequented. The antiquated system of logic and other parts of scholastic philosophy, continued to be taught until the middle of the 18th century, and though many improvements have since been adopted the Spanish universities are still
greatly behind those of France, Germany or Great Britain. There are pumerous schools, many of which are connected with the monasteries; and the instruction given is replete with superstitions and antiquated notions.
Population.] The population in 1803 was 10,350,000, and it is supposed that the number has not increased since. Spain has for a long time been one of the least populous countries in Europe. This deficiency is attributed by some to the expulsion of the Jews and Moors, to the contagious fevers in the south, to the intestine wars with the Moors carried on incessantly for 7 centuries, to the emigrations to America, and to the vast number of clergy who never marry. A more operative cause than either, and perhaps than all these, may be found in the extreme indolence of the inhabitants.
Classes of Society.) In Spain, as in Germany, there prevails a great deal of aristocratic pride, and a scrupulous distinction of classes. The nobility bear the titles of duke, marquis, or count, and are styled collectively, Titulados. The gentry are called Hidalgos, a term applied io all who are of genteel birth or whose designations, such as doctor in law, or doctor in medicine, distinguish them from the mass of agriculturists, merchants and mannfacturers. In some provinces these distinctions are little attended to, but in others, as in Biscay and Asturia, almost all the inhabitants lay claim to rank.
Character.) In respect to the character of its inhabitants, Spain exhibits great variety, having been peopled from very different quarters, and the difficulty of communication between the different provinces having prevented that approach to uniformity which constant intercourse would have produced. Indolence is the vice of the inland and southern provinces; it may in facı be
termed the vice of the nation, though striking exceptions are af forded by the inhabitants of Biscay, Galicia, Valencia and above all, of Catalonia. The Castilian is haughty, grave, distant. dig. nified, mistrustful, and usually well informed and intelligent. The Andalusian is lively, idle, vain, extravagant and licentious. The Galicians leave their own country, and are employed in the rest of Spain, in the lowest occupations, as in sweeping chimpies and cleaning shoes. Most of the servants are Asturians; they are faithful, not very intelligent, but exact in the performance of their duty. All the mountebanks and tumblers come from Valencia.
Manners aud Customs.] The dress of the Spaniards, formerly national and peculiar, now resembles that of the English and French, but the cloak, the long sword and the large round hat are still occasionally worn. The favorite national amusement of bull-fighling was discouraged by government towards the close of the last century, but has since been revired. These fighıs take place in amphitheatres prepared for the purpose. The animal is first attacked by horsemen, armed with lances ; then by men on foot, who carry a kind of arrow. Terminated like a fish-hook, which gives the animal exquisite pain, and redoubles his fury. When the bull is almost exhausted, a man, called the matador, advances with a long knite, and usually with a single blow terminates his sufferings. If the animal appears deficient in spirit, a pack of dogs is let in ; several of which are commonly killed be: fore their purpose is accomplished. Frequently six or eight of the horses are killed in a single fight, and sometimes, though rarely, one or more of the human combatants. Notwithstanding the wanton cruelty of this amusement, both sexes, of every age and raok, crowd to a bull-fight day after day with enthusiasm, and gentry and nobles do not disdain to appear as combatants.
Government. The government of Spain was long a limited monarchy, the people being represented by their Cortes, an assembly which, though rude and constituted on principles very different from those of true representation, performed the duty of guarding the public purse, and of making known the public grievances. But after the union in the 15th century of the different provinces into one kingdom, the concentration of power in the hands of the monarch, enabled him to dispense with the Cortes, and to encroach on the privileges of the provinces ; so that on the acceso sion of the house of Bourbon in 1700, there remained hardly any vestige of independence, except in Biscay. The dissatisfaction and indignation of the people, excited by the conduct of the present king, led, in the beginning of 1820 to open insubordination in the army, and has produced a revolution of great importance, by which the constitution of the Cortes, on an improved plan, is restored, and such salutary restraints have been imposed on the power of the crown, as seemed best calculated for securing the rights of the people. The revolution has not been confined to changes in the form of government, but has extended to the reformation of ecclesiastical abuses, and to the abolition of the priv