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Islands.] Sweden possesses numerous islands in the Baltic sea, and the gulf of Bothnia. The island of Oland, one of the largest, is separated from the continent by Kalmar Sound. It is 60 miles long and on an average five or six broad, and contains 22,000 inhabitants. The island of Gothland, lying to the N. E. of Oland, is 70 miles long and contains 1,100 square miles, and 33,000 inhabitants. Wisby, on the west coast of the island, is the principal town. The isles of Aland, lying at the entrance of the gulf of Bothnia, were formerly a part of Sweden but they now belong to Russia.


Situation.] Lapland, or the country inhabited by the Laplanders, lies partly in Norway, partly in Sweden and partly in Russia. It is the most northerly country in Europe, and extends from lat. 64° N. to the North cape in 71° 11' N. It is washed by the Atlantic ocean on the west, the Frozen ocean on the north, and the White sea on the east.

Extent and Population.) The following table shows the ex. tent and population of each of the divisions of Lapland.

Sq. miles.

Population Norwegian Lapland or Finnmark, 27,720

26,769 Lulea Lapmark, Swedish Lapland,

Pitea Lapmark,
Umea Lapmark,

50,000 10,000 Asele Lapmark, Russian Laplapd,

75,000 25,000


152,720 61,769 of the population of Norwegian Lapland about 20,000 are descendants of Finns who emigrated to this country only a century ago. Nearly three quarters of the population of Russian Lapland, and one quarter of that of Swedish Lapland are also of foreign extraction, leaving less than 20,000 genuine Laplanders.

Face of the Country, Climate &c.] Near the gulf of Bothnia the land is low, but rises towards the interior into mountains, and near the centre of the country the summits rise to an elevation of 5,000 and 6,000 feet, and are covered with perpetual snow. The climate in winter is intensely cold, especially in the interior, where brandy sometimes freezes, and the rivers are covered for many months with ice to the depth of several feet. Toward the north The sun remains for many weeks below the horizon in winter, and in summer is as long without setting. During the long night of winter, however, the darkness is relieved by the brightness of the moon and the stars, and by the vivid coruscations of the

from moss,

Aurora Borealis. In summer, the sun being so many hours above the horizon, the heat is intense, and vegetation proceeds with remarkable rapidity.

Productions.] Ja the low country, near the gulf of Bothnia there are large forests of spruce, Scots fir and other resinous trees. As you advance into the interior these trees gradually disappear, and long before you reach the tops of the mountains all vegetation entirely vanishes. Barley, rye, and occasionally oats are raised in favorable situations, and grain has been cultiyated with success by the Finnish colonists under the parallel of 70° N. which may safely be pronouoced the must northern limit of husbandry.

Animals.) Among the domestic animals are oxen, sheep and goats, all of a small size; but the reindeer is the most valuable gift that nature has bestowed on the poor Laplanders. It serves as the principal beast of burden, its milk is highly valued; its flesh supplies the chief nourishment of the inhabitants during part of the year; its sinews are made into thread, and its skin furnishes a great part of their dress. In summer it feeds on grass ; þut in winter it refuses hay, and obtains its whole nourishment


grows here in greal profusion. A remarkable instinct is displayed by the animal in discovering this plant under the snow, and in digging it out. The foot of the reindeer seems shaped exactly to enable it to walk on snow, spreading out when set down, so as to cover a large surface, but contracting when lifted up, so as to be easily withdrawn if it happen to plange too deep. This animal forms the chief wealth of the natives, The poorer classes have from 50 to 200; the middle classes from 300 to 700, and the affluent often above 1,000.

Manners and Customs. The mountain Laplanders have no fixed habitation but wander about in quest of food for their florks of reindeer, and lodge in tents or huts, which are usually about 9 feet high and 12 long. These rude erections are generally composed of six poles which meet at the top and support each other : the fire place consists of a few stones, and is always in the middle of the hut ; the smoke issues hy a hole at the top. The diet of the Laplanders is chiefly of animal food, those on the coast living on fish, those among the mountains on reindeer, and the fruits of the chace.

Character and Religion.] The Laplanders are generally about four feet high, with short black hair, narrow dark eyes, large heads, high cheek bones, wide mouth, thick lips and a swart hy complexion. It is but little more than a century since they were converted to Christianity, and notwithstanding the efforts of the missionaries they are still very ignorant of its doctrines and retain many of their heathen superstitions.

Trade. Doring winter they carry on some traffic with the Swedes. This takes place at Tornea, and other towns on the guif of Bothnia, and consists in exchanging skins, furs, dried fish, venison, and gloves, for fapnel cloth, hemp, copper, iron and various utensils; but particularly for spiritous liquors, meal, salt and tobacco.


Shtuation and Extent.) Denmark consists of several large islands lying between the Cattegat and the Baltic, and of a peninsula which is bounded W. by the North sea or German ocean ; N. by the Skager Rack ; E. by the Cattegat and the Baltic ; S. E. by the dutchy of Mucklenburg in Germany; and S. by the Elbe, which separates it frum the kingdom of Hanover. It extends from 53° 34' to 57° 45' N. lat. and contains 21,615 square miles.

Divisions. The following table presents the divisions of Den. mark, together with their population and extent.

1. Danish Islands,

1. Zealand, 2. Fugen,

3. Laaland, Il. Jutland,

1. Aalborg, 2. Wihorg, 3. Aarhuus,

4. Ripen,
III. Dutchy of Sleswick,
IV. Dutchy of Holstein,
V. Dutchy of Lauenburg,


Sq. miles. Population. Pop. or

a sq. m. 5,170 498,000 96 3,168 343,000 1,342 121,000

660 34,000 9,262 419,000

45 2,668 117,000

781 70,000 2,547 132,000 3,326 100,000 3,564 288,000 80 3,168 325,000 102

451 35,000

21,615 1,565,000 72

Straits.] There are three straits connecting the Baltic with the Cattegat, viz. The Sound, between the island of Zealand and Sweden; the Great Belt, between the islands of Zealand and Funen; and the Little Belt, between the island of Funen and the peninsula of Jutland.

Bays and Rivers.] The Lymfiord is a long, narrow and navigable bay, in the northern part of Jutland, setting up westward from the Cattegat, and extending nearly across the peninsula, being separated from the German Ocean by a sand bank only two or three miles in width. The bay of Ringkiobing, on the western boast of Jutland, puts up northward from the German ocean, from which it is separated by a tong narrow sand bank. It is 35 miles long and do where more than eight broad.

The river Eyder, which forms the boundary between the dutchies of Sleswick and Holstein, rises near the eastern coast, and falls into the German ocean in lat. 54° 17' after a westerly course of more than 100 miles. The tide ascends 60 miles, and it is navigable thus far for vessels of 120 tons. The Elbe is the southern

boundary of the country, dividing the dutchies of Holstein and Lauenburg from the kingdom of Hanover.

Canal.] The canal of Kiel connects the Baltic with the river Eyder, and thus opens a communication between that sea and the German ocean. It is 22} miles long, 100 feet wide at the surface, 54 at the bottom, and at least 10 feet deep, and admits the passage of vessels of 120 tons. This canal was begun in 1777 and finished in 1784. The number of vessels that passed through it during the war of 1803, when the navigation by the Sound was interrupted, was from 3,000 to 4,000, and the tolls collected upon it afforded a considerable revenue.

Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.] The face of the country is a low plain interrupted by very few hills and no mountains. The principal ridge of hills runs through the peninsula of Jutland from north to south. It consists partly of gravel and partly of red sand, and produces only heath plants and low bushes. On the east side of this ridge the soil is fertile and productive; at the northern extremity it is sandy and dry ; on the western coast, it is fertile but marshy, and protected against the inroads of the sea partly by natural sand-heaps and partly by artificial dykes. The soil of Sleswick and Holstein is very fertile, particularly in the marshy districts along the coast. The principal productions are grain, large quantities of which are exported, potatoes, tobacco, madder, flax, hemp, &c. In Funen, Holstein and the south of Jutland the agriculture may be compared with that of England.

Animals.] The Danish horses, particularly those of Holstein, are admired for their beauty, strength, and speed, and are ex. ported in considerable numbers to Germany, France, Russia, and Sweden. The breed of horned cattle is also in general very good, and that of sheep has been of late years improved by intermixture with Merinos. Swine are raised in large numbers and furnish a large quantity of bacon for exportation to Norway, Holland and Lubec. Even the abundance of poultry is worthy of potice, as their feathers form an important branch of trade.

Climate.] The climate is temperate, and though the atmosphere during the greater part of the year is thick and cloudy as in England, the country is with few exceptions perfectly healthy. The winter is occasionally of extreme severity, and the sea is impeded with ice. The Sound has at times been crossed by heavy loaded carriages.

Chief Towns.] Copenhagen, the metropolis of Denmark, and the best built city in the north of Europe, is on the east coast of the island of Zealand about 20 miles from the narrowest part of the Sound. The harbor, which is formed by an arm of the sea running between the city and the oyposite island of Amack, is deep enough for vessels of the largest size, and sufficiently capacious to admit 500 merchantmen, while the entrance is so narrow that only one ship can enter at a time. The city is made up of three distinct parts, viz. The Old Town in the S. W. which is the largest and most populous part; the New Town or Freder

The popu

ickstown, in the N. W. some parts of which are extremely beautiful; and Christianshaven, in the south, on the island of Amack, separated from the rest of the town by the inlet that forms the harbor, over the narrowest part of which there are two bridges. The island of Amack is several leagues in circuit, and forins a succession of kitchen gardens and meadows, which furnish the city with vegetables, milk, butter, and cheese. Copenhagen is not only the residence of the court, but the seat of all the great public establishments of the kingdom. Among the public buildings and institutions are 20 churches, and several Jewish synagogues, 22 hospitals, a university, and a royal library of more than 250,000 volumes. The trade of the city is very extensive, and the shipping belonging to the port may be computed, on an average, at 400 vessels, manned by nearly 6,000 sailors. lation is computed at 105,000. Copenhagen was attacked by the British in 1807, and above 300 houses, including the cathedral and part of the university, were destroyed.

Altona, the second city in Denmark in size and importance, is on the Elbe two miles west of Hamburgh. It is well built and has 7 churches, an academy with seven teachers, and several manufactories. It carries on considerable inland and foreign commerce, and is extensively engaged in the fisheries. The number of vessels belonging to the port is 70, of which 30 are employed in the herring fishery. The population, according to Hassel, is 23,083, of whom 2,400 are Jews.

Kiel, the capital of Holstein, stands 51 miles N. of Hamburgh, at the bottom of a bay or gulf of the Baltic forming a convenient harbor, which is connected with the river Eyder by the canal of Kiel. A great annual fair takes place in January, but at other times there is little commercial activity. It has a university and 7,000 inhabitants. Sleswick, the capital of the dutchy of the same name, is 26 miles N.W. of Kiel, at the bottom of a long narrow bay of the Baltic, and contains 7,000 inhabitants. Flensborg, 16 miles north of Sleswick, has a fine harbor and a flourishing commerce. The population is 15,000, and the nunber of ships 250. Odensee, the capital of the island of Funen, is 86 miles W.S.W. of Copenhagen, on a river which runs into a large bay on the N. E. side of the island about a mile from the town. The population is 6,500. Aalborg, the capital of a bishopric of the same name in Jutland, stands on the south bank of the bay of Lymfiord, about 10 miles from its mouth. It has considerable commerce in corn and excellent herrings. The population is 6,000. Aarhuus, on a bay of the Cattegat, 48 miles S. of Aalborg, is the chief point of communication between Jutland and the island of Zealand. It has 6,000 inhabitants, and carries on a considerable commerce, no less than 100,000 tons of corn being annually exported. Gluckstadt, on the Elbe, 20 miles from its mouth, and 28 N. W. of Hamburgh, has a considerable number of vessels engaged in the whale fisheries. The population is 5,000.

Elsinore is a well known seaport in Zealand, 20 miles north of Copenhagen, on the west side of the Sound, nearly opposite to

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