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rection till it divides itself into two arms ; the eastern arm under the name of the Nogat, falls into the Frische Haff neai Elbing, while the western divides itself into two new arms, one of which, turning to the right, discharges itself also into the Frische fiaff, and the other turning to the left, passes by Danizig to the BalticIts most important tributaries, are the Drewenz, wbich joins it 4 miles above Thorn, and the Brahe, which falls into it a little be. low that city. 3. The Oder, which is almost wholly a Prussian river, rises in Moravia, and flowing in a N. W. direction through Silesia, Brandenbung and Pomerania, discharges itself into the Haff or Stettin Haff, after a course of 400 miles, during nearly the whole of which it is .navigable. It passes by Ratibor, Oppein, Breslau, Frankfort, Custrin and Stettin. Its principal tributary is the Wartà or Warthe, which rises near the free city of Cracow, and after running at first in a northerly direction through the new kingdom of Poland, turns to the west and entering Prussia, passes through the provinces of Posen and Brandenburg, receives the Netze and discharges itself into the Oder at Custrin. 4. The Elbe comes from Saxony and flowing through the kingdom in a N. W. direction passes into Hanover, after having received in its progress the Schwartz Elster or Black Elster ; the Mulde, which joins it in Anhalt; the Saale, one of whose tributaries is the W'hite El. ster; and the Havel, whose principal tributary is the Spree, which rises in the eastern part of the kingdom of Saxony, and towing north passes by Berlin and joins the Havel at Spandau. 5. The Rhine passes from S. E. to N. W. through the heart of the great western division of Prussia, and in its progress receive: the Nahe ; the Moselle, which comes from France and being joined by the Sarre near Treves, falls into the Rhine at Coblentz; the Sieg, which joins it two miles below Bonn ; the Ruhr and the Lippe.
The other considerable rivers are, the Preycl,a navigable siream, which falls into the Frische Haff, a little below Konigsberg ; the Stolpe, the Wipper and the Persante, which fall directly into the Baltic, between the mouths of the Vistula and the Oder aiter a short course ; and the Ucker, which falls into the Haff or Stettin Haff at Uckermunde.
Canals.] The principal canals are, 1. The Bromberg canal, 20 miles long, which connects the Brabe with the Netze, and thus opens a communication between the Vistula and the Oder, 2. The Frederick-William or Mullrose canal, 15 miles long, which begins at Newbruck on the Spree and terminates on the Oder, a little above Frankfurt, and thus connects the Oder with the Eibe. 3. The Finow canal, 24 miles long, which connects the Oder with the Havel. 4. The Plauen canal, which connects the Havel with the Elbe, and shortens the navigation between Berlin and Magdeburg.
Soil and Productions. The soil in the eastern division is for the most part sandy and covered with heath, but there are also along the coasts and rivers rich marshes and fertile low lands. The western division has many tracts in the highest degree fertile, intermixed with others that are rocky and barren. In most of
the provinces the soil is highly cultivated, but in others, particularly in those east of the Oder, the agriculture admits of much improvement. Wheat, oats, barley and potatoes are raised in sufficient quantity for the supply of the country. Flax, hemp and tobacco are also cultivated, but not to such an extent as to prevent importation. The vine flourishes in the western division, along the banks of the Rhine, the Moselle and the Nahe. Cattle and sheep are raised in almost all the provinces, but the horses for the cavalry are imported from Russia and Holstein. Westphalia has long been celebrated for its hams, and Pomerania for its poultry. In the mountainous districts of the western provinces and in the Hartz are found iron, copper, lead, silver and other minerals. Salt from brine springs is also abundant in some parts of Prussian Saxony.
Chief Towns.] Berlin, the capital of the Prussian states, and the residence of the king, is situated in a sandy plain on l.oth sides of the Spree, and is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. The circumference of its walls is 11 miles. The streets are for the most part broad and straight, and the squares regular and spacious, and adorned with numerous elegant buildings. Berlin is indebted for its chief embellishments to the celebrated Frederick II. who is supposed to bave expended yearly in the improvement of the city 400,000 dollars. Among the most remarkable public buildings is the royal castle, which is 430 feet long and 276 broad. In it is the king's library, which contains upwards of 200,000 volumes. The city is highly distinguished for its manufactores : the principal articles are silk, woollen, linen and cotton goods, jewelry, porcelain, &c. The number of manufacturers in the various establishments is about 16,000, of which number nearly 3,000 are in the extensive silk manufactories, and 500 in the royal porcelain manufactory. The population has greatly increased during the last 150 years ; in 1661 it was only 6,500; in 1818 it was 182,387, or including the military 188,485.
Breslau, the capital of Silesia, stands on the left bank of the Oder, at the influx of the small river Ohlau which runs through the town. It is surrounded with strong walls and other fortifications. Breslau is the centre of trade for the whole of Silesia, and the manufactures of the town employ several thousand workmed. Four fairs are held here annually. The population, including the military, is 76.813.
Konigsberg, the chief town in East-Prussia, is on the Pregel, 4 miles from its mouth. The river flows from east to west, and approaches the city in two arms, which join and form a small ob. long island. On this island is built a part of the city, and the rest stands opposite to it, on the north bank of the river. The houses have their foundations on piles as at Amsterdam. Konigsberg is connected with the interior by the Pregel, and carries on a considerble trade with foreign countries. The population is 63,239.
Dantzic, an opulent commercial city of West Prussia, is situated on the left bank of the Vistula, about 5 miles from its mouth. It is surrounded with ramparts, but a more effectual desence consists
in the power of laying the country on one side under water, and of resisting assailants on the other from fortified heights.' The harbor is formed by the mouth of the Vistula, and is also defended by forts. The commerce of Dantzic is very extepsive, and consists chiefly in the export of corn, potash, timber, hemp, flax, &c. from Prussia and Poland, and the import of merchandise from all parts of Europe. The population is 52,821.
Cologne, in the province of Cleves-Berg, is situated in a flat counéry, on the left bank of the Rhine, and is built in the form of a crescent, close to the river. The walls have a number of tow. ers, and form a circuit of nearly 7 miles The streets are in general narrow, winding and gloomy, and the houses ill-built. Cologne carries on considerable commerce, and is celebrated for the manufacture of the famous Cologne water. The population is 51,938.
Magdeburg, in the province of Saxony, is situated in a very beautiful, though fat country, on both sides of the Elbe. It is one of the strongest fortresses in Germany, and in the citadel, which stands on an island in the river, are shown the cells where baron Trenck and La Fayette were successively confined. The manufactures of Magdeburg furnish the basis of a fourishing trade. The population in 1817 was 35,448.
Aix-la-Chapelle, celebrated for its warm baths, and for two treaties of peace concluded here, is in the province of the Lower Rhine, 36 miles W. S. W. of Cologne. It was long the favorite residence of Charlemagne, and for some time the capital of his empire. It is now distinguished for the manufacture of fine broad cloth and needles. The population is 32,300.
Stettin, on the left bank of the Oder, 60 miles from its mouth, carries on an extensive trade, consisting principally of the export of the manufactures of Silesia, and he import of colonial goods and foreign fabrics required by that province as well as by Berlin and some other towns in Brandenburg.
Vessels of more than 100 tons are obliged to stop at Swinemunde, at the mouth of the river. The population is 25,000.
Potsdam is 15 miles W. S. W of Berlin, on the north bank of the Havel, which here spreads its waters in one expanse after another, like a succession of small lakes. Potsdam is to Berlin what Versailles is to Paris, having been since the close of the 17th century, the occasional residence of the court, bui indebted for its chief improvements to Frederick II. The streets are regular and spacious, and in some of them the houses resemble rows of palaces. The royal palace on the bank of the Havel is a magnificent structure. The town is surrounded by a wall and ditch; the population in 1818 was 23,642.
Halle, in the province of Saxony, on both sides of the Saale, 56 miles S. by E. of Magdeburg, is chiefly celebrated for its literary institutions, particularly its university. In one of the suburbs is the orphan-house, and Canstein's establishment for printing the Scriptures, erected in 1712, which is said to have produced since
that time nearly 1,000,000 testaments, and 2,000,000 bibles. Population, including the suburbs 25,000.
Frankfort-on-the-Oder is a place of considerable trade, having three annual fairs. It contains 15,453 inhabitants. Elbing, near the mouth of the Nogat or eastern arm of the Vistula, 30 miles S. E. of Dantzic, exports large quantities of Prussian and Polish produce. It contains 13,000 inhabitants. Stralsund is a commer. cial town on the strail which separates the island of Rugen from the main land, and contains 15,876 inhabitants Erfurt, on the Gera, 12 miles W. of Weimar, is in a territory almost detached from the rest of the Prussian dominions, and contains 18,000 inhabitants. Wittenberg, on the Elbe, 60 miles N. of Dresden, is celebrated as the residence of Martin Luther, and in one of the churches lie his remains and those of Melancthon. Naumburg, 28 miles W. S. W..of Leipsic, has two yearly fairs. Population, 12,000.
Coblentz is in a delightful country at the confluence of the Moselle and Rhine, opposite the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein. The situation is highly favorable fer trade, as it has a direct intercourse with France by the Moselle, and with Germany and Switzerland by the Rhine. The population is 10,500. Dusseldorf, on the Rhine, 20 miles below Cologne, contains 19,000 inhabitants. Munster, on the small river Aa. about 6 miles from its junction wiih the Ems, contains 14,000 inbabitants. Treves, on the Moselle, has 12,750 inhabitants. Bonn, on the Rhine, 14 miles ahove Cologne, has a university established in 1818 and 10,000 inhabitants. Cleves, in the province of Cleves-Berg, is a nearly built town 25 miles from the west bank of the Rline, contajning 5,000 inhabitants. Elberfeld, 20 miles N. E. of Cologne, is extensively engaged in manufactures of various kinds. Population 18,000.
Posen the capital of the province of the same name, is on the Warta, 144 miles E. of Berlin, and contains 22,700 inhabitants. Thorn, on the Vistula, 70 miles S. of Dantzic, is famous as the birth-place of Copernicus. It contains 9,000 inhatitants.
Education.] In respect to the cultivation of literature, Prussia holds a high rank among the European states. There is an academy of sciences at Berlin, established hy. Frederick Il. and associ. ations of a similar nature, but on a smaller scale, are estal 1.shed in most of the great towns. The most celebrated universities are at Halle, Berlin, Breslau and Konigsberg; and in many other towns there are colleges or higher schools for instruction in mathematics and the ancient and modern languages. The elementary schools in Brandenburg, Saxony, and part of Prussia proper are numerous and in general well conducted.
Population and Religion.] The population of the Prussian states, in 1818, according to Hassel was 10,154,549, of which number 50,800 were in Newfchatel, an 250,000 in the army. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran, but that of the royal family is Calvinistic. All sects enjoy.equal rights. The number of the principal depominations a few years since, was as follows ; Lu
therans 6,100,000, Calvinists 350,000, Catholics, 3,500,000, Jews 75,000. In the year 1817 the Lutherans and Calvinists of the Prussian states agreed to lay aside their distinguishing appellations, and to unite in one body under the name of Evangelical Cbristians This praise worthy example will probably be followed in several of the Protestant states.
Government.! Prussia had formerly a representative body under the name of states The powers and privileges of the nobility were also very extensive. By degrees the power of the crown, acting with the vigor of unity and concentration, reduced that of the aristocracy; and the sovereign found means to conduct the public business without the intervention of states, so that the government during the 18th century was an absolute monarchy. Recently, however, the people have manifested an anxious de sire for the restoration of ihe states, and this has been promised by the king, but as yet (1820) nothing satisfactory bas been done.
Debt. Revenue and Army.] The public debt amounts to about £10,000,000 sterling T'he revenue is about £6,000,000. The army exceeds 150.000 men, but the whole number of men con. nected with the military establishment, according to Hassel, is 250,000.
Manufactures. The manufactures bave been patronized to an extraordinary extent by the government, and are in a very flourishing condition. Many articles are produced in greater abundance than is necessary for the supply of ihe country, and furnish a large surplus for exportation. The most industrious provinces are Cleves-Berg, Silesia, Brandenburg, Saxony and some parts of Westphalia. The principal manufactures are linen, of which Sile. sia alone produces to the value of several million dollars ; woollen goods, for which Silesia is also the most distinguished ; and iron ware, which is the staple in Cleves-Berg. Besides these three principal articles, there are cotton goods, leather, tobacco, and numerous others of less imporance. Berlin is more distinguisbed for its manufactures than any other city, and is particularly famous for silk, porcelain and cotton goods.
Commerce.] The situation of Prussia on the Baltic, the many navigable rivers and canals by which it is traversed, and the fine roads which connect the principal towns in the interior, are very favorable to commerce. The foreign trade, however, is not ex. tensive, but there is a very active internal commerce. The principal seaports are Dantzic, Stettin, Konigsberg, Elbing and Stralsund. The principal places of trade in the interior are Berlin, Breslau, Magdeburg. Aix la-Chapelle, Coblentz, Cologne, Mun. ster, Naumburg and Frankfort-on-the-Oder. The exports are linen, corn, wool, timber, pitch, tar, potash, &c. and the value of the whole may be estimated on an average at £7,000,000 or £8,000,000. The principal trade is with Great Britain.
Island. The island of Rugen is opposite Stralsund on the coast of Pomerania, from which it is separated by a channel about a mile broad. It contains 360 square miles and 28,000 inhabitants, and formerly belonged to Sweden, byt was ceded to Prussia in 1814.