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thain, which may be regarded as a branch of the Alps, com mences near Geneva at the S.W. extremity of Switzerland, and after forming the boundary between Switzerland and France, continues its course in a northerly direction under the name of the Vosges as far as the parallel of 50° N. lat. The most elevated peaks in the Jura chain are the Reculet, (5,200 feet, and the Dole (5,178 feet above the level of the sea.)
Rivers.] The four principal rivers in France are the Garonne, the Loire, the Seine and the Rhone. 1. The Garonne rises in the department of the Upper Pyrenees, and flowing on the whole in a N.W. direction, passes by Toulouse, Agen, and Bourdeaux, and discharges itself into the Atlantic ocean through two mouths after a course of more than 400 miles. It is three miles wide at its mouth, and frigates ascend as far as Bourdeaux. Its principal tributaries are the Arriege, the Tarn, the Lot and the Dordogne. After the junction of the Dordogne the river is called Gironde. 2. The Loire, the largest river in France, rises in the department of the Upper Loire, between the mountains of Sevennes and Auvergne, and flows at first in a northerly direction to the centre of the kingdom, where it turns to the west, and passing by Orleans, Blois, Tours, Angers and Nantes, falls into the Atlantic after a course of 500 miles. It is navigable to Nantes for vessels, of 70 or 30 tons, and for boats almost to its source. Its principal tributaries are the Allier, the Cher, the Indre, the Vienne, the Sevre-of-Nantes, and the Mayenne. 3. The Seine rises in the department of Cote d' Or, and flowing in a northwest direction, passes by Troyes, Paris,and Rouen, and discharges itself into the English channel, after a course of 400 miles. It admits vesa sels of considerable burden as far as Rouen, and boats to Troyes. Its principal tributaries are the Aube, the Yonne, the Marne, the Oise and the Euré. 4. The Rhone issues from the lake of Geneva in Switzerland, and pursues a S.W. course to Lyons, where it turns to the south, and passing by Vienne, Valence and Avignon, discharges itself through three mouths into the Mediterranean. It is the most rapid river in Europe, and the upward navigation can be performed only by draught or steam. Its principal tributaries are the Saone, a large river from the north which joins it at Lyons, and the Isere and Durance from the east, which bring the tributary waters of the western face of the Alps.
The smaller rivers which discharge themselves directly into the sea are, the Somme and the Orne, which fall into the English channel; the Vilaine, the Sevre-of-Niort, the Charenté and the Adour, which fall into the bay of Biscay; and the Herault and Var, which fall into the Mediterranean.
The principal rivers, whose course lies only partly in France are, 1. The Escaut or Scheldt, which rises in the department of Aisne, and flows immediately into the Netherlands. 2. The Maese, or Meuse, which rises in Upper-Marne, and passes by Neufchateau, Verdun, and Mezieres into the Netherlands. 3. The Moselle, which rises in the mountains of the Vosges, and running Morth across the S. E. corner of the Netherlands into Germany, passes by Remiremont, Epinal, Metz, and Treres, and joins the Rhiae ai Coulentz Its principal tributaries are the Meurthe aod the Sarre. 4. The Rhine for a short distance forms the boundary between France and Germany.
Canals.] The following are the principal canals. 1. The celebrated canal of Languedoc, commenced and completed in the reign of Louis XIV. at an expense of £500,000, opeos a comunication between the bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean through the southern part of the kingdom It begins on the Garonne at Toulouse and proceeds in a direction a little S. of E. to a small lake or bay communicating with the Mediterranean at Cette. It is 140 miles long, 60 feet broad, 6 feet deep, and is carried over the intervening rivers by 58 aqueducts. In one place it passes through a hill by a tunnel 500 feet long and 20 feet broad. 2. The canal of the centre, which connects the Saone with the Loire, and thus opens a commonication between the Mediterranean and the bay of Biscay through the centre of the kingdom. 3. The canals of Orleans and Briare which connect the Loire with the Seine. 4. l'he canal of St. Quentin, which connects the Somme with the Oise
Face of the Country.) The southeastern part of the kingdom and narrow tracts along the eastern and southern borders are mountainous. The rest of the country mas be called uneven and in some places billy, the surface being everywhere sufficiently varied to render the prospects interesting. Correze and the neighboring departments surpass every part of France in beauty. Hills, dales, woods, streams, lakes and scattered farms are mingled into a thousand delightful landscapes. The banks of the Seine, for 200 miles from its mouth, and of the Loire as high as Angers, are also eminently beautiful. The country east of the Rhone presents many pleasing prospects, and the course of he Isere is a scene of perpetual beauty. The Pyrenees are the most striking of the mountains, and their verdore, their forests, rocks and torrents have all the character of the sublime and beauHiful.
Climate. The eastern part of France is warmer than the westero in the same parallels. Mr. Young divides the country into four clipates. A line commencing a little north of the mouth of the Loire, and passing in an E.N.E. direction to the Netherlands through the department of the Aisne would leave a tract to the N.W. called the northern climate, in which the vine will not grow. It is considerably warmer than in England but equally moist; and produces a great variety of fine fruits. The vine climate is a space included between the northern climate and a line passing nearly parallel with the other, from the mouth of the Garonne to the Rhine through the department of the Meurthe. This is the pleasantest climate ; the air is light, pure and elastic ; and the sky is generally clear ; the summer is not fervid, and the winters are mild. The Maize Climate is broader, Its southern boundary is a line beginning on the Pyrenees in the department of the Arriege and passing through Grenoble on the
Isere to the Alps. The vine also grows here luxuriantly. The tract S. E. of this line is called the olive climate. It is much the smallest, and both vines and maize grow here abundantly. This division of France, which, with here and there a set-off, is strictly accurate, points out the eastern side of the kingdom as 2 degrees of latitude hotter than the western, or at least more favorable to vegetation.
Soil and Productions.] The northwestern section of the kingdom, including the country on both sides of the Loire below Tours, and extending on the coast almost from the mouth of the Garonne to that of the Seine, has a poor and stony soil. The northern section, which corresponds nearly with the eastern ball of the northern climate, has a rich soil, of considerable depth and of an admirable texture. The soil of the southwestern section is indifferent, except in the valley of the Garonne and its branches, where it consists of a deep, mellow, friable loam, with sufficient moisture for any culture. The eastern section, extending from the Netherlands to the Mediterranean, has a fertile soil, but is less uniformly rich than the northern.
The principal agricultural productions of the northern half of the kingdom are wheat, barley, oats, pulse, and of late in a greater degree than formerly of potatoes; in the southern half, maize, vines, mulberries, and olives. The coltivation of the vine is car ried to a very great extent, the number of acres covered by the vineyards being computed at nearly 5,000,000, or one twenty ofth part of the whole kingdom. The olive has recently suffered from gevére winters and the produce is scarcely one quarter of its for mer amount. The most important mineral is iron, which is produced in France in greater quantity than in any other country escept Great Britain. Coal also exists in great quantities and the mines are very extensively wrought.
Chief Towns.) Paris, the capital of France and one of the finest cities in the world, is situated on the Seine, which passes through the city from east to west dividing it into two nearly equal parts. It is surrounded with a wall 17 miles in circuit The houses are generally from 4 to 7 stories high, and built of freestone. Some of the streets are remarkably broad and beautiful. The Boulevards particularly, which occupy the space appropriated to the walls of the town in former ages, when its circumference did not exceed seven miles, are from 200 to 300 feet broad, and planted on each side with long rows of lofty trees. All the streets are lighted with reflecting lamps, suspended at a great þeight in the middle of the street. The finest square is the Place Vendome, an octagonal space 500 feet long and 400 broad, gurrounded by elegant stone buildings. In palaces and public structures of the first rank Paris is greatly superior to London. The Tuileries, the present royal residence, is a aoble and venesable structure extending from N. to S. above 1,000 feet. The Louvre, a quarter of a mile to the east of the Tuileries, is an ele. gant building of a square form, with a large interior court, 400 feet by 400, and its magnificent balls are used not as a royal habi
tation, but as a depot for objects of taste and art. The gallery of the Louvre is a very long range, detached from the main build ing, and extending parallel to the bank of the river. all the way to the Tuileries. The most striking public monument is the Oolomo of the Place Vendome, erected by Bonaparte to commemorate his successes in Germany in 1805. It is a great brazen pillar, 12 feet in die meter and 133 feet high, and every where covered with bas reliefs. The catacombs are subterraneous quarries, excavated in the course of ages for the building of Paris, and converted in the latter part of the 18th century into a great burying repository. They are of great extent and being easily traversed with the aid of a guide, foron a prominent object of al. tention to travellers.
The Jardin des Plantes is a garden of an oblong form, nearly half a mile in length, laid out with great taste, and exhibiting groupes of plants of almost every country in the world. Amidst the collections of interest to artists, those of the Louvre hold the first rank of the ground floor of that spacious building a great part is appropriated to statoes, and other specimens of sculpture, ancient and modern, distributed in spacious hats, and arranged with much taste. ' From these a magnificent staircase leads to the gallery of paintings, which is of such length, that the extremity is almost lost in the distance, and is lined on both sides with the finest productions of modern painters
Paris is the centre of elegant amasements for France, eyer more than London for England, being the residence during the autumn and winter of all who can afford the gratifications of a town life. Of the public gardens and walks the finest and most frequented are those of the Tuileries, which extend in a beautiful oblong to the westward of the palace. They are laid out most elegantly with gravelled walks, terraces, plots of lowers and shrubs, groves of lofty trees, basins of water, and fountains, interspersed with beautiful statues of bronze and marble. This delightful spot forms the favorite walk of the Parisians, and is crowded on Sundays during the day, and in the rest of the week in the evenings with well dressed persons.
Paris is rich in libraries, which are accessible to all persone without introduction. The library of the king, the largest in Europe, contains opwards of 360,000 printed volumes, and 12,000 manuscripts. The manufactures of Paris as of London, consist chiefly of articles of taste, and such as require nice workmanship, Tbe population of the city in 1817 was 715,000.
Lyons, the next town to Paris in population, and superior to it in commerce and manufactures, is situated on the toogue of land formed at the confluence of the Saone and the Rhone. The streets cross each other regularly at right angles, lat they are in general extremely narrow and many of them dark and gloomy. The bouses are usually of stone, and 5 or 6 stories high. There are 4 public squares, one of which is entitled to rank among the finest in Europe Lyons is the first manufacturing town in France, and is particularly noted for its silks. It formerly sup.
plied a great part of Europe with silk goods, but its manufactures were greatly injured during the troubles of the French revolution. The number of looms for velvet, silk, gauze, crape and tbread, was at the commencement of the revolution 9,335, and the persons employed 58,600; in 1803 there were 7,000 looms, but only 1,653 at work. The large manufactory of felt hats, which formerly employed 8,000 hands, bad fallen to 1.500. Within a few years the fine silk manufactures have begun to resume their former importance. The orders for goods in 1818 could scarcely be answered, and the quantity exported in that year was valued a: 60,000,000 francs. The merchants of Lyons carry on trade with Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Netherlands and almost every part of Europe. The population is estimated at 120,000.
Marseilles is situated on the Mediterranean, at the foot of a ridge of bills, which extend in the form of a crescept around the town and its environs until each extremily reaches be sea. It is divided into the Old and New Town; the latier, containing nearly two thirds of the whole, is equal in beauty to any city of France. The port, which is half a mile long and a quarter of a mile broad, occupies the centre of the town, and communicates with the sea by a narrow entrance, only 100 vards wide, defended by two forts: it is completely sheltered from all winds, but bas not depih enough for ships of war. From its advantageous position and the security of its harbor, Marseiltes has long enjoyed a large share of the foreign trade of France. The population is estimated at 110,000. · Bourdeaux is on the left bank of the Garonne, 47 miles from its mouth. The river here forms a spacious barbor, and the tide rises to the height of '12 feet, so that large merchant vessels and even frigates can come up close to the town. The internal commerce, carried on through the Garonne and Dordogne is very extensive, and the foreign trade exceeds that of any city in France, except Marseilles. The principal exports are wine and brandy. The population is 92,374.
Rouen, situated on the right bank of the Seine, 70 miles from its mouth, in the midst of a pleasant and fertile country, is one of the principal manufacturing rowns in France, especially in the article of cotton goods. The population is estimated at 87,000. Nantes is beautifully situated on the right bank of the Loire, 27 miles from its mouth. It has numerous manufactures and considerable foreign and inland trade, with a population of 77,000.
Cherbourg is a seaport on the north coast, at the bottom of a large hay hetween Capes La Hogue and Barfleur, in the departe ment of La Mariche. It has long been considered one of the most important stations of the French pary, and its improvement has from time to time, occupied the attention of the government for no less than a century and a half. More than two millions sterling were expended in an attempt to erect a breakwater against the swell of the sea, which has after all proved almost entirely fruitlegg, After the failure of this scheme Bonaparte de