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is 5,000. Eisenach, 40 miles W. of Weimar, in one of the detached territories of the grand dutchy, contains 8,000 inhabitants.

X. The Dutchy of Saxe-GOTHA consists of two principalities nearly equal in extent. 1. The principality of Gotha, which is surrounded by the Prussian states, Saxe-Weimar, SchwartzburgRudolstadt, Saxe-Meinungen and Hesse-Cassel; and 2. The principality of Altenburg, which is made up of several detached terria tories, the largest of which lies on the Pleiss and is surrounded by the kingdom of Saxony, the Prussian states, Saxe-Weimar and Reuss. The whole dutchy contains 1188 square miles, and 185,682 inhabitants, a majority of whom are Lutherans. The power of the duke is limited by a diet. Gotha, the capital, is 31 miles W. of Weimar. The castle, in which the duke resides, contains a library of 60,000 volumes. Population 11,600. Altenburg, the capital of the principality of the same name, is on the Pleisse, 20 miles S. of Leipsic, and contains 10,000 inhabitants.

XI. The Dutchy of Saxe-COBURG consists principally of three territories detached from each other. 1. The principality of Coburg which is surrounded by Bavaria, Saxe Meinungen, Rudolstadt and Saxe-Hildburghausen. 2. The principality of Saalfeld, which lies between Rudolstadt and Reuss. 3. The newly-acquired lordship of Baumholder, on the west side of the Rhine, between the Bavarian circle of the Rhine, the Prussian territories, and the small districts belonging to Oldenburg and Hesse:Homburg. These three divisions are nearly equal in extent and population, and contain in all 594 square miles and 80,012 inbabitants. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran in the two first divisions, and Roman Catholic in the lordship of Baumholder. Coburg, the capital, is on the Itz, a branch of the Maine, and contains 7000 inhabitants. Saalfeld, on the Saale, 20 miles N. N. E. of Coburg, contains 3,100 inhabitants.

XII. The Dutchy of Saxe-Meinungen consists of two separate territories, the largest of which lies along the Werra and the Bavarian boundary, and the other in the Thuringerwald between Saxe-Coburg and Rudolstadt. Together they contain 400 square miles and 54,400 inhabitants. Meinungen, the capital, is on the Werra, and contains 4,200 inhabitants.

XIII. The Dutchy of Saxe-HILDBURGHAUSEN lies on the south side of the Thuringerwald, around the sources of the Werra. It contains 240 square miles and 27,706 inbabitants. Hildburghausen, the capital, is on the Werra, 20 miles N. W. ef Coburg and contains 2,500 inhabitants. XIV. The ScHWARTZBURG PRINCIPALITIES.

1. Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, which lies on the sides of the Thuringerwald, and is surrounded by the Prussian territories and the dominions of the house of Saxe. It contains 484 square miles and 53,937 inbabitants. Rudolstadt, the chief town, is on the Saale, and contains 4,100 inhabitants. 2. Schwartzburg Sondershausen lies further north, and is entirely surrounded by the Prussian territories. It contains 506 square miles, and 45,117 inhabitants.

These are,

XV. LIPPE-DETMOLD. This principality lies south of the Weser, on the borders of the kingdom of Hanover and the western divia sion of the Prussian states. Il contains 440 square miles, and 69,062 inhabitants. Detinold, the capital, contains 2,400 inbab itants.

XVI. SCHAUENBURG-LIPPE, a principality composed of parts of the counties of Schauenburg and Lippe, lies principally on the north side of the Weser, and is almost surrounded by the kingdom of Hanover. It contains 220 square miles and 24,000 inhabitants.

XVII. The Principality of Anhalt is wholly surrounded by the Prussian dominions. The Elbe passes through it, and here receives the Mulda and the Saale. The surface is almost entirely level and the soil fertile. Anbalt is at present divided into three parts, belonging to ihree different branches of the reigning family, and each division is called a dutchy, and takes its name from its priocipal town. 1. Anhalt-Dessau contains 374 square miles and 52,947 inhabitants. Dessau, the chief town, is on the Mulda pear its jonction with the Elbe, and contains 4,200 inhabitants. 2. Anhalt-Bernburg contains 352 square miles and 37,046 inhabitants. Bernburg, the principal town, is on the Saale and contains 4,800 inhabitants. 3. Anhalt-Cothen contains 330 square miles and 32,454 inhabitants. Cothen, the chief town, contains 5,200 inhabitants.

XVIII. The Principality of Reuss. This territory lies on the Saale and the Elster, and is surrounded by Saxony, Bavaria and the territories of the Saxe dutchies. It contains 629 square miles and 74,460 inhabitants. The princes of Reuss are of a very old family, repeatedly divided and subdivided into lesser branches. At present it consists of two principal lines, the elder and the younger. The elder or Reuss-Greitz line possesses 154 square miles and 22,255 inhabitants. Greitz, the chief town, has 5,000 inhabitants. 2. The younger line is subdivided into, a. The Schleitz line. b. Che Lobenstein-Lobenstein line. c. The Lobenstein-Ebers. dorf line. d. The Gera line, which is now extinct. All these take their names from the principal towns. The four branches of the younger line possess 475 square miles and 52,205 inhabitants, and are together entitled to only one vote in the general assembly at the diet of Frankfort.

XIX. T'he Principality of WALDECK consists of the counties of Waldeck and Pyrmont; the former of which lies between HesseCassel and the Prussian territories, and the latter, near the Weser, between Lippe-Detmold and the kingdom of Hanover, Waldeck contains 477 square miles and 51,877 inhabitants.

XX. HOHENZOLLERN is a small principality in the S. W. of Ger many, on both sides of the Danube, and surrrounded by Wirtemberg and Baden. It is divided between two branches of the reigning family into, 1. Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, which contains 440 square miles and 35,360 inhabitants. 2. Hohenzollern-Hechingen, which contains 110 square miles and 14,500 inhabitants.

XXI. The Principality of LICHTENSTEIN lies on the Rhine before it enters the lake of Constance, and is bounded on the E. and S. by the Austrian territories. It contains 55 square miles and 5,546 inhabitants,


i Hamburg, the greatest commercial city in Germany, stands on the north bank of the Elbe, about 80 miles from its mouth. The Elbe, expanded by the tide, is here from 3 to 6 miles broad, and receives from the north the Alster, which flows into it, after forming a basin and several islands within the city. Hamburg covers a large extent of ground, but nearly a third of the space included by the walls is occupied by canals, piers, and the basin formed by the Alster. The streets of the town are narrow, crowded and irregular, and the houses awkward and old-fashioned. Several manufactures are prosecuted here to a great extent, particularly the refining of sugar, and the printing of cotton, linen and handkerchiefs. The foreign trade extends to almost every part of the world. The internal trade, by means of the Elbe, extends to Saxony, and even to Bohemia. There is also a canal from the Alster to the Trave, which opens a coromunication with the Baltic.

The established religion in Hamburg is Lutheran, but complete toleration prevails. The government is an aristocracy, checked by the authority of the citizens at large. The aristocratic part consists of the senate to the number of 28, who receive an annual salary, and constitute the executive power. They have no hereditary right, but they have the privilege of electing their own members. The citizens act by delegation. The senate alone can propose a law, its adoption or rejection rests with the representatives of the citizens. The territory of Hamburg contains 140 square miles It consists of the city and a small district lying around it, of the town and bailiwic of Cuxhaven, at the mouth of the Elbe, and several villages scattered in the dutchy of Holstein. The population is 129,800, of whom 115,000 are within the city. Hamburg is connected with Frankfort, Lubeck and Bremen, in some commercial regulations; and they still retain the old name of Hanse-towns.

2. Bremen is 54 miles S. W. of Hamburg, on the Weser, by which it is divided into two parts, called the old and new towns, both of which are fortified. The harbor is at a place called Elfsleth, 6 miles nearer the sea. The trade of Bremen is extensive, and is in part founded on its manufactures of refined sugar, cotton and woollen cloths, &c. but chiefly on the exportation of the produce of the countries lying on the Weser, and the importation of such foreign goods as find a market in these parts of Germany. The territory of Bremen contains 77 square miles, and 48,500 inhabitants, of whom 37,700 are within the city.

3. Frankfort-on-the-Maine, now the permanent seat of the Germanic diet, is situated on both sides of the Maine, about 20 miles above its influx into the Rhine. Frankfort was formerly fortified, but most of its outworks are now converted into gardens and promenades. The commerce of the town is very extensive, and is greatly promoted by the navigation of the Rhine and Maine, as well as by the two great fairs held here annually in spring and autumn, at which merchandise of all kinds, and from all parts of Europe are offered for sale. The territory of Frankfort contains 110 square miles, and 47,850 inhabitants, of whom 41,000 are within the city. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran. There are, however, 8,000 or 9,000 Jews, who formerly lived in a separate quarter of the city, blocked up at one end, and regularly shut at night, but they are now allowed to live in other parts of the town, though not yet entirely exempted from vexatious treatment.

4. Lubeck is 36 miles N. E. of Hamburg, on the Trave, a navigable river which joins the Baltic about 8 miles below. Its harbor is properly at Travemunde, at the mouth of the river, where ships drawing more than 10 feet water discharge part of their cargo. The trade of Lubeck consists chiefly in the export of corn from the adjoining country, and the import of wine and British manufactures; the whole to no great amount, Hamburg baring great advantages, from its easier access to the ocean, and more extensive communication with the interior. The territory of Lubeck contains 120 square miles, and 40,650 inhabitants, of whom 25,500 are in the city. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran.


Situation and Extent.] The Prussian states consist principally of two territories, entirely detached from each other. The eastern and much the largest division is bounded N. by the Baltic; E. by Russia and the new kingdom of Poland; S. by Austria, the kingdom of Saxony, and the Saxe dutchies; and W. by HesseCassel, Hanover, Brunswick, and Mecklenburg. The western division is bounded N. by the Netherlands and Hanover; E. by Waldeck, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt, and the Bavarian circle of the Rhine; S. by France, and W. by the Netherlands There is besides, the canton of Neufchatel in Switzerland, which is subject to Prussia. The eastern division contains 87,169 square miles, the western division 18,271, and the canton of Neufchatel 330; in all, 105,770.

Divisions.) Prussia was divided, by a decree of 20th April 1815, into 10 provinces, each of which is again subdivided into two or

more governments, which derive their names from their chief towns. The number of governments is 28, and each is subdivided into 8, 10, 12 Ởr more districts.

Provinces, Sq. miles. Population. Pop. on a sq. m. Chief towns. 1. East Prussia, 15,884 855,244

54 Konigsberg. 2. West Prussia, 10,373 560,128 54 Dantzic. 3. Brandenburg, 15,471 1,191,121 77 Berlin. 4. Pomerania, 12,815 665,836 52 Stettin. 5. Silesia, 15,400 2,017,057 131 Breslau, 6. Posen,

7,040 544,641 77 Posen. 7. Saxony, 10),186 1,148,041 112 Magdeburg 8. Westphalia, 7,832 991,899 127 Munster, 9. Cleves & Berg, 3,773 908,185 240 Cologne, 10. Lower Rhine, 6,666 971,597 146 Aix-la-Chapelle

105,440 9,853,749 Add Neufchatel, 330 50,800

93 154


105,770 9,904,519


Face of the Country.) The eastern division formy an extensive plain, skirted on its southern border by the high Sudetic mountains in Silesia, and in the province of Saxony by the Thuringerwald and the Hartz. The western division is traversed by ranges of rough hills and mountains, particularly in the part on the east side of the Rhine. Along the coast of the Baltic, in Pomerania, the land is so low that dikes are necessary to protect the country from inundation.

Sca-coast.] The Baltic washes the northern coast for more than 400 miles, and in this distance receives several considerable rivers. At the mouths of all the principal rivers there are large lakes or bodies of fresh water called Haffs, which communicate with the Baltic through narrow strajts. The first is the Kurische Haff, on the coast of East Prussia at the mouth of the Niemen. It is 70 miles long and 30 broad, and is separated from the Baltic by a long narrow tract of land, but communicates with it through a narrow strait at Memel. 2. The Frische Haff, at the mouth of the Vistula, is 70 miles long and 14 broad, and communicates with the Baltic through a narrow strait at Pillau. 3. The Haff, sometimes called the Stettin Haf, on the coast of Pomerania, at the mouth of the Oder, communicates with the Baltic through three straits formed by the islands of Woliin and Usedom and the shore.

Rivers. The principal rivers, beginning in the east, are.. 1. The Niemen or Memel, which rises in Russia, and flowing N. of W. discharges itself into the Kurische Haff through two mouths. 2. The Vistula, which rises in Austrian Silesia, in the Carpaibian, mountains, and after passing by the free city of Cracow, flows through Galicia and the new kingdom of Poland, and enters Prussia near the city of Thorn, whence it proceeds in a northerly di

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