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£1,000,000; 18 works for weaving by power, which contain 28J0 looms, producing 8400 pieces of cloth weekly, beside about 32,000 haod looms, 18 calico printing-works, and 9 iron foundries. There are many magnificent public buildings in Glasgow of which the cathedral or high church, is the chief. It has a celebrated university, 35 churches and numerous charitable institutions. The growth of the city witbin the last 40 years has been remarkably rapid. In 1780 the population was 42,832, in 1811, 111,460, and it is now estimated at 120,000. Port Glasgow is on the frith of Clyde, 20 miles below the city of Glasgow, and is chiefly dependent on it for trade. It contains 5,000 inhabitants.
Greenock, the chief seaport of Scotland, is on the frith of Clyde 2 miles below Pori Glasgow. It has a commodious harbor capable of containing 500 ships, and the town is extensively engaged in the foreign trade, coasting trade and tisheries. The population in 1811 was 19,042.
Paisley is a large manufacturing town, 7 miles S. by W. of Glasgow, on the river White Cart, a branch of the Clyde, which is pavigable to the town for vessels of 40 or 50 tons. Paisley bas long been celebrated for its manufactures, particularly for all kinds of fancy goods, in silk and cotton,goods which,for fineness and elegance, are altogether unrivalled. In 1805 the various manufactures employed 29,030 persons, and the value produced was about £1,500,000. The growth of the town within the last 40 years has kept pace with that of Glasgow. In 1782 the population was 19,700, in 1820 about 46,000.
Aberdeen, the principal city of Scotland north of the Forth, is situated on a rising ground between the rivers Don and Dee, at their efflux into the German ocean. It has a safe and spacious barbor, which has been formed at great expence, but there is a bar at the mouth which prevents the entrance of large vessels. Trade and manufactures of various kinds are actively prosecuted, and to a large extent, but the city is principally famous for its university. The population is 21,629. Old Aberdeen, which is on the Don about a mile to the north, is a distinct town. It contains also a university and 1,911 inhabitants.
Dundee, on the norih bank of the frith of Tay, about 12 miles from its mouth, has a commodious harbor, easily admitting vessels of large borden, and furnished with a wet dock and various other improvements on an extensive scale. The inhabitants, 30,989 in number, are chiefly engaged in the linen manufacture. Perth is on the Tay, in an uncommonly beautiful and pictu. esque country, 22 miles west of Dundee. It bas been the scene of many important transaction recorded in Scottish history. It contains 17,248 inhabitants. Stirling,often the residence of the ancient kings of Scotland, and celebrated for many bloody battles fought in its vicinity, is on the Forth, 35 miles N. W. of Edinburgh. St. Andrews is on the coast between the frith of Forth and the frith of Tay, 39 miles N. N. E. of Edinburgh. Population 3,300.
Universities and Academies.] The University of Edinburgh has long been celebrated, particularly for the eminent qualit
cations of its professors. As a medical school it has attained to bigh repute, and has long been resorted to on this account from the most remote quarters. The whole number of students attending the university in 1818 was 2,000. The library consists of more than 50,000 yolumes, and there is an excellent museum of natural history. The botanic garden occupies a surface of nearly five acres.
The University of Glasgow had, in 1814, 16 professors and more than 1,400 students. It has a valuable and extensive library, founded upwards of two centuries ago, in which there are many very rare books, and the late celebrated Dr. William Hunter of London bequeathed to the university his whole museum, one of the most valuable collections in Europe, of natural history, paintings, medals, anatomical preparations, books, &c.
Aberdeen University is composed of two colleges, each of which is styled an university. King's college, in Old Aberdeen, had in 1817, 8 professor, 187 students, and a library of 13,000 volumes. Marischal college, in New Aberdeen, had in 1817, 10 professors, 212 students, a library of 10,000 volumes, and an observatory, a museum, and a very coinplete philosophical apparatus. There are more than 100 theological students, who alternately atiend each university. The two institutions, however, are quite distinct and independent of each other, and some attempts for their union under one system have proved abortive.
The University of St. Andrews was formerly composed of three colleges, St. Salvador's, St. Leonard's and St. Mary's. The two former were united in 1747. The United college has 8 professors and usually about 140 students. St. Mary's college' is merely a theological seminary, and has 4 professors and usually about 25 students. There is a library common to both institutions consisting of 36,000 volumes.
Anderson's academical institution, founded in the city of Glasgow in 1796, is handsomely endowed and has a valuable philosophical apparatus, library and museum. It is designed to afford a regu. hir course of instruction in certain branches of science to those persons who do not intend to enter any of the universities, including the ladies; and accordingly courses of popular lectures are given on natural and experimental philosophy, on mathematics, chemistry, botany and natural history. The lectures are attended by great numbers of mechanics and manufacturers, and it may with safety be affirmed that in no city in Europe is the knowledge of chemistry and mechanics so universally diffused as in Glasgow. The High-School at Edinburgh, the principal grammar school of the city, is under the direction of a rector and 4 masters, and bas more than 300 scholars.
Common Schools.] In no country is there more ample provision made for the education of the common people than in Scotland. In every parish a school is established by law, in which are taught reading, writing and arithmetic. The effect of this regulation has been of the happiest character; a spirit of improvement per
vades the whole community, and a more moral, orderly, and weli instructed people than the Scotch can nowhere be found.
Language.] The language of the low country is English with a mixture of the Scotch, which, however, among the better classes is fast giving way to the English, and as a spoken language is in some danger of becoming obsolete. If this should ever happen, however, some fine specimens of the dialect and manners of Scotland will still be found in her ancient poetry and songs. Ferguson and Burns have also contributed to preserve the native tongue of ancient Caledonia, and the late admirable productions by the author of Waverly contain such a rich store of Scotch phraseology, enlivened with such fine pictures of the Scotch character and manners, that the language, however it may be disused in ordinary discourse, cannot wholly perish. The language of the Highlanders is that species of the Celtic, called in Scotland Gaelic or Earse, which seems to be the same with that spoken loy the Welch and Irish.
Religion.] Presbyterianism is the established religion; and those attached to this denomination constitute more than nine tenths of the people. This system is founded on a parity of ecclesiastical authority among the clergy, all its ministers being held equal in rank and power. It is also exceedingly simple in its forms, admitting of no outward splendor or ceremony, nor any of those aids to devotion which are supposed to be derived from painting and music. There are in Scotland 899 parishes, and 938 clergymen helonging to the established church, who discharge the duties of the pastoral office in their several parishes. They are assisted by elders, who are selected from the congregation for the propriety of their conduct; these with the minister compose a kirk.session, which is the lowest ecclesiastical judicature in Scotland. The ministers of several contiguous parishes constitute a presbytery, which has cognizance of the conduct of the clergy, and of all ecclesiastical matters within its bounds. Synods form the next gradation in the scale of ecclesiastical judicature. They are composed of several presbyteries, and of a ruling elder from every kirk-scssion within their bounds. They are courts of appeal, and review the procedure of the presbyteries. The general assembly consists of delegates from presbyteries, universities and royal boroughs to the number, in all, of 361. This assembly is the highest ecclesiastical couri, to which all clergvmen are amenable, and which judges in the last resort, in all appeals from inferior courts. This court meets annually in May, and sits ten days. The clergy are in general very moderately provided for, their stipend seldom amounting to more than a bare competence.
Manners and Customs.] The Scots are commonly divided into two classes, viz. the Highlanders and Lowlanders, differing from each other in language, manners and dress. About half a century ago the Highlanders were divided into tribes called Clans. The inferior orders were vassals of particular chiefs, to whom they were strongly attached, and on whom they relied for that safety,
which the laws alone were not able to insure them. The rents of the farms which the vassals occupied were inconsiderables and paid chiefly in military service. They bestowed no more attention on the cultivation of the soil tban was barely sufficient to gain a subsistence. Most of their time was wasted in indolence or amusement, unless when their chieftain summoped them to avenge, on some neighboring tribe, an insult or injury. In winter evenings, around a common fire, the youth of both sexes assem bled for the song, the tale, and the dance. A taste for music was prevalent among them. Their vocal strains were plaintive and inelancholy; their instrumental airs were either lively for the dance, or martial for the battle. Every family of note retained a historian, to narrate its heroic deeds and feats of valor, or a bard who sang the praises of the chieftain and his clan. They were distinguished for their hospitality Strangers who ventured to penetrate into their fastnesses, were received and treated with cordiality and affection; but they themselves seldom went abroad except for the purpose of devastation or plunder. Their dress resembled that of the ancient Romans, cansisting of a light woollen jacket, a loose garment that covered the thigh, a plaid wrapt round them in the form of a Roman toga ; and a bonnet, for the bead. They went constantly armed with a dirk and pistols, always ready to resist an assault, or revenge a provocation. Their religion was deeply tinctured with superstition. They believed in ghosts and apparitions, and the power of the second sight or the ability of some favoreil individuals to foresee future events.
Bot the state of society in the Highlands has been greatly changed since the rebellions in 1715 and 1745. The Roman dress and the use of arms hare since that iime been prohibited by government; and roads have been constructed at vast expence, opening an easy communication with the low country. The chieftains are now no longer petty monarchs, and the services of their vassals are not requisite for their defence or aggrandizement. Divested of their legal authority, they now endeavor 10 preserve their influence by wealth, and with this view their attention is directed to the improvement of their estates. A spirit of industry has been excited among the tenants, and, in many places, arts and manufactures are encouraged. The Highlami gentleman now differs very little from an inhabitant of the southern counties.
Government.] Since 1603 Scotland and England have been united under one great monarchy. In the British house of lords the Scotch nobility are represented by 16 peers. In the house of commons, the freeholders of the counties, amounting to about 2,429, are represented by 30 commissioners or knights of the shire; the royal boroughs, which are 65 in number, are divided into 14 districts, wbich return as many members, elected by'a delegate from each borough ; and the city of Edinburgh sends ene member, making, together, 45. Scotland still retains her own ancient laws and judicial institutions.
Revenue.] At the time of the union of Scotland with England; the proportion of revenue furnished by Scotland to the common treasury it is supposed, was ao more than one thirty sixth part of the whole ; but now, at least one seventeenth of the revenue of Great Britain is drawn from Scotland. The amount in 1814 was 14,483,014.
Munufactures.] For a considerable time after the union with England, Scotland appears to have made little progress in manufactures, but about the middle of the last century a spirit of enterprise and ingenuity was excited, which has ever since continued, and has carried the country to a high degree of perfection in all the great branches of its industry. The principal manufactures are cotton goods, especially those of a tiner quality. Glasgow, Paisley, and the surrounding districts, are the chief seats of the cotton manufactures. There are several great ironworks in Scotland, and that at Carron near Falkirk, 26 miles N.W. of Edinburgh, deserves particular notice, being the largest iron-manufactory in Europe. There are 20 furnaces for the various operations, which consume about 200 tons of coal every week, and the whole works employ more than 2,000 persons. AU kinds of iron goods are manufactured at Carron, particularly steam-engines, cylinders, boilers, heavy ordnance, and other ponderous apparatus used in war or the arts. The whole value of the articles annually manufactured in Scotland is estimated at £14,189,136, of which cotton goods constitute £6,964,486 ; linen goods £1,775,000 ; woollen goods £450,000 ; and all other articles £5,000,000.
Cominerce.] The commerce of Scotland consists principally in the exchange of her manufactures for the raw produce of other countries. It has very greatly increased since the middle of the last century. In 1755 the imports were 465,411 l. and the exports 535,576 l. In 1810 the imports were 3,671,158 l. and the exports 4,470,239 l. having increased about eight-fold in little more than half a century. The amount of shipping in 1760 was 53,913 tons, and in 1800, 171,728 tons, manned by 14,820 men. Since 1800 it has greatly increased.
Islands.] The islands of Scotland are numerous and important, and fall naturally into three grand divisions ; the Hebrides or Western islands ; the Orkneys; and the islands of Shetland.
The Hebrides lie at various distances from the west coast of Scotland between 55" 30' and 58° 28' N. lat. and between 4° 52 and 7° 40' W. lon. They are nearly 200 in number, of which about 87 are peopled with 66,000 inbabitants. Their superficial contents exceed 2,800 square miles, or 1,792,000 acres, of which not one sixth part is cultivated. The soil in some parts is fertile, but at least two thirds of the whole is barren, and unfit for cultivation.
The names of the principal islands, beginning in the south, are, Arran and Bute in the frith of Clyde; Islay, on the western side of the peninsula of Cantire ; Jura, the most rugged of all the Hebrides, separated from Islay on the S. IV. by a narrow strait