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safe, particularly in winter, owing to its great exposure to the winds from the east and south-east. To remedy this derett a strong wall of hewn stone has been built, 30 feet broad and nearly five miles long, extending directly into the bay, and terminated by a handsome light-house. It was begun in 1748, and finished within 7 years. The river Liffy, from the point where it enters the bay, is embanked on both sides with a noble wall of freestone, forming a range of beautiful and spacious quays through the whole city, uninterrupted by any building whatever nearer to its sides than the breadth of a wide street, for nearly 3 miles. The river is crossed in its course through the city by six stone bridges, of which five are modern, and built in a handsome style of architecture.
The old part of the city is irregularly huilt, but that portion erected within the last 50 years, which is the most considerable, is laid out in broad streets with spacious and beautiful squares. The houses are generally brick, and from three to five stories bigh. There is perhaps no city which, in proportion to its size, can boast of a greater number of magnificent buildings. Among the public edifices are the castle, which occupies the centre of the city; the Royal exchange; the Commercial buildings; the Linen hall, a vast and massy pile of buildings forming the magazine for this staple manufacture of Ireland ; the custom house, a most magnificent structure, finished in 1790 ‘at an expence of £255,000; Trinity college ; and a splendid obelisk, 210 feet high, recently erected on an eminence at the west end of the city in honor of the duke of Wellington. The commerce of Dublin is very extensive, the amount of import duties alone paid at the custom house in 1817 was £945,000, a sum pearly as great as that of all the other ports in Ireland, together. The population is 187,939. The country around the bay of Dublin rises gradually on all sides from the shore, and is covered with a vast number of villas and villages, which produce a fine effect when viewed from the metropolis ; and this, together with the beauty of the bay itself, which has frequently been compared witb that of Naples, the mountains in the vicinity, and the peculiarly picturesque summits of those of Wicklow in the back ground, render the whole prospect strikingly beautiful.
Cork, the second city in Ireland, is 126 miles S. W. of Dublin. The principal part of the town is situated on an island formed by the river Lee, which divides into two branches a little above the town and unites again a little below it, encompassing a considerable extent of ground. The suburbs extend along the opposite banks of both branches, and are united with the rest of the town by several bridges. The public buildings are very plain in their appearance and the houses generally are far from elegant. The commerce of the town consists principally io the exportation of salted provision, butter, tallow and hides, and it is computed that 100,000 head of cattle are slaughtered and salted in a single season. Cork stands about 15 miles from the sea, and its harbor, or the Cove of Cork, nine miles below the town, has long been
celebrated for its safety and capaciousness. The entrance is deep and narrow, and defended by a strong fort on each side, and targe sums have been lately expended in fortifying two islands, which command the entrance. The population of Cork is estimated at 90,000.
Limerick, the third city in Ireland, is 94 miles S. W. of Dublin, on the Shannon, 60 miles from its mouth. A part of the town is on an island formed by the Shannon, and was formerly fortified, and esteemed one of the strongest places in Ireland, but the walls are now demolished. The commerce of the town is considerable, and the exports consist principally of beef and other provisions, and the imports are rum, sugar, tobacco, timber, wine, salt, &c. The population is about 50,000.
Belfast is 80 miles N. of Dublin, on the west side of the small river Lagan, at its entrance into Belfast Lough or Carrickfurgus bay. It manufactures large quantities of linen and cotion goods, and has extensive commerce, particularly with the West Indies and America. The value of the exports, which consisted principally of linen, beef, pork and butter, amounted in 1810 to nearly £3,000,000. The progress of Belfast in population and commerce has been remarkably rapid. In 1782 the population amounted to only 13,000, while in 1816 it was computed at 30,000. The custom-house duties in 1800 were only £62,668 and in 1816, £349,417.
Among the other important towns are the following. Galway is on the north side of the bay of Galway, at the mouth of the short stony river which forms the outlet of Lough Corrib, and contains 12,000 inhabitants. Sligo is at the mouth of a small river which falls into the head of the bay of Sligo and contains 10,000 inhabitants. Londonderry is pleasantly situated on the west bank of Foyle river near its entrance into Lough Foyle. It has an extensive commercial intercourse with the West Indies and America, and contains 18,000 inhabitants. Newry, 30 miles S. S. W. of Belfast, on Newry water which falls into Carlingford bay, has 15,000 inhabitants and considerable manufactures and commerce. Drogheda is situated on both sides of the Boyne, 1 few miles from its mouth. It contains 15,000 inhabitants, an: carries on considerable trade in the exportation of large quantities of corn, and in the importation of coals and other heavy commodities, which are carried up the river and distributed through the interior, by means of a canal. Wexford, at the mouth of the Slaney, 60 miles S. of Dublin, has considerable woollen mannfactures and a population of 9,000. The harbor is spacious, but not deep enough for large vessels. Waterford is on the Suit which soon after joing the Barrow, and forms the bay called Waterford harbor. It has considerable commerce, and packetboats sail regularly to and from Milford-Haven. The population is 35,000.
Canals.] The Grand canal connects the river Shannon with Dublin bay. It commences on the Shannon, about half way between lake Ree and lake Derg, and terminates in the city of
Dublin, in a wet dock on the south side of the Liffy. Another Ganal connects Dublin with the river Boyne: it terminates in a wet dock on the north side of the Liffy. Both these canals are naviyated by boats of 60 tons burden. In the N. E. part of the island there are two canals; one opening a communication between Lough Neagh and Belfast bay on the east, and another connecting the same lake with Carlingford bay on the south.
Education. Trinity college in Dublin is the only university in Ireland. It was founded by queen Elizabeth, and consists of a provost, 25 fellows, and 70 scholars. There are 13 professors, and in 1818 the number of students was 1209. Attached 19 the university are a printing office, an anatomy house, an observatory, and a library of 68,946 volumes. The education of the lower classes has been almost entirely neglected. Within a few years, however, societies have been formed by the benevolent in Great Britain for the establishment of schools in Ireland, and their efforts have been attended with much success. in 1817 there were 27,000 children receiving instruction in the schools of the Hibernian society.
Government.] Since 1800 Ireland has been inseparably united with Great Britain, and the two countries are styled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Ireland sends 100 representatives to the house of communs, and 28 members to the house of lords as the representatives of the Irish peerage, besides five spiritual lords.
Religion. The established religion is that of the church of England; but it is computed that three fourths of the people are Catholics, and of the remaining fourth about one half are Presby. terians. The Catholics were forinerly very severely oppressed, being deprived of every civil privilege, and subjected to varius penalties, on account of their religion. This system of intolerance is now considerably mitigated. The Catholics have been long freed from all penalties in consequence of their religion, and the road to civil and military distinction has been opened to them, with some reservation of the higher offices.
Population and Character.] The population of Ireland has about doubled within the last 70 years. In 1754 it was 2,372,634, and at present it is estimated at more than 4,500,000. The manners of the superior classes in Ireland very much resemble those of the English. The Irish gentry seld m devote themselves to literature or science, but amuse themselves with hunting and other robust exercises. Hence an overflow of health and spirits; and the observation of an able writer that Ireland produces the stoutest men, and the finest women in Europe, must not be confined to the inferior classes. The Irish peasantry are, in general, sunk in poverty and ignorance. They are lodged in miserable mud hovels with one door, and frequently without either window or chimney. They go almost naked, and their food consists almost entirely of milk and potatoes. These remarks apply to the southern part of the island ; the north of Ireland, having been
planted by colonies of the English and Scotch, the institutions and manners of all ciasses of the people resemble those of the parent countries.
Manufactures and Commerce. The manufacture of linen is the staple branch of Irish industry, but the cotton manufacture is spreading very rapidly, and the distillation of spirits has long been carried on to a great extent. The principal exports are lineo, corn, butter, provisions, hides, and whiskey. The valve of the exports in 1816 was £6,703,799, and of the imports £5,084,890. The number of vessels belonging to Ireland is about 1,200, navigated by between 5,000 and 6,000 sailors.
Natural Curiosities.) The Giants Causeway is the most remarkTM able curiosity in Ireland. It consists of a surprising collection of basaltic pillars on the northern coast, about eight miles N. E. of Coleraine. It projects into the sea to an unknown extent, but the part explored is about 600 feet long and from 120 to 240 broad. The pillars are mostly in a vertical position, and their beight is from 16 to 36 feet above the level of the strand : in some places, for a considerable space, they are of an equal height so as to form a level pavement. They are usually from 15 to 24 inches in diameter, and are rarely composed of one entire piece, but consist of short or long joints with the surfaces where they meet either flat, or concave with convex corresponding. The form of the pillars is very various ; sometimes it is square, sometimes three-sided, sometimes hexagonal and often heptagonal, but the most numerous are pentagonal.
The lake of Killarney is remarkable for its picturesque scenery, and for several natural curiosities. It is about 10 miles long and from one to seven broad, and is divided into three parts, called the Lower, Middle and Upper lakes. The shores of the Lower lake are diversified with the most beautiful scenery, and on the south side are fofty mountains, from one of which O'Sullivan's gascade falls into the lake with a tremendous roar, opposite the romantic island of lonisfallen, the seat of an ancient poted abbey. In the Middle lake is the celebrated rock called the Eagle's Nest, a place wonderful for its echoes; the sound of a bugle born producing tones equal to 100 instruments, and the discharge of a musket causing a succession of peals equal to the loudest thunder, The Upper lake is entirely surrounded by mountains, and pear the summit of one of them is a circular lake, called the Devil's Punch Bowl, which, from its immense depth and continual overflow of water, is considered as one of the principal curiosities of Killarney. After heavy rains the water falls down the side of the mountain in the form of a beautiful cascade.
Situation anul Extent.] Norway is bounded W. and N. by the Atlantic ocean; E. by Russia and Sweden; and S. by the Skager Rack. It extends from the Naze in lat. 58° N. to the North cape in lat 71° 11' N. The breadth of the country is very different in different parts. The part below the parallel of 62° 30' N. lat. is much the broadest, forming a compact territory 350 miles long by 250 broad. The part of the country lying north of this parallel is a long narrow territory included between the mountains and the sea. The number of square miles in Norway is estimated at 161,000.
Divisions. Norway is divided into five governments or dioceses, viz. Aggerhuus or ('hristiania, in the S. E.; Christiansand in the S. W.; Bergen in the W; and Drontheim and Nordland, long narrow provinces, in the N.; to which may be added Finmark or Norwegian Lapland, a dreary and in hospitable region, lying still farther north. The extent and population of these divisions are given in the following table : Divisions. Extent in sq. miles. Population. Pop. on a sq. .m. Aggerhuus, 37,327
10 Christiansand, 14,877
10 Drontheim 22,858
8 Nordland and
Sea Coast.] The coas tof Norway stretches in a long line from $. W. to N. E. and is deeply indented with bays and creeks. It presents also a succession of islands of various sizes, some of wbich are barren and uninhabited, and others contain tolerable pasture, and many of them afford convenient stations for the fisheries. The shore of Norway is often bold, and the sea of great depth in the immediate vicinity of the rocks.
Mountains. The great Scandinavian range passes, under various names, through the whole extent of this country from N. E. to S. W. Above the parallel of 62° 30' N. lat. it forms the boundary between Norway and Sweden. Below that parallel its course lies wholly in Norway; and here it proceeds at first in a westerly direction under the name of the Dofrafield mountains, forming the boundary between the governments of Aggerhuus and Drontheim, and approaching very near to the western coast: it then turns to the south, and under the name of the Langfield mountains, divides the government of Aggerhuus from that of Bergen, and