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Governments.

Square miles. 35. Kazan,

11,480 36 Viatka,

47,180 37. Perm,

126,435

In the south. 38. Podolia,

20,380 39. Kiev.

20,760 40. Czernigov,

25,260 41. Poltava,

16,180 42. Slobodsk Ukraine, 12,610 43. Ekaterinoslav, 34,060 44. Cherson,

18,025 45. Taurida,

43,355 46. Bessarabia and

Moldavia, Country of the Don Cossacs,

80,000 Kingdom of Poland, 48,730

92

1,320,000
1,000,000
1,150,000
1,500,000
740,000
560,000
500,000
260,000
240,000

59

16 27 6

} 18,045

13

4

350,000 2,793,000

57

Total in European} 1,891,512

41,773,000

22

Seas and Gulfs.] There are four seas bordering on Russia ; the White sea on the north, the Baltic on the west, the Black seas and the sea of Azoph on the south. There are five large bays or gulfs; the gulf of Bothnia, the gulf of Finland, and the gulf of Riga opening into the Baltic ; and the bays of Onega and Archangel opening into the White sea.

Lakes. There are no lakes of any importance except in the northwestern provinces where they are very numerous, and some of them of a large size. The most remarkable are, 1. Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe, being 130 miles long, 75 broad, and containing 6,200 square miles. It lies a little to the east of the gulf of Finland, into which it discharges is waters through the short river Neva. 2. Lake Onega, 130 miles long and 40 broad, lies east of lake Ladoga and is connected with it by the navigable river Svir. 3. Lake Ilmen, 48 miles long, is situated to the south of lake Ladoga, with which it is connected by the river Volchov. 4. Lake Peipus, lying south of the gulf of Finland, is 50 miles long and 35 broad, and communicates by a short strait at its southern extremity with the lake of Pskov. It has two outlets, one proceeding north to the golf of Finland, and the other west to the gulf of Riga. 5. The Bielo-Ozero, or White lake, lies 25 miles S. E. of lake Onega and dischargs itself into the Volga by a short river issuing from its S. E. extremity.

Face of the Country. European Russia consists of an immense plain, interrupted only in a few places by hills of a moderate elevation. The only mountains are the Ural mountains in the N. E. which form part of the boundary between Europe and Asia ; the mountains of Russian Lapland in the N.W. which are a continua tion of the Scandinavian chain, and terminate among the strait lakes lietween the guši of Finland and the White sea; and the mountains of Taurida in the south, which occupy the southern part of the Crimea, a large peninsula which projects into the Black sea. The principai bilis are the Valdai ridge which runs from N. E. to S.W. separating the waters wbich flow N.W. inio the Baltic from those which fow S. E. into the Black sea, the sea of Azoph and the Caspian sea. They are of very moderate elevation, no part being more than 1,200 feet above the level of the sea. There are forests of immense extent in various parts of the country, but in general the great natural feature of European Russia is its steppes, which are vast plains formed in great part of sand, and with litile wood except stunted birches.

Rivers.] The following are the principal rivers, beginning in the N. E. 1. The Petschora rises in the Ural mountains in about 61° N. lat. and flowing a little west of porth, discharges itself into the Frozen' ocean after a course of more than 600 miles. 2. The Dwina, sometimes called the northern Dwina, discharges itself into a bay of the White sea at Archangel, after a northerly course of 500 miles. 3. The Tornea, which forms the boundary between Russia and Sweden, falls into the head of the gulf of Bothnia after a course of 300 miles. 4. The Neva forms the outlet of the great lake Ladega, and after a westerly course of 35 miles empties itself into the gulf of Finland, below St. Petersburg, by three mouths. It is from 300 to 400 yards wide, and from 10 to 15 feet deep. 5. The Duna, or Dwina, rises in the Valdai bills near lat. 56° N. and lon. 33° E. and pursuing a westerly course of 500 miles falls into the gulf of Riga at Dunamunde a few miles below Riga. It is navigable throughout the greater part of its course, 6. The Niemen rises a few miles south of Minsk, in lat. 53° N. and lon. 27° 30° E. and runniog north of west passes into Prussia, and discharges itself into ihe Kurische Haf, a large inlet of the Baltic. 7. The Pruth rises in the Carpathian mountains near lon. 25° E. and lat. 48° 30' N. It runs first to the east and then to the south. The first part of its course for a little distance is in the Austrian dominions, but it soon becomes the boundary between Russia and Turkey and continúes so till it falls into the Danube. 8. The Dniester has its source in a lake amid the Carpathian mountains in Austrian Galicia, and after traversing a great part of that country enters Russia and empties itself into the Black sea, after a S. E. course of about 600 miles. 9. The Dnieper rises in the Valdai hills near the source of the Duna, and after a winding course to the south of more than 800 miles, in which it passes by Smolensk, Mohilev, Kiev, and Cherson, falls into the Black sea a little to the east of the mouth of the Dniester. It begins to be navigable very early, even above Smolensk; but in the lower part of its course the navigation is impeded by islands, and at one place, about 200 miles from its mouth, by falls which continue for nearly 40 miles. A little above its mouth the river widens into a kind of lake or marsh, called Liman, inlo which the Bog, one of the principal tributaries of the Dnieper, discharges

itself after a S. E. course of about 400 miles. 10. The Don rises in the Valdai hills in the government of Tule, and pursues a course ai first S. E. then S. W. and on the whole S. of aboui 800 miles, and discharges itself into the bay of 'Tagzorok at the N. E. extremity of the sea of Azoph. It is vavigable for ships of burthed for many hundred miles from the middle of April to the end of June, but during the rest of the year the water on several of the shallows is not above a foot and an lralf deep. 11. The Volga, the largest river in Europe, has its source in a lake among the Valdai hills in lat. 57° N. and lov. 33° E. and after running at first in an easterly direction to Kazan in lon. 50° E. turns and pursues a southerly course till it discharges itself into the Caspian sea through 70 mouths. It is 3,200 miles long, and is remarkably free from rapids, being navigable without interruption to Tver in lat. 56° 50' N. and lon. 36° 16' E. It abounds in fish more than any other river of the old world; the produce of the fisheries near the mouth of the river being valued at several million dollars annually. The principal tributaries of the Volga are the Kama, which joins it 24 miles below Kazan, and is by some geographers considered as part of the houndary between Europe and Asia; and the Oka, which joins it at Niznei Novgorod in lon. 44° E.

Climate.) Russia in Europe presents almost every variety of climate as might be expected from the great extent of the country. Its northern provinces are almost uninhabitable on account of the intensity and long continuance of winter. The peninsula of the Crimea presents, on the contrary, all the luxuriance of the southern year; while the middle regions are blest with the mild seasons of England and Germany. In general it may be remarked that the cold is far greater than that of the west of Europe in the same parallels of latitude. The Neva is annually frozen from November to March, and the ice in the sea of Azoph and the Black sea sometimes extends to a considerable distance from the land.

Soil and Productions.] The soil is very various, from the cold marshes which border the White sea and Frozen ocean to the rich and fertile plains along the Don and the Volga. In respect to productions Russia may be divided into four regions, i. The northwest division, embracing Finland and the adjacent provinces to the north and east, is a bleak country producing rye, barley, oats, and in a few districts wheat, but a great part of the surface is covered by lakes and rocks. 2. The northern division, comprising all the rest of the country above the parallel of 60°, is too bleak for tillage, and the inhabitants live chiefly by hunting and fishing. 3. The central and much the largest division, including all the country between the parallels of 50° and 60° N. lat. produces hemp, flax and wheat in great quantities. 4. The southern division, including all the provinces below the parallel of 50°, produces tobacco and maize as well as wheat, and near the southern verge vines, mulberries, almon's, figs and the olive. Agriculture is in general in a very backward statc, though less so in the Baltic and

the southern provinces than in the rest of the empire. Russia in Europe is not distinguished for its mineral productions, the mountains which contain the richest mines being in the Asiatic, provinces.

Chief Towns. St. Petersburg, the capital of the Russian empire, is situated in lat. 59° 56' N. at the eastern extremity of the gulf of Finland, at the mouth of the river Neva. It is entirely a modern city, having been founded by Peter the great in 1703, on a low marshy spot of ground, which at that time contained only two huts. The form of the city is nearly circular, and its diameter is about four miles. The Neva flowing from east to west divides it into two parts, of which the larger and more populous is on the south side of the river. Soon after entering the city the Neva sends off a branch, and from the middle of the city another branch, both to the northward These fall soon after into the sea, forming two islands on which the northern part of the city is built. The main stream flows through tbe middle of the city, and has along its south side a quay three miles in length, and embanked in all its extent with a wall and pavement of granite. The southern division of St. Petersburg is intersected by canals, so that water communications extend to every part of the town. No city in Europe can compare with St. Petersburg in the width and regularity of its streets. The houses are generally of brick and built in a simple style of architecture. The commerce of the town is very extensive, about one half of the foreign trade of the Russian empire being carried op through this port. The merchants in the foreign trade are almost entirely foreigners, principally Englishmen, but the interior traffic is in the hands of the natives, foreigners being prevented by law from engaging in it. The population of the town according to a census taken in 1817 was 285,000, of whom 65,000 were in the land and sea service, and 25,000 were foreigners.

Moscow, the largest city in Russia, and formerly the capital of the empire, is situated 400 miles S. E. of St. Petersburg in lat. 55° 46' N. and lon. 37° 33' E. Including the suburbs it is more than 20 miles in circumference. The river Moskwa, a branch of the Oka, traverses it from west to east, and in its progress through the city receives two rivulets which flow into it from the north. Moscow consists of five circular or semicircular divisions, each surrounding the other. 1. The central part contains the Kremlin or citadel, and the ancient palace of the czars, together with several churches and monasteries. 2. The Kitaigorod, or Chinese town, surrounding the Kremlin in a circular form, contains numerous bazars and shops, and several public buildings. 3. The Bielo-gorod or White town extends partly around the second division in the form of a crescent, and derives its name from the white stone walls with which it was formerly encompassed. 4. The Semliano-gorod or Earthen town, much more extensive than either of the preceding, and surrounding them both in a circular form. 5. The Slobodes or suburbs, which to the number of nearly 30, surround the whole, and occupy a great extent of

ground. In September 1812, at the time of the French invasion, the Russians set fire to the city and three fourths of it were consumed, the central divisions alone being preserved. Since that time the city has been rebuilt and the population carried nearly to its former magnitude. The deficiency is in the palaces of the nobility, many of which are not rebuilt, having before been on a scale by far too large for the income of their owners, who are now contented to live at a reduced expense on their estates in the country. The Kremlin stands on a height commanding a prospect of nearly the whole city. It is the great depot of the antiquities and curiosities of Moscow, and of the regalia of the Russian empire. Here also is the tower of Ivan, which is still amply replenished with bells, and which formerly contained the largest bell in the known world, the weight being above 200 tons. This remarkable monument of the taste of a rude nation, fell last century, in consequence of the tower being burned, and is now broken and Considerably sunk in the earth. In regard to trade Moscow, though at a great distance from any sea, is the grand emporium for the interior of the empire. The population in summer does not much exceed 200,000; but in winter, it is nearly 300,000 from the great resort of traders:,nd of the Russian nobility,

Odessa, the second commercial city in the Russian dominions, is situated on a small bay of the Black sea, between the mouths of the Dnieper and the Dniester. It is entirely of modern erection, having been founded by Catherine 11. in 1792. The port is artificial, being formed by two large moles, each about a quarter of a mile long, and embracing a space suflicient for the reception of about 300 vessels. It is deep enough for the largest ships, and being never frozen, has a great advantage over all the other Russian harbors in the Black sea, which are generally obstructed by ice for several months, while vessels can arrive and depart from Odessa through the whole winter. The roads without the port are extensive, and safe in summer. The prosperity of Odessa has long been a favorite object of the Russian government. Fortifications, magazines, piers, and publie works of various kinds have been erected at great expense, and the most liberal encouragement has been offered to foreigners to settle in the town and its vicinity. The increase of the population and commerce has been astonishingly rapid. In 1803 the town contained only 8,000 souls, and the surrounding country for many leagues was an uncultivated desert; in 1811 the population amounted to 25,000, and the environs within a radius of 30 miles, contained 40 fourishing villages; in 1820 the population of the town was more than 40,000, while the surrounding country had increased in an equal ratio. The great article of commerce is wheat, of which, in 1815, 6,000,000 bushels were exported, and the number of vessels einployed in the tradle of the port was more than 1,000.

Piga, the third town in commercial importance, is situated 285 miles S.W. of St. Petersburg. in a large plain on the Duna, about nine iniles from the sea. The river is wide, and forms a safe and spacious harbor. Although not a regular fortress, Riga is a strong

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