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have been repeatedly the scene of military conflicts. The most celebrated was that between the French and the allies on the 16th October 1813. The opposing armies were among the greatest of which we read in authenticated history: the allies were 240,000 strong, the French were 160,000. The latter were defeated with the loss of 40,000 or 50,000 men. The population of Leipsic is 33,000.

Freyberg, 20 miles S. W. of Dresden, is a celebrated mining town, and the residence of the officers who have the superintendance of all the mines throughout the kingdom. A mining academy was established here in 1765 which has been rendered famous by the pames of Werner, Charpentier, Lampe and others. The whole of the neighboring district is full of mines; those in a state of activity amount to 250 and employ about 5,000 workmen. The population of the town is 9,000. Meissen, on the Elbe, 15 miles N. W. of Dresden, is celebrated for its porcelain manufacture. It has 6,000 inhabitants. Plauen, in the S. W. part of the kingdom, has extensive muslin manufactures, which extend to the towns in its vicinity. Population 6,000. Bautzen, on the Spree, 30 miles E. N. E. of Dresden, is celebrated for the bloody battle fought in its vicinity in June ș813, between the French and allies. It has 11,000 inhabitants.

Population, Religion and Education. The population is 1,200,000, and the country is more thickly settled than any other state in Germany except Wirtemberg and Baden. The great majority of the inhabitants are of the Lutheran religion, but the reigning family are Catholics. The institutions for education are numerous and well conducted, it being a common remark that in no country except Scotland and some parts of Switzerland are the lower classes so generally taught to read and write. The Saxons have also cultivated literature and the elegant arts with more success than any other people in Germany, and in no' country of equal extent is the number of printing and bookselling establishments so great. The university at Leipsic is one of the most frequented of the German universities, although it perhaps yields the palm to Gottingen in the reputation of its professors. The number of students varies from 900 to 1,200. The number of regular professors is 27, exclusive of extra professors, private lecturers, and teachers of the living languages and fashionable exercises.

Government, &c.] Saxony is a kingdom, and the power of the sovereign is limited by the states, without whose consent no law can be made, and no tax imposed. The revenue amounts to £850,000, and the public debt is stated at £3,700,000. The army on the present peace establishment amounts to 12,000 men,

Manufactures and Commerce.] Saxony is more distinguished for its manufactures than any other part of Europe, except EngJand, the Netherlands and the north of France. The principal article is linen, which is manufactured in almost every village in the kingdom, but particularly in Upper Lusatia. Woollens are

likewise manufactured in a number of towns. Cotton spinning and weaving acquired a rapid extension towards the close of the last century, and have of late years been benefitted by the introduction of improved machinery. The manufactures connected with the mines are of considerable exient, particularly at Freyberg. The principal exports from Saxony besides manufactured articles are wool and minerals.

SMALLER GERMAN STATES.

I. THE GRAND DUTCHY OF Baden. This country lies in the S. W. corner of Germany, along the Rhine, which separates it on the S. from Switzerland, and on the W. from France and the Bavarian circle of the Rhine ; on the N. it is bounded by HesseDarmstadt and Bavaria, and on the E. by the kingdom of Wirtemberg. The surface is in some parts mountainous, but is made up principally of fertile and well-cultivated vallies which supply the inhabitants with all the necessaries of life, and furnish corn,

iood and wine for exportation.

The population iş 1,000,000, of whom 600,000 are Catholics, 300,000 Lutherans, and the remainder principally Calvinists. The government is monarchical; the title of the sovereign is Grand Duke, and since 1818 bis power has been limited by the states, which are divided into two chambers.

Chief Towns.] Carlsruhe, the residence of the grand duke and his court, is a beautiful town, about 3 miles from the Rhine, in lat. 49° N. It is laid out on a regular plan with streets diverging from a centre in the form of radii. The houses are almost all of stone, and the population is 15,000. Manheim, situated at the confluence of the Neckar with the Rhine, is also regularly laid out, and is said to be the most beautiful town in Germany. It contains 18,000 inhabitants. Heidelberg, on the Neckar, 10 miles from its mouth, is celebrated for its university, which has 26 professors and between 500 and 600 students. Of late it has been liberally patronised by the government, and its reputation as a place of education is increasing. The population of the town is 10,000. There is another university at Freyburg with 300 students. Constance is situated on the lake of Constance, at the point where the Rhine flows from the upper into the lower lake. It has 4,500 inhabitants.

II. HESSE-Darmstadt or the Grand DUTCHY OF Hesse. This state consists of two distinct territories, detached from each other, one lying on the north and the other on the south side of the Maine. The northern division is bounded on the north, east and south by Hesse-Cassel, on the S. W. by the territory of the free eity of Frankfort, and on the west hy Nassau apd part of Prussia. The southero division lies along the Maine and on both sides of the Rhine, and is bounded N. by Nassau, the territory of Frankfort, and Hesse-Cassel ; E. by Bavaria ; S. by Baden ; S. W. by

the Bavarian circle of the Rhine, and N. W. by a part of Prussie. The two parts are nearly equal in extent and contain together 4,246 square miles. The surface is more mountainous than level, yet in many parts it is very fertile, particularly in the pari on the west side of the Rhine. The population is 619,500, of whom the greatest proportion are Luiherans; there are, however, a num. ber of Catholics and Calvinists; also a few Jews.

The governo ment is a monarchy limited by the states, but they have not for a long time been assembled, and although the grand duke has recently promised to restore them, no step for that purpose has as yet (1820) been taken.

Chief Towns.] Darmstadt, the capital, is a neat town, 14 miles S. of Frankfort-on-the-Maine, and contains 18,000 inhabitants. Alentz, the largest town, is on the west bank of the Rhine, immediately below the influx of the Maine. It is built in the form of a semicircle, of which the Rhine forms the diameter, and is the strongest fortress in Germany. The greatest defect of the works is their extent, which is such as to require a garrison of 30,000 men. The population of the town is 25,000. Giessen, the larg. est town in the northern division of the grand dutchy, is 36 miles N. E. of Mentz, and has a university and 8,000 inhabitants. Offenbach, the largest manufacturing town, is on the south bank of the Maine, 4 miles above Frankfort, and has 9,000 inhabitants. Worms, celebrated as the place where the reformation commenced in 1525, is on the west side of the Rhine, 25 miles S. of Mentz.

III. HESSE-CASSEL. This state is bounded on the N. E. by Hanover and Prussia ; E. by Weimar and Bavaria ; S. by Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt; W. by Hesse-Darmstadt; and N. W. by a part of Prussia and Waldeck. Besides the country included in these boundaries there are two small detached territories belonging to Hesse-Cassel. 1. The lordship of Schmalcalden, lying to the east, in the Thuringerwald, surrounded by the Saxe duichies. 2. The lordship of Schauenburg, lying to the north, on ihe Weser, surrounded by Lippe and the kingdom of Hanover. The whole area is 4,422 square miles, of which the lordship of Schmalcalden contains 121, and the lordship of Schauenburg 200. The surface is generally mountainous, interspersed with some ter tile vallies. The principal productions are grain, potatoes, tlax and hemp; and near the southern boundary the vine is extensively cultivated. The mountains abound with wood, and in the lordship of Schmalcalden with many valuable metals and minerals. The populution is 540,000, a majorily of whom are Calvinists. The government is a monarchy limited by the states, which consist of the prelates, the nobles and the representatives of the towns and peasants. The title of the sovereign is “ Elector of Hesse, and grand duke of Fulda."

Chief Towns] Cassel, the capital, is in the northern part of the electorate, on the Fulda. It contains 18,000 inbabitants. Fulda, the capital of the territory from which the sovereign takes the title of grand duke, is on ihe river Fulda, and contains 7,500

inhabitants. Hanau, the largest manufacturing tonn and the chiei commercial piace of Hesse-Cassel, is situated on the Kinzig not far from its junction with the Maine, 13 miles E. of Frank fort-on-the-Maine, in the midst of one of the most fertile districts in Germany. It contains 12,000 inhabitants. Schmalcalden, the capital of the lordship of the same name, is 50 miles S.E. of Cassei, in lat. 50° 47' N. lon. 10° 26' E. Marburg, on the Lahn, 45 miles S. W. of Cassel, has a university and 6,500 inhabitants.

IV. Hesse-HOMBURG. This is a small principality, containing oniy 132 square miles and 20,000 inhabitants, and belonging, with the title of landgrave, to a younger branch of the family of HesseDarmstadt. Small as it is, however, it consists of two detached territories, viz. the county of Homburg, lying on the east side of the Rhine, 8 or 9 miles N. of Frankfort-on-the-Maine, and the lordship of Meisenheim situated west of the Rhine, between tbe Bavarian circle of the Roine and the Prussian territories.

V. MECKLENBURG. This territory is bounded N. by the Baltic ; E. and S. by the Prussian states ; S. W. by the kingdom of Hanover, from which it is separated by the Elbe ; and W. by the dutchy of Lauenburg and the territory of the free ciry of Lul eck. It is divided into two grand dutchies, which are named, after their principal towns, Mecklenburg-Schwerio and Mecklenburg-Strelitz. l'he former, which is much the largest, contains 4,928 square miles and 358,000 inhabitants ; the latter,'902 square miles and 71,769 inhabitants. The principal production is corn of which considerable quantities are exported. The inhabitants are almost entirely Lutherans. The principal towns in Mecklenburg-Schwerin are, Schwerin, which lies on the west side of a lake of the same name, 60 miles E. of Hamburg, and contains 8,500 inhabitants; and Rostock, on the Warnow, 8 miles from its mouth, a place of flourishing trade, with a university and 13,000 inhabitants. The chiet town in Mecklenburg-Strelitz is Strelitz, which lies in the S. E. part of the territory, near i he Prussian boundary.

VI. The Dutchy of Nassat. This territory lies in the west of Germany, and is bounded N. by a part of Prussia ; E by HesseCassel, Hesse-Homburg, and Hesse Darmstadt; S. by Hesse-Darmstadt, and W. by a part of Prussia, from which it is separated by the river Rhine. The area is estimated at 2,225 square miles. The face of the country is mountainous and hilly. The rivers are the Rhine, the Maine and the Labn. The culture of the vine and the rearing of cattle form the chief employments of the inhabitants. The population is 302,767, of whom about one half are Protestants and one half Catholics. The power of the sovereign is limited by the states.

VII. The Grand Dutchy of OLDENBURG lies in the N. W. part of Germany, and is bounded N. by the German ocean ; E. by Hanover and the territory of the free city of Bremen; S. and W. by Hanover. The Weser forms part of the eastern boundary. There are besides, two small detached territories, viz. 1. The

principality of Eutin, lying a little north of Lubec and surrounded on all sides by the dutchy of Holstein, and 2. the lordship of Birkenfeld, lying west of the Rhine, along the Nahe, near the boundary between the Bavarian circle of the Rhine and the Prussian territory. The area of the whole is estimated at 2.640 square miles, of which the principality of Eutin contains 200 and the lordship of Birkenfeld 170. The surface of Oldenburg proper is level, and near the coast so low that dikes are necessary to prevent inundation from the sea. The principal productions are horses, cattle, flax, hemp and hops. The population is 217,769. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran. The power of the grand duke is as yet (1820) unlimited, he having delayed to convoke a representative assembly, though bound to do so. Oldenburg, the capital, is on the river Hunte, 76 miles W. S.W. of Hamburg, and contains 5,000 inhabitants.

VIII. The Dutchy of Brunswick consists chiefly of two detached territories lying between the two divisions of the Prussian dominions, and separated from each other by a part of the kingdom of Hanover, which also forms the boundary of both divisions on the north, and of the western division on the south. The area of the whole is estimated at 1,562 square miles. The northern division is level and has a fertile soil ;, the southern division lies partly on the Hartz, and is rich only in minerals. The population is 209,600, principally Lutherans. The power of the sovereign is limited by the states.

Chief Towns:] Brunswick, the capital, is situated on the Ocker, a branch of the Aller. It has 30,000 inhabitants and a college with 20 professors. The manufactures are numerous, and the trade extensive, particularly at the great Brunswick fairs which are held twice in the year, and next to those of Leipsic and Frankfort are the most important in Germany. Wolfenbuitel, on the Ocker, 7 miles S. of Brunswick, formerly the residence of the dukes of Brunswick, has 7,000 inhabitants.

IX. The Grand Dutchy of Saxe-WEIMAR consists of several detached territories in the centre of Germany, the largest of which lies on the Saale, and is surrounded by Saxe-Gotha, the Prussian territories, and Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt. The whole contains 1,450 square miles and 201,000 inhabitants, who are principally Lutherans. The title of the sovereign is grand duke, and his power is limited by the states, without whose consent no law can be made and no taxes levied.

Chief Towns.] Weimar, the capital, is on the Ilm, a branch of the Saale, 46 miles S. W. of Leipsic. It is telebrated as a seat of literature, owing to the liberal patronage of the grand ducal family. The palace of the grand duke contains a library of 100,000 volumes, a cabinet of medals, a museum, and a gallery of paintings. Jena, on the Saale, is celebrated for its university, which has more than 30 professors and 600 students, and also for the great battle of the 14th October 1806 between the French and Prussians, in which the former were victorious. The population

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