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Education.) Education is still at a very low ebb in Russia, there being very few schools except those supported by government. Seminaries, great or small, have for a century past existed in the chief towns, but the villages and open country have been immersed in almost as great ignorance as the interior of Africa. In 1802 an imperial ukase was issued establishing a systematic plan of education for the whole empire, under the charge of the directing synod of the church. By this act were established six universities, viz. at St. Petersburg, Moscow, Wilna, Dorpat, (in Livonia) Charkov in the south, and Kasan in the east. Each of the great governments of the empire has a gymnasium; each of the circles or lesser divisions a high school; while an elementary school is or ought to be established in each parish, or, where the population is small, in every two parishes. The parish schools, however, are not generally established, and when they are, are indifferently conducted. Besides these, there are special schools established at the expense of the government for instruction in navigation, the military art, painting, mining, theology, &c.
Government.] The Russian government was till lately a perfectly absolute monarchy. The title of the sovereign is emperor and autocrat of all the Russias, and king of Poland." There are ministers for each of the great departments of government, viz. the army, the pavy, the treasury, &c. and a senate whose powers are partly deliberative and partly executive. The present emperor has declared the Russian government to be a constitutional monarchy, and has given the senate the right of remonstrating against any ukase or edict contrary to law.
Revenue and Debt.] The national debt is about £35,000,000, exclusive of a large amount of paper money issued by the government, and which has depreciated to one third part of its nominal value. The interest of the debt at 74 per cent. is £2,250,000. The whole revenue of Russia is estimaied £15,000,000 sterling.
Army and Navy.] The army is the largest in Europe, consisting, according to ihe return of 1819, of 778,000 men, exclusive of militia and irregular troops of various descriptions. Of this number 613,000 were infaptry, 118,000 cavalry, and 47,000 artillery. The irregulars, infantry and cavalry, were estimated at 405,000. Owing to the financial embarassments, the extensive frontier which is to be protected, and various other causes, it is supposed that not more than from 200,000 to 300,000 of this vast force could be marched out of the empire.
The navy in 1820 consisted of 30 ships of the line, 20 frigates, 15 sloops, and 200 galleys. The men fit for the duty of the navy, who can be called forth in time of war, are between 30,000 and 40,000. A part of the navy is stationed in the Baltic, a part in the Black sea, and a part in the Caspian.
Manufactures.] The Russian manufactures owe their origin to Peter 1. and since his time they have so greatly increased, that many articles are now made within the empire, which were formerly imported from foreign countries. The principal manufac
tures are leather, which Russia excels all other European’da tions, linen, coarse woollens, soap, sail cloth, &c. Moscow and Petersburg are the principal manufacturing towns; but as to hard-ware, Tula, to the south of Moscow, is the Birmingham of Russia. The manufactories have greatly increased within a few years: in 1808 the number was 2,525, but in 1815, 3,253, of which 1,348 were of leather, 295 of cotion goods, 184 of linen, 150 of soap, &c.
Commerce.) Russia carries on an extensive commerce by land with China, Persia, apd Prussia ; through the poris of the Black sea with the countries on the Mediterranean, and through the Baltic with the nortbern and western nations of Europe. The principal exports are hemp, flax, leather, tallow, potash, wax, soap, timber, pitch, tar, peltry and iron in bars. The imports are sugar, coffee, cotton and other colonial produce ; sopertine woollens, cotton goods, silks, dye stuffs, wine and brandy. The value of the exports in 1805 was about $72,000,000, and of the imports $55,000,000. Of the exports about three fisths are the produce of agriculture ; one fifth, the produce of animals; one tepth, of the forest; and the remaining tenth of the mines and fisheries.
Islands.] Nova Zembla is a very large island in the Arctic ocean, belonging to the Russian government of Archangel, from which it is separated by the straits of Waigatz. It extends from 69° to 76° N. lat. and is 500 miles long and 240 broad. The east coast has not yet been explored, being seldom accessible, on account of the ice by which it is surrounded. No part of this dreary and inhospitable island has any permanent inhabitants ; but the south and west coasts are annually visited by hunters from Archangel who find bere an abundance of bears, foxes, wild reindeer, and other animals valuable principally for their skins. The whale fishery is also prosecuted along the coast.
Spitzbergen or East Greenland, lies in the Arctic ocean between 760°30' and 80° 7' N. lat. and between 9° and perhaps 22° E. lòn. It extends farther north than any other land yet discovered, and is one of the most dreary and desolate regions imaginable. The principal objects which strike the eye are innumerable mountainous peaks, sharp summits or needles rising immediately out of the sea to an elevation of 3,000 or 4,000 feel, and covered with snow and ice of a dazzling brilliancy, while some of the adjoining mountains of less elevation are covered perpetually with a gloomy veil of black lichens, presenting a contrast altogether peculiar. The climate of Spitzbergen is intensely cold and more disagreeable to the feelings than that of any other country, the temperature, éven in the warmest months pot averaging more than 34, degrees. The island is uninhabited, but the coasts are visited every year by the Russians and other nations engaged in the wbale fishery.
The isles of Aland, lying at the entrance of the gulf of Bothnia, formerly belonged to Sweden, but were ceded to Russia in 1809. They are about 80 in number. Aland, the largest, is 40 miles long, and contains 462 square miles and 11,260 inhabitants
KINGDOM OF POLAND.
Situation, Extent and Population.) The kingdom of Poland is bounded N. by the Prussian provinces of East and West Prussia ; E. by the Russian provinces of Bialystock, Grodno and Volhynia; $. by Galicia and the free city of Cracow; and W. by the Prussian provinces of Posen and Silesia. In shape it approaches to the form of a square of 200 miles, nearly in the middle of which stands Warsaw, the capital. The area is estimated at 48,730 square miles, and the population at 2,793,000, of which number more than 200,000 are Jews.
History.) Poland was formerly a powerful country of Europe, comprehending besides the present kingilom, large tracts of country now incorporated with the Russian, Prussian and Austrian dominions. The area was estimated at 284,000 square miles, and the population at 15,000,000 souls. lo 1773 this unhappy country became distracted by internal dissensions, which furnished Russia, Prussia and Austria with a pretence for interference. They accordingly took possession of a large portion of the country, aod divided it between them. In 1793 they interfered a second time, and made a second partition, and in 1795 they divided the remainder and annihilated the kingdom. The following table shows the result of the whole.
During the late war in Europe, various changes and transfers of territory took place, but according to the final adjustment at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the division was as follows.
of these territories, the Prussian part is in the northwest, the Austrian in the south, the Russian in the east, and the new kingdom of Poland in the middle. Including the kingdom of Poland, the Russian portion now embraces nearly two thirds of the whole population, and more than two thirds of the territory,
Government.] This country is subject to the emperor of Russia, who in consequence takes the title of “king of Poland," but it is governed in every respect as a separate monarchy, under a liberal constitution granted by the emperor in 1815. The regal dignity is vested in a viceroy, in whom, and in a cabinet of ministers, the executive power resides. There is a diet consisting of a senate of 30 members, and a chamber of representatives of 77 deputies. The ministers are accountable to the senate, being obliged to lay reports before it, and to submit to discussions, nearly in the form observed in the British parliament.
Revenue, Army, Religion.&c.] The revenue amounts to £900,000. The army consists of 50,000 men, of whom 20,000 aré cavalry. The prevailing religion is the Roman Catholic, but all others are tolerated. The principal exports are corn, hemp, flax, cattle, timber, wax and honey. The most important river is the Vistula, which passes through the kingdom from S. E. to N. W.
Chief Towns.] Warsaw, the capital, is situated on the Vistula, a little north of the centre of the kingdom in lat. 52° 14' N. and lon. 21° 3' E. It contains a great number of churches and convents, and many beautiful palaces of stone mixed in with a great multitude of mean wooden hovels. Here is a university established in 1816. The population is estimated at 70,000, or including Praga on the opposite side of the river, 76,000, of whom 10,000 are Jews. Lublin, 85 miles S.E. of Warsaw, is a place of considerable trade, and contains 7,000 inhabitants.
Cracow. The free city of Cracow is situated in lat, 50° N. and lon. 30° E. in an extensive plain, at the confluence of the Rudowa with the Vistula, 128 miles S. S. W. of Warsaw, near the point where the Russian, Prussian and Austrian dominions meet. It has three suburbs, one of which, Casimir, lies on the opposite bank of the Vistula. The town is well situaied for trade and is a stapie city for Hungarian, Silesian, and Galician wares. The population is 25,000, of whom many are Jews. In 1815, by an act of the Congress of Vienna, Cracow, with a small territory adjacent, was constituted a free state under the protection of Russia, Prussia and Austria. The whole territory included in the new state contains 430 square miles and 61,000 inhabitants. The form of government is a democracy. The prevailing religion is the Roman Catholic, but all others are tolerated.
KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS.
Situation and Extent.] The kingdom of the Netherlands is bounded N. by the German ocean; E. by Germany; S. by France, and W. by the German ocean. It extends from 49° 30' to 53° 34' N. lat, and from 2° 35to 7° 5' E. lon. The area is estimated at 25,565 square miles.
Divisions. The kingdom is divided into 18 provinces, the exfent and population of which are given in the following table.
Provinces, 1. Friesland,
2. Groningen, North. 3. Drenthe, ern or 4. Overyssel, Dutch 5. Gelderland, Prov 6. Holland, inces. 7. Utrecht,
Square miles. Population. Pop, on a sq. m.
1192 176,000 147
108,000 207 680 111,000
163 1804 294,000 162
Total in northern provinces, 11,518 2,015,000 10. Antwerp,
1452 11. South Brabant, South
427,000 12. West Flanders, 1496 492,000 ern or
13. East Flanders, 1122 600,000 Belgic 14. Haioault,
1738 430,000 prov15. Namur,
979 156,000 ipces. 16. Liege,
2244 354,000 17. Limburg,
277 287 328 534 246 159 157 190
Total in southern provinces,
18. Grand Duchy
Face of the Country.) The face of the country is uncommonly level and low. In the northern provinces there are neither mountains nor hills to relieve the eye from the monotony of a continued fat ; and from the top of a tower or steeple, the only elevation commanding an extensive view, the country appears like a vast marshy plain, intersected in all directions by an infinite number of canals and ditches. Such a prospect is not, however, altogether uninteresting : it exhibits vast meadows of the freshest verdure, and covered with numerous herds of cattle ; sheets of water, sometimes flowing and sometimes stationary; while at intervals clusters of trees, and in the environs of large towns, elegant country houses, situated in the middle of gardens and parks, and decorated with statues and busts, vary and enliven the scene.
The lowest tracts of country are in the provinces along the coast, many parts of which are below the level of the sea at high water. To prevent inundation, there are along the coasts, dikes or mounds of earth which have been erected at great expense, and are justly considered as among the greatest efforts of human industry. These mounds vary in height and thickness according to their situation; they present a gradual slope on each side, and the breadth at the top is often sufficient to allow two carriages to