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the’representatives of the Irish peeraye. The house of com. inops consists of 658 members, viz. 513 representatives from England and Wales, 45 from Scotland, and 100 from Ireland. These are elected by the people in the counties, cities and horoughs. The king, lords and commons, constitute the legislature, and their joint consent is necessary to the passing of every law. The king has the sole power of convoking, proroguing, or dissolving the legislature. The same parliament, if not previously dissolved, continues for the term of seven years, after which the constitution requires that a new election shall take place. The executive power resides wholly in the crown, and all honors and offices of the state are dispensed by the sovereign. The conduct of every officer, however, whether civil or military, is subject to the investigation of parliament, which may address the crown for the removal of any of its servants, in which case a compliance with its wishes immediately follows.
Judicature.] Justice, both civil and criminal, is adıninistered by judges appointed by the crown, but who hold i heir offices inde. pendent of it. The decisions of the judges in the various courts bave long been famed for their strict impartiality. The trial by jury is an admirable feature of English jurisprudence, and is justly considered as one of the safeguards of liberty and property. The criminal law is censured as sanguinary, and it is certain that of the numerous persons condemned to death for petty crimes, by far the greater part are respited by the humanity of the judges, and generally suffer the mitigated sentence of transportation.
Population.] The population of the United kingdom, in 1811, was about 17,000,000, divided as in the following table: England,
1,805,688 Army, Navy, &c,
640,500 Total in Great Britain,
--12,596,803 Ireland supposed,
Total in the United kingdom,
Nearly one half of the population are engaged in trade and manufactures, and about one third in agriculture.
Paupers.] The number of persons who received relief from the poor rates in 1815, in England and Wales, was more than 1,000,000, or one tenth of the whole population. The taxes for the support of the poor amounted in that year to nearly £8,000,000, while in Scotland they were only a few thousand pounds. In the latter country there are no poor rales, assessments for the support of the poor being made only on extraordinary occasions.
Education. The universities at Cambridge and Oxford are among the most celebrated in Europe. The university of Oxford consists of 20 colleges and 4 halls, each of which forms an estabkishment within itself, haviog its own students and teachers, and
ats own revenues and regulations, while they are all united under the government of the university. In addition to private officers in each college and hall, who see that due order and discipline are preseryed, and all the liberal sciences read and taught, there are numerous public lecturers and professors. The number of fellows is 444, and the whole number of members in the university boks is abont 3,000, of whom 1,000 are maintained on the revenues of the university, and the rest live at their own expence. Besides the colleges and balls, the other public establishments belonging to the university are the public schools, the Bodleian library, containing one of the most valuable collection of books and manuscripts in Europe, the Radcliffe library, the Clarendon printing-house and the Ashmolean museum.
The university of Cambridge consists of 13 colleges and four hails, each of which contains apartments for students and fellows, a chapel and a library. The whole number of fellows belonging to the university a few years since was 406, and of scholars 666, besides 236 inferior officers and servants, all of whom are maintained on the various endowments. The number of members supported at their own expence is upwards of 2000, but those who reside in the university during the term, seldom exceed 1000.
Besides the universities there are several celebrated colleges and public schools, among which are those in Winchester, Eton, and Westminster. The middle and higher ranks spare no expence in the education of their sons by private tutors. The education of the lower classes was formerly much neglected, but since the introduction of the Lancasterian system of education, numerous schools have been established. In 817 there were more than one thousand schools connected with the National Education Society, in which 200,000 children were enjoying the benefits of instructii n.
Religion.] The established religion of England is Episcopacy. According to the constitution the king is considered the supreme head of the church. Next to the king are the two archbishops of Canterbury and York, under whom are 25 bishops. The archbishop of Canterbury is the primate of all England, and takes precedence of all persons with the exception of the royal family. The next order of the clergy after the bishops is that of the archdeacons, of whom there are about 60; and after these are the deacons, vicars, rectors, and curates, on whom devolve the substantial duties of the priesthood. The whole number of clergy, in 1811, was 10,434 of whom 5,397 were residents, and 5,037 non-residents. The number of chapels and churches connected with the established church at the same period was 2,533. The dissenters from the established church are Papists, Presbyterians, Independents, Baptists, Methodists, and Quakers. The whole number of places of worship belonging to Dissenters in 1811 was 3,438.
Public Debt.] Great Britain having been frequently engaged in tedious and expensive wars, has been compelled to have recourse, in order to provide for temporary exigencies, 10 the practice of borrowing the sum wanted for the public service. 14
consequence of the facilities afforded by this system for raising the supplies, the country has gone on for nearly a century in adding to the load of its debt, until nearly half its income is now absorbed in the unprofitable expence of paying the interest due to the national creditors. In 1701 the national debt was only £6,748,080; in 1819 it was £791,867,313, and the interest about £30,000,000.
Revenue.] Taxation has kept pace with the accumulation of debt All the ordinary articles of consumption, every transfer, of property, every species of luxurious expence is subjected to heavy taxes. The most productive branches of the revenue are the excise, the customs, and the stamps, particularly the first. The amount of the revenue for the year ending 5th Jan. 1813, was £69,240,193; of which England yielded £59,014,416; Ireland £5,705,815, and Scotland £4,519,892.
Army] The army on the peace establishment, in 1815, con sisted of 129,000 men; but during the late war, the troops immediately belonging to the nation amounted to more than 600,000, and the whole number of men in arms throughout the British possessions was computed at above a million.
Navy.] The navy of Great Britain is far superior to that of any other nation on the globe. In 1811 it consisted of 254 ships of the line, 34 Gifty gun ships, 380 frigates, and 523 smaller vessels. For this immense fleet the number of seamen and marines amounted to 180.000, a number which no other country, ancient or modern, conid have supplied.
Manufactures. The manufactures of England are of vast extent and give employment to a large portion of her population; and such is the ingenuity of her numerous artizans, such are the contrivances invented for the abridgment of labor, such is the minuteness with which the industry of the country is divided; such the perfection to which the workmen, by patient perseverance, each in his own particular task, have brought their respective arts; and lastly, so great is the capital which has been accuinulated during ages of successful industry, that England, notwithstanding ber heavy taxation, and the high wages which are paid for labor, is still enabled in all the countries to which her commodities are exported, to undersell the foreign manufacturer in his own market, and to inundate almost every country in the world with English goods. The principal manufactures are those of cotion and woollen goods. Next to these are the hardware manufactures of iron and steel, copper and brass. The silk and linen manufactures are carried on in England, but not to any great extent. The manufacture of stockings is an important branch of industry in several counties, especially in Notting. hamshire. English carthenware is finished with beauty and taste, and in great variety, principally at the potteries in Staffordshire ; and glass is manufactured in various parts, chiefly in Newcastle, Sunderland and Bristol. China ware of a very superior quality is made in Derby and Worcester. In London every sort of fine and elegant manufacture is carried on.
Commerce.] The commerce of Great Britain extends to every portion of the globe. It consists almost entirely in the exchange of her manufactures for the rude produce of other countries. The value of the imports in 1814 was £21,362,124, and of the exports £37,847,874. There are employed in carrying on this extensive trade about 17,000 vessels, of the burden of about 2,100,000 tons, and navigated by 130.000 men and boys.
Fisheries. England has extensive fisheries both at home and abroad. Salmon are caught in most of her rivers, and the seas around her coasts yield herrings, mackerel, pilchards, wbite fish and an abundance of shell-fish. The Newfoundland fisheries at one time employed a considerable number of vessels. The whale fishery both in the North and South seas is prosecuted to a great extent.
Islands.] The isle of Wight is situated opposite the coast of Hampshire, from which it is separated by a channel varying in breadth from two to seven miles. At the distance of about 70 miles from Wight to the S. W. arises the little isle of Alderney, off the Cape la Hogue on the French coast, and still farther to the S. W. and S. are Guernsey and Jersey with the small island of Sark interposed between them. Returning to the English shore, we first descry off Plymouth sound Eddistone Lighthouse, on a rock beat by all the fury of the ocean, the waves sometimes washing over the very summit in one sheet of foam. About 30 miles to the west of the Land's End, appear the isles of Scilly, said to be 145 in number, besides innumerable dreary rocks. The island of vinglesea lies off the N. W. coast of Wales, and the isle of Man, the last of the English isles worthy of notice, is in the Irish sea at about an equal distance from England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Situation and Extent.] Scotland is bounded W. and N. by the Atlantic ocean ; E. by the German ocean; S. E. by England, from which it is separated in part by the river Tweed; s. by Solway frith ; and S. IV, by that part of the Irish sea called the North Channel. It lies between 54o and 59° N. lat. but including the Shetland and Orkney Islands, it extends to 61° 12'. and between 1° and 5° W. Jon. bui the Western islands extend much farther! Including all the islands it contains 30,238 square miles, of which 638 are occupied by lakes and rivers.
Divisions] Scotland is divided into 33 counties, which are subdivided into 877 parishes.
Pop. in 1811.
46,153 23,419 23,629 60,853 78,415 85,585 12,033
8,251 28,108 34,100 136,903
27,439 107,264 135,093 101,279
7,245 12,010 58,174 24,189 19,451 148,444 31,164 39,779 92,596 103,954
Rivers.) Scotland has numerous rivers, which are for the most part short and rapid. Their banks, in the upper part of their course, generally display the finest and most picturesque scenery; the falls and cascades, which are everywhere frequent, greatly adding to the effect. The principal rivers which discharge themselves into the German ocean, beginning in the south, are the Tveerd, which forms for a few miles the boundary between Eng. land and Scotland; the Forth, which discharges itself by a broad mouth into the Frith of Forth after an E.S.E. course of 200 miles ; the T'ay, the largest river in Scotland, and celebrated for its salmon firleries ; the North and South Esk, the latter forming the harbor of Mou'rose, and the former falling into the ocean three miles farther to the north; the Dee and the Don, the first forming the harbor of Aberdeen, and the mouth of the second be