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gerous. The principal chain of mountains is that elevated range which divides Sweden from Norway and from which numerous inferior ridges proceed towards the S. E. l'he whole country is diversified with extensive lakes, large transparent rivers, wild cataracts, gloomy forests, verdant vales, stupendous rocks and cultivated fields.
Lakes.] The lakes are very numerous in all parts of Sweden. Of these the most important are, 1. Molar lake, which is about 60 miles long and from 20 to 30 broad, and communicates with the Baltic at Stockholm. It is said to contain upwards of 1200 islands, great and small. 2. The lake of Hielmar, lying southwest of lake Malar and communicating with it by a rapid torrent. It is 40 miles long but of small width. 3. Lake Wetter, lying southwest of Hielmar lake, is 80 miles long but seldom more than 12 broad, and discharges its waters through the river Motala into the Baltic. 4. Lake Wener, lying N. W. of Jake Wetter, is the largest of all, being 80 miles long and in some places 50 broad, and discharges its waters through the river Gotba into the Cattegat.
Rivers.] The largest rivers in Sweden are called Elbs or Elfs. Gotha Elf, the outlet of lake Wener, leaves it at its 3. W. extremity, and pursuing a course W. of 3. for 70 miles discharges itself into the Cattegat by two mouths, several miles apart. Soon after leaving lake Wener it forms the famous cataracts of Trolthala. Numerous rivers fall into lake Wener, the most considerable of which is Clara Elf, which rises in Norway, in lake Foemund, a little south of the Dofrafield mountains, and pursuing a southeasterly course of about 280 miles discharges itself into lake Wener at Carlstad. The Gotha Elf is frequently considered as merely a continuation of the Clara Elf. The Motala, the outlet of lake Wetter, flows in an easterly direction, and passing by Norkoping, falls into the Baltic after a course of 65 miles.
The Dal is formed by two branches, both of which rise in the mountains on the borders of Norway, near lat. 62° N. It falls into the gulf of Bothnia about ten miles east of Geflle, after a circuitous course of more than 250 miles. Near its moutb is a celebrated cataract, esteemed little inferior to that of the Rhine at Schaffhausen, the breadth of the river being nearly a quarter of a mile, and the perpendicular height of the fall between 30 and 40 feet. There are numerous other rivers north of the Dal, which rise in the mountains on the western boundary and pursue a southeasterly course to the gulf of Bothnia. They are generally rapid in their course and incapable of navigation. The names of the most important, beginning in the south, are the Angerinan, the Umea, the Pitea, the Lulea, and the Tornea.
Canal.] There is canal around the cataracts of Trollbata in the river Gotha, which overcomes a fall of 130 feet. It is a mile long, 22 feet broad, and 9 feet deep, and in some parts is cut through the solid rock. This important undertaking, which was completed in 1800, opens a safe and commodious water commo
fication from Gottenburg to the extensive country around lake Wener. It is the intention of the Swedish government to prolong this line of navigation through the Wetter and several other Jakes to the eastero coast, thereby forming a direct communication between the Baltic and the German ocean, passing through the centre of the kingdom.
Roads.) Great attention has been paid by the government to the roads of Sweden. Though not so broad, they are as good as the English turnpikes. The traveller journeying many thousands of miles, and in every direction, will scarcely find one that deserves the name of indifferent. They are made with stone and gravel, yet no toll is exacted. Each landholder is obliged to keep a part in repair, proportioned to his property.
Climate.) The different parts of Sweden present considerable varieties of temperature ; but even in the middle regions winter maintains a long and dreary sway. The gulf of Bothnià be comes one field of ice, and travellers pass over it regularly to Russia. In the most southern provinces, where the mass of the population is centered, the climate may be compared to that of Scotland, which lies under the same parallel ; but the western gales from the Atlantic, which deluge the Scottish Highlands with perpetual rain, and form the chief obstacle to improvement are here little felt. In the north the summer is hot from the great length of the days, and vegetation arrives quickly at maturity. At Tornea, the sun is for some weeks visible at midnight; and the winter in return presents as many weeks of complete darkness. Yet these long nights are relieved by the light of the moon, by the reflection from the show, and by the Aurora Borealis, or northern lights, which dart their ruddy rays through the sky with an almost constant effulgence.
Soil and Productions. The soil of many parts of the northern districts is so full of stones and rocks, that there is scarcely room for a tree to take root, but ió the vallies and plains, wherever the climate permits, it is quite productive. The southern provinces are the most fertile, abd agriculture is here conducted with much skill and industry. The quantity of corn raised in the country is not sufficient for the consumption of its inhabitants. It is estimated that 6,400,000 tons are aanually produced, and 200,000 tons imported. The quantity of flax and hemp also is pot enough for the supply of the country, but of hops there is a šuperabundance. The immense forests which spread over the mountains yield excellent timber for masts and other purposes, and an abundance of tar and turpentine.
Minerals.] The principal mineral production is iron, and Swedish iron has long been celebrated as the best in the world. The mine of Dannemora, in the province of Upsal, is particularly celebrated for the superiority of the metal, which in England is called Oregrund iron, because it is exported from Oregrund, an adjacent port. The mine yields annually more than 4,000 tons of metal, and employs about 1200 persons. The chief copper mines are in the province of Stora Kopparberg near the town of Fahlun.
Sweden also produces lead, silver and gold, though not in large quantities.
Chief Towns.) Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, is situated at the junction of lake Malar with an inlet of the Baltic. The forma of the town is an irregular oblong, extending from north to south, while the waters cross it in two channels from east to west. The situation is extremely picturesque, as well on account of the lake and harbor, and the numerous islands which they contain, as from the unevenness of the surrounding country, which rises in some places in gentle eminences, and at others in abrupt rocks. Stockholm is generally described as standing on seven islands, but several of them are very small and contain only forts or buildings for Daval purposes. The harbor is perfectly safe and sufficiently çapacious to receive a thousand ships, and the largest of them may come close to the quays. It has, however, some disadvantages arising from the number of small islands and rocks at the mouth of the inlet from the Baltic, and from the delay occasionally experienced in coming up a winding channel from the sea, a distance of more than 20 miles. Stockholm in the commercial emporium of the central part of Sweden. Its connection with the interior is very extensive by means of lake Malar and various rivers and canals united with it. The town is well built, and contains 13 bridges, 22 churches, and numerous other public buildings, some of which are in a fine style of architecture. alation in 1815 was 73,000.
Gottenburg is a large and thriving town in the southwest of Sweden, near the mouth of the Gotha Elf. It stands in a marshy plain, surrounded by precipitous ridges of naked rocks, rising to the height of from 100 to 300 feet. The town is built parily on the plain and partly on the declivity of one of the ridges. In the lower part of the town the houses are all built on piles; the streets bere cross each other at right angles, and several of them are traversed by canals bordered with trees. The upper town is built with less regularity, but it has an imposing appearance, the houses rising one above another in the form of an amphitheatre. The barbor is formed by two long chains of rocks, about a quarter of a mile apart, and is defended by a fort on a small rocky island at the entrance. As a commercial and manufacturing town, Gottenburg ranks next to Stockholm, and it is more conveniently situated for foreign trade than any other place in Sweden. It is the seat of the Swedish East lodia Company, which has the exclusive privilege of importing East India commodities into the kingdom, and its commercial connections extend to all parts of Europe, to America, and the West Indies. The herring fishery was formerly carried on to a great extent, and there are several vessels engaged in the whale fishery. The amount of shipping is about 17,000 tons. The population in 1815 was 21,000.
Carlscrona, in the province of Blekingen, 220 miles S. S. W. of Stockholm, is the principal station of the Swedish navy. It is built on five rocky islands, which are connected together by bridges.
Phc harbor, which is capable of holding 100 ships of war, is de fended by two forts at the entrance and several others in the interior. Several noble docks have been formed here at an im. mense expense, one of which was cut out of the solid rock; the largest remains in an unfinished state. Carlscrona has considerable trade and 12,000 inhabitants.
Upsal, formerly the capital of Sweden, and residence of her kings, is 46 mmiles N. of Stockholm, in the middle of an open fertile plain. It is the seat of an archbishop who is primate of the kingdom, and has a famous university with an astronomical observatory. The Swedish geographers compute the longitude from the meridian of Upsal. The kings of Sweden are usually erowned here. The population is 4,897.
Gefle, 60 miles N. of Upsal, on the gulf of Bothnia, at the mouth of the river Gefle, has a good harbor, and considerable trade. The population is between 5,000 and 6,000. Fahlun, celebrated for the copper mines in its vicinity, is 110 miles N. N. W. of Stockholm, in the midst of rocks and hills between two Jakes. The population was formerly above 7,000, but does not now exceed 4,200, the great copper mines having become less produce live. Dannemora, the most celebrated iron mine in Sweden, is 30 miles N. of Upsal. In the neighbourhood of the mine are the establishments for smelting, hammering, and casting the iron; they form several villages of considerable size. The mines alone em ploy 1200 persons. Drottningholm is a royal palace four miles from Stockholm on an island in laké Malar, and is the usual summer residence of the king. Norkoping, on the Motala 76 miles S. W. of Stockholm, bas 9000 inhabitants, and considerable trade. Wisby, on the west coast of the island of Gothland, is a place of considerable trade. Lund, famous for its university, is near the southern extremity of the kingdom, within five miles of the coast, 100 miles S. W. of Carlscrona." Helsingborg is on the Sound, which separates Sweden from the island of Zealand.
Education. The University of Upsal, founded in 1476, had, in 1815, 21 professors and 1,200 students, of whom 269 were students of theology, 150 of law and 123 of medicine.
It has a library of 60,000 printed volumes and 1,000 manuscripts ; an observatory, a botanical garden and valuable cabinets of minerals and coins. The University of Lund has 15 professors, 300 students, a botanical garden, an observatory, and a library of 25,000 volumes. There are numerous literary and scientific associations io various parts of Sweden, particularly at Stockholm, and they have done much to raise the Yiterary reputation of the country. Common schools are established in every parish, and there are few persons to be found who cannot read and write.
Religion. The established religion is the Lutheran. There is one archbishop and 11 bishops, and the subordinate clergy are divided into several classes. The number of parishes is 2,537 and the whole number of clergy about 1,500.
Government. The government of Sweden is a limited hereditary monarchy. The supreme power is in the Diet, which is
composed of the King and the States. The King has the command of the army and navy, fills up all commissions, dominates to all civil offices, and appoints the judges of the various courts. He alone convenes and dissolves the States, has the disposal of the public money, declares war, and makes peace. The power of making laws and of laying taxes is vested in the Diet. The States are composed of four houses, 1. The House of Nobles, consisting of counts, barons, and untitled nobility. 2. The House of the clergy, composed of the archbishop, the bishops and a certain number of ecclesiastics chosen to represent the sobordinate clergy. 3. The House of citizens, consisting of representatives from 104 of the principal cities and towns in the kingdom. 4. The House. of peasants, chosen to represent that class of the community. The House of Nobles usually consists of 1,000 or 1,200 members; that of the clergy of 50 or 60 ; the House of citizens of 110 or. 120 ; and that of peasants of 160 or 170. In each of the Houses, the majority governs, and the assent of tbree houses and of the King is necessary to pass a law. “ Population.] The number of inhabitants in Sweden, in 1813, according to Hassel, was 2,407,206. More than mine tenths of this population is concentrated in the two southern districts of Gothland and Sweden proper, on less than one half of the territory. Reckoning the population of Norway at 930,000, that of the United kingdom will be 3,337,206.
Army and Navy.) The army consists, according to Hassel, of 41,567 men, without including that of Norway. The nary con• tains 12 ships of the line, and eight frigates, together with 200
smaller vessels for the protection of the coast, and the number of sailors is 15,000.
Revenue.] The revenue in 1816 amounted to 5,768,681 rix dollars, and the public debt to 15,781,221 rix dollars. About two. thirds of the debt being incurred in foreign countries and chiefly at Hamburgh, the country is overwhelmed with the paper money of that city; and the scarcity of gold and silper, and even of copper currency, is almost incredible.
Manufactures and Commerce.] The manufactures of Sweden are numerous but not entirely sufficient for the supply of her own population. Her commerce consists in the exchange of the products of her mines, forests and fisheries, for colonial produce and the manufactures of other countries. The principal exports are iron and iron ware, and next to these copper and other metals, herring and other tish, timber, tar and pitch. The imports are salt, corn, wine, colonial prodụce, and manyfactured goods. The trade extends to all parts of Europe, the East and West Indies and America. More than one half of all the foreign trade is car. ried on through the port of Stockbolm, and about one sixth through that of Goitenburg. The amount of merchant shipping belonging to Sweden in 1818 was 128,580 tons, and the number of seamen 9,417. The value of the exports is estimated on an average at $6,000,000, and of the imports at $5,500,000.