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Helsingborg in Sweden, at the point where the Sound is narroir est, being here less than 4 miles across. It has no harbor, but anexcellent roadsiead, generally crowded with vessels on their way to or from the Baltic, and anchoring here to pay toll or take in stores, the supply of which forms the business of the place. The aggregate nuinber of vessels of all nations passing the Sound is nearly 10,000, of which by far the greatest proportion is British; and the toll paid by them is about one per cent. on the value of the cargoes, and varies in amount from £120,000 10 £150,000 sterling. Consuls reside bere from all the maritime nations in Europe The population of the town is nearly 7,000. The fortress of Cronberg, situated on a point of land a little to the north of Elsinore, is accounted one of the keys of the kingdom, being specially intended to guard the passage of the Sound, though its inadequacy to this object was fully demonstrated by the passage of the British fleet in 1801.
Population and Religion.] The population according to Hassel is 1,565,000. The established religion is the Lutheran under 7 bishops and 2 general superintendants, but all other religions are tolerated. The whole number of the clergy is 1580.
Education.) The university of Copenhagen has 36 professors and 500 students, a library of 10,000 volumes, a botanical garden, and observatory. The university of Kiel has, 28 professors and 107 students. In every parish there are two or three schools where children are taught reading, writing and arithmetic. There are besides many Latin schools maintained at the public expense.
Government.) Denmark was formerly a limited monarchy, but in 1660, by one of the most singular revolutions recorded in history, the nobility, clergy and peasantry joined in surrendering their rights to the sovereign, so that Denmark is now, in law, an absolute monarchy of the most unqualified kind; but the exer. cise of this power has been modified by the spirit of the age, the effect of the Protestant religion and the progress of improvement. The crown is hereditary in the male and female line, and the title of the sovereign is King of Denmark, grand duke of Holstein, duke of Sleswick, Lauenburg, &c. The dutchies of Holstein and Lauenburg, which are within the limits of Germany, make the king of Denmark a member of the Germanic coofederation, and entitle him to a voice in the diet of Frankfort. In regard to the administration of justice, Sleswick and Holstein preserve their ancient institutions, while Jutland and the islands are governed by the Danish code.
Revenue.] The revenue of Denmark is about $7,000,000. The national debt is nominally between 60 and 70 million dollars, but in reality less on account of its depreciation.
Ariny and Navy.) The army on the present peace establish-' ment consists of 26,000 men. The navy contains 3 ships of the line, 4 frigates and 3 brigs, with only 4,000 seamed in actual service, but the number is capable of being easily increased as there are several thousand registered seamen at the disposal of the crow.
Píanufactures and Commerce.) The manufactures, in general, extend oniy to the supply of the country, furnishing no surplus for exportation. The principal manufacturing establishments are at Copenhagen and Altona. The exports consist principally of corn to Norway ; horses to Germany, l'rance, Sweden anii liussia ; oxen to Holland and Germany; live hogs and bacon to Norway; and dried fish to the Mediterranean. In 1816 the value of the corn exported was about $2,500,000, of fish $300,000, and of animals $500,000. Denmark is finely situated for navigation being almost surrounded by the sex. In 1802 there were 1,378
vessels belongiiig to this small state, measuring 130,000 tons, and manned by 9,000 seamen. Within a few years, however, the commerce and shipping of the country have very greatly diminished.
Islands.] The principal islands are Zealand, Funen and Laaland. All the other Danish islaods in the Baltic, with one or two exceptions, are considered as dependencies on these three.
Zealand, the largest of the Danish islands, is separated by the Sound from Sweden, and by the Great Belt from the island of Funen. It is very fertile and produces all kinds of grain, particuJarly barley. Its principal dependencies are, 1. The island of Samso, between Zealand and Jutland, 14 miles long, 5 broad, and containing 44 square miles with 5,000 inhabitants. 2. Bloen, lying off the S. E. extremity of Zealand and separated from it hy a narrow channel, is 16 miles long and contains 90 square miles, and 7,000 inhabitants. It is very fertile in corn. 3. Bornholm, the most easterly of the Danish islands, is 75 miles east of Zealand and 15 from the coast of Sweden in lat. 55° 12' N. and lon. 15° 20' E. It is 20 miles long, and contains 230 square miles, and 19,000 inhabitants. The soil is stony but fertile, producing corn in abundance and good pasture. The shore is every where difficult of access on account of the rocks.
Funen, which ranks next to Zealand in size and importance, is separated from Jutland by the Little Belt. It is very fertile, and produces corn and cattle in abundance for exportation. The principal dependency of Funen is Langeland, lying near its S. E. extremity, and separated from it by a narrow channel. It contains 100 square miles and 11,000 inhabitants, and is everywhere fruitful.
Laaland, lying between Langeland on the west and Falster on the east, is considered the most fertile spot in the Danish dominions. The land is low and marshy and the climate unhealthy, but it produces all kinds of grain, potatoes, flax, and hops in abundance for exportation. Falster, lying to the east of Laaland and separated from it by a narrow channel, contains 200 square miles and 14,000 inhabitants. It is productive in various kinds of grain, pulse and potatoes, but especially in fruit, which has given it the name of the orchard of Denmark.'
Femern, on the eastern coast of Holstein, is about 30 miles in circunference, and contains 7,000 inhabitants.
FAROE ISLANDS. The Farve or Faroer islands are a group of islands belonging 10 Denmark, lying in the Northern Atlantic
ocean to the N. W. of Shetland, between 61° 15' and 62° 20' N. lat. They consist of 25 islands, of which 17 are inhabited. The number of square miles is 550, and the population, in 1812, was 5,209. The islands consist generally of naked rocks, some rising to a great height, and presenting at a distance a most imposing appearance of grandeur. The principal part of the grain consumed in the islands is imported from Denmark. The chief wealth of the inhabitants consists in sheep; and fishing is also an important source of subsistence.
Situation and Extent.] Iceland, a large island in the northeru Atlantic ocean belonging to Denmark, is situated between 63o and 67° N. lat. and between 12o and 25° W. long. Its length from east to west is about 280 miles, its mean breadth from north to south 210, and its superficial contents may be estimated at 40,000 square miles.
Face of the country, Mountains, &-c.) Iceland has every appear. ance of having been formed by the operations of submarine volcanoes. In no quarter of the globe do we find crowded within so narrow a compass such a number of volcanic mountains, so many boiling springs, or such immense tracts of lava as here arrest the attention of the traveller. The general aspect of the country is the most rugged and dreary imaginable. On every side appear marks of confusion and ruins. Streams of brown lava destitute of all vegetation, vast chasms, from some or other of which volumes of smoke are perpetually ascending, occur in every part of the island. Every hill almost is a volcano; and besides the smaller cones and craters, there are several, whose eruptions are of the most terrific character. In the midst of this region of fire are not sewer than twelve or fourteen mountains, whose summits are covered with eternal ice, the quantity of which is every year increasing and extending nearer and nearer to the inhabited districts. The principal range of mountains runs through the island from east to west, and at the eastern extremity of the chain the ice has advanced almost 10 the shore, and threatens to cut off the communication between the southern and eastern districts. The most celebrated single mountain is Hecla, a volcano, which rises near the southern extremity of the island to the height of 5,000 feet above the level of the sea, and whose eruptions have been very numerous and powerful.
Boiling Springs.] These springs occur in almost every part of the island and many of thern throw up large columns of boiling water, accompanied by immense volumes of steam, to an almost
incredible height into the atmosphere, presenting to the eye one of the grandest appearances in nature. Of these springs the most magnificent are the well known Geysers, but there are 8 or 10 others scarcely less remarkable, some of which throw up jets of thick boiling mud, and others, of black sulphureous vapour. The Geysers are situated on the west side of the island about 16 miles north of Skalholt. In one of them the colum of water is propelled from an orifice nine feet in diameter with inconceivable force and a tremendous roaring noise, sometimes to the height of 150 feet, and the largest stones thrown into the pipe are instantly propelled to an amazing height. During a late visit to the Geysers, Dr. Henderson discovered that the fountain, when tranquil, might be excited to the most violent action. This he accomplished by throwing into the pipe a great quantity of large stones, when the fountain immediately began to roar and spout with more than usual violence; the jets exceeded 200 feet in height, the stones were thrown much higher, and when the water was all exhausted, the column of steam continued to rush up with a deafening roar for nearly an hour.
Climate.] The climate is very unsteady, but usually not so cold as would be expected from its high latitude. The winter is sometimes not so severe as in Denmark. But the temperature in the spring and summer is liable to be very seriously affected by the approach of immense quantities of floating ice, which are drifted from the polar regions, and accumulate on the coast. Whenever this occurs fogs and a cold chilling atmosphere spread over the whole island, and the little vegetation thai may exist is totally destroyed.
Soil and Productions.] The whole interior of the island, comprehending more than three fourths of its area, is an inhospitable waste, without a single human habitation, and almost entirely unknown to the natives themselves. It is in the valleys near the coast, that the cottages of the peasents are generally found, and that a scanty herbage for three or four months in the year affords a miserable subsistence to a few horses, cattle and sheep, and sometimes a little hay for the winter. In years of extreme scarcity, the poor animals are fed with dried fish cut small, and with various kinds of sea weed collected on the shores. No grain of any kind is raised, no woods are to be seen, but here and there a few birch trees, which seldom exceed the height of 5 or 6 feet. Potatoes have been introduced and cultivated with some Success.
Population.] The population is estimated at 48,000. There is reason to believe that the population was formerly above 60,000; but during the last century vast numbers perished by famine, and especially hy the small pox which in one year swept off 16,000 persons. With the exception of Reykiviak on the southern coast, which may contain about 500 inhabitants, and half a dozen other places along the different coasts, called villages, which consist of three or four houses and a church, the popula tion is scattered over the plains and vaileys, in insulated farm
houses, from some of which the nearest farm is at the distance of 8 or 10 miles.
History and Government.] Iceland was settled in the year 874 by a colony of voluntary exiles from Norway, who abandoned their native country to avoid the tyranny of the ruling prince. The government which they established in their new abode was perfectly free and republican and admirably adapted to the circumstances of the people, as may be inferred from its long continuance of pearly 400 years. In the year 1261 their liberties were somewhat abridged by becoming tributaries to the mother country, but they expressly stipulated that they should be allowed to retain their ancient laws and privileges; and that they should be exempt from all taxes. In 1387 They were transferred to Denmark, but no material change took plnce in their internal polity till the year 1800, when the Althing or general assembly of the island was abolished, and a supreme court, consisting of a chief justice, two assessors and a secretary, was established in its room, from which an appeal lies to the high court in Denmark.
Religion.) The original settlers were Pagans. Christianity was introduced in the year 1000, and the doctrines of Lutheranism in 1540. There is one bishop, 18 provosts or deans, and 184 inferior clergy, who discharge their duties with great fidelity, but receive scarcely any compensation for their services. The richest living does not produce 300 dollars; many of the salaries are 30 and 30 dollars, and there are some as low as 5 dollars.
Education. Notwithstanding the desolation with which they are surrounded, the general state of mental.cultivation, and the diffusion of knowledge among the inhabitants, bave no parallel in any nation, even in Europe. It is exceedingly rare to meet with a boy or girl, who has attained the age of nine or ten years, that cannot read and write with ease, and in almost every family there is soine individual capable of entering into conversation on topics which would be reckoned altogether above the understandings of people in the same rank of society in other countries. This is not owing to the institution of public schools, for there is but one on the island, but to the rigid attention which is paid to domestic education. In the dark ages, when continental Europe was immersed in profound ignorance, the Icelanders cultivated poetry with success, and their historical writings are still highly valued.
Character.] The Icelanders are a very moral and religious people, and punctual in the performance of both public and priyate exercises of devotion. Their predominant characteristics are unsuspecting frankness, pious contentment, and a steady liveliness of temperament, combined with a strength of intellect and acuteness of mind, seldom to be met with in other parts of the world. In personal appearance they are rather above the middle size, of a frank and open countenance, a florid complexion, and yellow flaxen hair. Their houses are mere hovels and their diet is of the coarsest kind, consisting chiefly of fish and animal food without bread or vegetables, and the common beverage is sour whey mixed with water Yet with all these privations, with