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Lucern, each alternately, for two years at a time. The diet assembles in the capital of the canton, which for the time being, is the substitute. In the decision of all questions each canton has one vote. There is no standing army, but when an army is wanted, each canton furnishes a certain number of soldiers according to its population, the contingent being two men for every 100 souls. Each canton also contributes to the public treasury a fixed proportion of the revenue. All powers not expressely delegated to the diet are reserved to the cantons respectively, each of which is an independent state, having its own constitution. Some of the cantons are aristocratical and others democratical republice. Neufchatel belongs to the king of Prussia, but has a republican constitution.

Manufactures and Commerce.] The Swiss are a very industrious people, particularly in the northern and western cantons. The principal manufactures are cotton and silk goods, which are of a very tine quality and employ many laborers; and next to these in importance are paper, lace, linen, and watches. With these manufactures and with cheese, butter, and black cattle the inhabitants carry oo an active trade with Germany, Italy and France. The principal places of trade are Geneva, Zurich, Schaffhausen, Basil, Berne and St. Galle.


Situation, and Extent.] Germany is bounded N. by the North sea, the kingdom of Denmark (from which it is separated by the river Eyder) and the Baltic; E. by the Prussian provinces of West Prussia and Posen, the kingdom of Poland, the free city of Cracow, and the kingdoms of Galicia and Hungary ; S. by the guif of Venice and Italy; S.W. by Switzerlanti, and W. by France and the kingdom of the Netherlands. It extends from 45° to 55 N. lat. and from 5° 40' to 19° 20' E. lon. The area is computed at 256,000 square miles.

Divisions.] Germany, or the country united under the Germanic confederation, embraces the greater part of the dominions of the king of Prussia, about one third of the dominions of the emperor of Austria, the dutchies of Holstein and Lauenburg, belonging to the king of Denmark; the grand dutchy of Luxemburg belonging to the king of the Netherlands; the kingdom of Hanover, of which his Britanic majesty takes the title of king ; together with 30 independent states, governed by native German prinees, and four free cities. The extent, population and reve. que of each are given in the following table.


Sq, miles. Population Pop. on a


in 1818. sq. mile. in pounds sterling. 1. Austria,

80,894 9,482,227 117 £6,370,000 2. Prussia, 71,324 7,923,439 111 4.300,000 3. Bavaria,

31,966 3,560,000 111 1,800,000 4. Wirtemberg, 8,118 1,395,463 172 1,000,000 5. Hanover, 15,004 1,305,351 87 900,000 6. Saxony, 7,436 1,200,000 161

850.000 7. Baden, 5,984 1,000,000 167

550,000 8. Hesse-Darmstadt, 4,246 619,500 146

370,000 9. Hesse-Cassel, 4,422 540,000 122

380.000 10. Holstein and 3,619 360,000 100

200,000 Lauenburg, 11 Mecklenburg4,928 358,000 73

150,000 Schwerini, 12. Mecklenburg



50,000 Strelitz, 13. Nassau, 2,225 302,767 136

170,000 14. Oldenburg, 2.640 217,769 82

150,000 15. Luxemburg, 2,420 214,058 88

120,000 16. Brunswick, 1,562 209,600 134

180,000 17. Saxe-Weimar, 1,450 201,000 138

150,000 18. Saxe-Gotha, 1,188 185,682 156

150,000 19. Saxe-Coburg, 594 80,012 134

55,000 20. Saxe-Meinungen, 400 54,400 136

35,000 21. Saxe-Hildburg

240 27,706


20,000 hausen, 22. Schwartzburg484 53,937 111

22,000 Rudolstadt, 23. Schwartzburg506 45,117 89

25,000 Sonderhausen, 24. Lippe-Detmold, 440 69,062 157

50,000 25. Schauenburg-Lippe 220 24,000 109

18,000 26. Anhalt-Dessau, 374 52,947 141

60,000 27. Anhalt-Bernburg, 352 37,046 105

30,000 28. Anhalt-Cothen, 330 32,454 98

23,000 29. Reuss-Lobenstein, 475 52,205 109

29,000 30. Reuss-Greitz, 154 22,255 144

13,000 31. Waldeck, 477 51,8 109

40,000 32. Hohenzollern440 35,360 80

30,000 Sigmaringen, 33. Hohenzollern110 14,500 131

8,000 Hechingen, 34. Hesse-Homburg, 132 20.000 151

17,000 35. Lichtenstein,

5,546 100

3,000 Free cities. Hamburg,

129,800 927

120,000 Bremen, 77 48,500 629

40,000 Frankfort,

47,850 435

60,000 Lubeck, 120 40,650 338




256,000 30,091,849



Situation of the States.] The Austrian part of Germany, which includes Bohemia, Moravia, the 'Tyrol, &c. is in the S. E. and covers nearly one third of the whole territory. The Prussian dominions are in two detached portions ; the eastern, and much the largest division, occupies the N. E. part of Germany, the western division lies on both sides of the Rhine and borders upon the kingdom of the Netherlands. Ha ria, Wirtemberg, and Baden occupy the S. W. quarter of the country. Hanover, Holstein and Mecklenburg are in the N.W, Saxony is in the east, between the Prussian and Austrian dominions. Anhalt is surrounded by the Prussian territories, and Oldenburg by the kingdom of Hanover. Almost all the other states lie between the two divisions of the Prussian dominions.

Mountains.] The most mountainous section of Germany is in the S. E.; the part of Austria which lies south of the Danube being almost entirely covered with numerous branches of the Alps, which traverse the country under various names from Switzerland to the borders of Hungary.

The Sudetic chain is a branch of the Carpathian mountains. It commences on the borders of Hungary, and proceeding at first in a N. W. direction separates Silesia from Moravia and Bohemia, and then turoing to the S. W. separates Saxony from Bohemia. The part which separates Silesia frorn Bohemia is called also the Riesengebirge or Giant Mountains, and the part which separates Saxony from Bohemia the Erzgebirge or Metallic mountains. The Fichtelgebirge, a continuation of the Sudetic mountains, proceeds for a short distance in a westerly direction along ihe northern frontier of Bavaria, but soon turning to the N. W. passes through the territories of the house of Saxe and a part of the Prussian dominions under the name of the Thuringerwald. The Hartz mountains, which occupy the southern part of the kingdom of Hanover and the adjacent portion of the Prussian dominions, are the most nortberly mountains in Germany, and may be regarded as a continuation of the Thuringerwald. From the Hartz a chain proceeds in a westerly direction, under various names, across the western division of the Prussian dominions to the Rhine.

From the western termination of the Sudetic chain a branch proceeds in a S. E. direction and separates Bohemia from Bavaria, under the name of the Bohmerwald, after which it turns to the S. W. separating Bavaria from Austria and connects itself with a branch of the Alps at Salzburg.

From the Thuringerwald a branch proceeds in a S. W. direction under various names along the eastern frontiers of Hesse Cassel and Hesse Darmstadt, and through Wirtemberg and Baden to the S. W. corner of Germany. The part which lies in Baden and Wirtemberg is called the Schwarzwald or Black Forest. A braach of the Schwarzwald proceeds along the southern frontiers of Wirtemberg and Bavaria, and is connected with the Alps at Salzburg

The Vosges mountains, which lie principally in France, penetrate for a short distance into that part of Germany lying west of the Rhine. Bohemia is separated from Moravia by a chain of mountains, sometimes called the Moravian mountains.

Face of the Country.) The nortbern half of Germany is generally level, the southern half mountainous. All the country lying north of the chain of mountains wbich runs from Hungary to the Rhine under the names of Riesengebirge, Erzgebirge, Fichtelgebirge, Thuringerwald, Hartz, &c. consists of immense plains. This tract includes the great eastern division of the Prussian dominions, Mecklenburg, Holstein and Lauenburg, the kingdom of Hanover, Oldenburg, Brunswick, Anhalt, a part of Saxony and a part of the territories of the house of Saxe. Along the shores of the Baltic and the North sea, the land is so low that expensive dikes or mounds are necessary to protect the country from inundation.

In the southern half of Germany. Bohemia forms a valley or basin surrounded on all sides by high mountains, having the Erzgebirge on the N. W. the Riesengebirge on the N. E. the mountains of Moravia on the S. E. and the Bohmerwald on the S. W. The only opening is in the north where the Elbe passes into Saxony after having received the waters of all parts of ihe valley. Bavaria, together with a part of Wirtemberg, forms'another basin surrounded by mountains, having on the N. the Fichtelgebirge, on the N. E. the Bohmerwald, on the S. W. the Schwarzwald, on the S. and S. E. the chains which proceed from the Bohmerwald and Schwarzwald and unite at Salzburg, and on the W. the chain which connects the Thuringerwald with the Schwarzwald.

Rivers.) The five principal rivers of Germany are the Oder, the Elbe, the Weser, the Rhine and the Danube. 1. The Oder, rises in Moravia in the mountains on its N. E. frontier, a little above Odrau, and flowing in a N. W. direction through Silesia and several other Prussian provinces, passes by Ratibor, (where it becomes navigable) Oppein, Bieslau, Frankfort and Stettin, and discharges itself into the Baltic through three mouths, which inclose between them the two islands of Wollin and Usedom. It is navigable to Breslau for vessels of considerable burden. Its principal tributaries are the Oppa, the Neisse, the Bartsch, the Bober, and the Warthe. 2. The Elbe rises in Bohemia in the Riesengebirge mountains, and after receiving the Iser, the Moldau, and the Eger, which bring with them the tributary waters of the whole valley of Bohemia, pierces through au opening in the Erzgebirge mountains on the' northern boundary, and flows in a N. W. direction through Saxony, Prussia and Anbalt, and separating Hanover from Mecklenburg, Lauenburg and Holstein, discharges itself by a broad mouth into the North sea, after a course of 500 miles. The most important towns on its banks are Dresden, Meissen, Torgau, Wittenburg, Magdeburg, Hamburg, and Gluckstadt. It becomes navigable after the junction of the Moldau in Bohemia ; below Hamburg the navigation is difficult on account of the numerous sand-banks. Its principal tributaries after leaving Be

hemia are the Schwartz Elster, the Mulde, the Saale, and especially the Havel, one of whose tributaries is the Spree. 3. The Weser, which is formed by the union of the Fulda and Werra at Munden, near the southern extremity of the kingdom of Hanover, flows in a direction west of north between Hanover and Hesse Cassel, Brunswick and the Prussian territories, and then through Lippe, the centre of Hanover, the free city of Bremen, and along the eastern boundary of Oldenburg till it discharges itself into the North sea.

Its principal tributaries are the Aller and Hunte. 4. The Rhine rises in Switzerland and terminates in the kingdom of the Netherlands, but the intermediate part of its course is in Germany. At first it forms the boundary between Germany and Switzerland and then between Germany and France, but afterwards it rung wholly in Germany, forming the boundary between Baden and a detached territory of Bavaria, and passing through Hesse Darmstadt and the great western division of Prussia. The principal tributaries which it receives in Germany are the Neckar, which rises in the Schwarzwald, receives the tributary waters of the northern half of Wirtemberg and falls into the Rhine at Manheim ; the Maine, which rises in the Fichtelgebirge, in the N. E. part of Bavaria, and running west receives the Regnitz from the sonth, and in its zigzag course passes by Schweinfurt, Wurze burg, Aschaffenburg, Hanau, and Frankfort, and discharges itself into the Rhine opposite Mentz; and the Moselle, which rises in France and running through Luxemburg and the Prussian territorries joins the Rhine at:Coblente. The principal towns on the Rhine in Germany are Manbeim, Worms, Mentz, Coblentz, Bonn, Cologne, and Dasseldorf. 5. The Danube rises in the Schwarzwald in Baden, near the S. W. corner of Germany, and flowing at first in a N. E. then in a S. E. and afterwards in an easterly direction, passes through Wirtemberg, Bavaria and Austria into Hungary. Among the towns on its banks are Sigmaringen, Ulm, (where it becomes navigable) Ingolstadt, Regensburg or Ratisbon, Passau, (where it passes through the mountains) Lintz, and Vien

Its principal tributaries from the south are the Nler, the Iser, the Inn, and the Ens : from the north the Altmuhl, the Regen, and the Morava or March which brings the tributary waters of nearly the whole of Moravia.

The principal streams which are not tributary to either of the five great rivers are, 1. The Ems, which rises in the Prussian territories, and powing north through the kingdom of Hanover, discharges itself a little below Emden into the bay of Dollart at the N. W. corner of Germany. 2. The Trave, in Holstein, which passes by Lubeck and discharges itself into the Baltic at Trave: munde. 3. The Reckenitz, which forms the boundary between Mecklenburg and Pomerania and discharges itself into a bay of the Baltic.

Climate.] The climate of the different parts of Germany de: pends not simply on the latitude, but also on the situation in re, Cerence to the great mountain ranges which intersect the country,


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