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the poiot where the two rivers meet the town extends westward nearly two miles along the north bank of the Humber, and rather more aorthward along the west bank of the Hull. From the streets which line the Hull and the Humber others branch off joto the interior; from the former towards the west, and from the latter towards the north, crossing each other in various places, though irregularly. There are numerous docks along the banks of the rivers, some of which are of great extent. The old dock, which enters immediately from the river Hull, about 300 yards from its mouth, is 200 yards long, 85 feet wide and 22 feet deep, covering an area of 10 acres, and capable of containing 130 vesgels of 300 ions. Almost the whole town is of brick, and in general well built, paved, and lighted.
The town is admirably situated for trade ; the Humber, on which it'stands, being the common outlet of the Derwent, the Ouse, the Aire, the Don, and the Trent ; rivers which spread out widely and open communications with all the northern and central parts of ihe kingdom. The foreign trade is principally to the Baltic; but a regular traffic is also kept up with the southern parts of Europe, the West Indies and America. Hull is more extensively engaged in the whale fishery, by far, than any other porț în Britain. The number of whale ships for several years past has been about 60. "The population of the town in 1811 was 26,792, but including sailors and the adjoining villages it is upwards of 40,000.
Portsmouth, the principal rendezvous of the British navy, is in the English channel, on the west side of the island of Portsea, at the mouth of the bay termed Portsmouth harbor. This harbor decidedly excels every other in Great Britain for capaciousness, depth and security. It is capable of containing almost the whole British navy, and the largest ships may ride in it with safety in the most violent storms, and without touching the ground even at the lowest tide. Another capital advantage of the harbor is the neighborhood of the famous roadstead of Spithead, between Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight, which is so spacious that it can contain 1,000 sail of vessels in the greatest security. The dockyard of Portsmonth is a vast establishment, provided with every thing necessary for building, repairing and equipping the largest fleets. More than 4,000 workmen have been sometimes employed in it at one time. The fortifications of the town are the most complete and regular in Great Britain, and are deemed impregnable. The population in 1811, including the suburbs, was 40,567
Plymouth, celebrated for its harbor and docks, is 216 miles W. by S. of London, at the head of the capacious haven of Plymouth Sound, which is formed at the confluence of the rivers Plym and Tamar. The Plym enters on the E. side of the Sound, and the Tamar on the W. and the buildings extend over the tongue of land included hetween them. The town of Plymouth occupies the eastern part of this tongue of land being at the mouth of the Plym, and about a mile and a half to the west, on the Tamar, stands the Dock, or Plymouth Dock, a separate town, but con
nected with Plymouth by a continued line of buildings. The harbor, which is very secure and sufficiently capacious to contain about 2,000 sail of shipping, consists of several parts. Catwater harbor is formed by the estuary of the Plym. The Hamoaze, which is occupied by the navy, is a magnificent basin at the mouth of the Tamar, about four miles long and balf a mile wide, and is filled with moorings of large iron chains for 100 sail of the line. The dock-yard of Plymouth extends in a circular sweep along the shores of the Hamoaze, 3,500 feet in length, with a width in the middle of 1600 feet, and at each extremity of 1000,thus including an area of 96 acres. It is provided with docks, an anchor-manufactory, rope-walks, sail-Tofts, and magazines of naval stores of every description on a most magnificent scale.
Plymouth Sound, which lies in front of the Hamoaze and Cat water harbors, forins now an excellent roadstead, being rendered secure by the construction of the breakwater across its, entrance. This work, which has been going on for years, and is not yet finished, is the greatest of the kind ever undertaken in Great Britaio. It is designed as a barrier against the heavy swell, which is here almost continually rolling in from the Atlantic, and consists of a mole or vast beap of stones stretching across the entrance of the Sound, and occupying nearly half its width in the middle, leaving a free passage for vessels both on the east and west sides. It is to be 5100 feet, or nearly a mile long, 210 feet wide at the bottom, 30 feet at the top, and 40 feet high. The stones are taken from a quarry on the shore of the Sound in large blocks, not less than 1 or 2 tons each, and are dropped promiscuously together and left to find their own base and position. It is calculated that 2,000,000 tons of stone will be required to finish it, and the expense is estimated at £1,171,000. The result has fully answered the expectations of its projectors. In its present unfinished state 200 vessels have here found shelter, and 25 or 30 sail of the line may now ride here at all times in security. The population of Plymouth, in 1811, including the Dock and the suburbs, was 56,060.
Manchester, the great centre of the cotton trade, the greatest manufacturing town in the kingdom, and except London and Liverpool, the first in population, industry and wealth, is situated on both sides of the Irwell, a branch of the Mersey, 37 miles E. of Liverpool. It has risen to its present consequence entirely by its manufactures, and the various trades growing out of them. Of these manufactures, by far the principal, and the source of most of the rest, is that of cotton goods. The greater part of the cotton trade of Great Britain, which, besides its own consumption, supplies that of nearly all Europe, America, and the West Indies, and even partiy of India, centres in Manchester, extending to the towns around it in all directions for 40 or 50 miles. The various branches of the manufacture are carried on more or less through all this district; but by far the most extensive, especially the spinning, in Manchester. Manchester is, besides, the centre from which the raw material is distributed through all parts of the dise
trict, and into which the scattered merchandize is again collected, when finished, to be seot 10 Hull, Liverpool and London, and thence all over the world. The spinning, weaving, and various other operations connected with the manufacture, are performed by machinery, and nearly the whole of these machines are now set in motion by the steam engine. The erection and keeping up of this various and complicated machinery has given rise to great iron founderies, and numerous other subordinate establishments. The.principal cause which has rendered Manchester so great an emporium of manufactures is its natural situation in the midst of inexhaustible fields of coal, and on the banks of a navigable river, by means of which, and of the various canals connected with it, an uninterrupted water communication is maintained with the western and eatern coasts of the island, and all parts of the interior. The population, within the last fifty years, has rapidly increased. In 1757 it was 19,800; in 1811, 98,000 and at present is estimated at more than 110,000. The public buildings, houses, literary and charitable institutions, &c. are in a style corresponding with the opulence of the inhabitants.
Leeds, the principal seat of the woollen trade, is on the north bank of the river Aire, which is navigable from the Humber up to the town, whence the Leeds and Liverpool canal proceeds on the other hand to the west. It has thus an easy communication with the great depots on the opposite shores of the kingdom, and being amply supplied with coal from the neighboring mines, it is admirably situated for a manufacturing town. The most remarkable buildings in Leeds are the two cloth halls, where all the great sales of woollen cloth take place. The largest, where the dyed cloths are sold, is 382 feet long and 198 broad, and is divided into six departments, resembling covered streets, cach containing two rows of stands. The whole number of stands is 1800. The markets are held on Tuesdays and Saturdays, and merchants are not permitted to buy or even look at the cloth at any other time. The market opens with the ringing of a bell: in a few minutes the hall is filled with merchants ; each manufacturer appears behind his own stand, and the sales immediately begin. At the end of an hour and 20 minutes the bell again strikes and terminates all the proceedings. Yet in this short space sales are often made to the amouut of £20,000. The white cloth halt opens wben the other shuts, and is under similar regulations. The first stages of the manufacture of woollen cloth are carried on in the towns and villages of the surrounding district, where the wool goes through the operations of spinning, weaving and fulling. From all these scattered establishments the cloth is sent in its rough state to the cloth halls of Leeds, and the Leeds merchant completes the unfinished manufacture. The population of the town in 1811 was 62,534.
Birmingham, situated 87 miles N. of Bristol, and 109 N. N. W. of London, has been long distinguished as one of the first cities in the world for the variety and importance of its manufactures. It has been especially famous for metallic articles, particularly
those of iron. Here are manufactured steam engines, and other heavy iron machinery, muskets, and all sorts of fire-arros, locks, hinges, buttons, pins,screws, buckles, watch chains, vast quantities of toys, &c. Here also is a crining mill which is capable of striking between 30,000 and 40,000 pieces of money in an hour. In the various operations connected with these manufactures, every complicated and ingenious contrivance is employed from the most ponderous machines, such as steam engines, down to those framed for the most nice and minule accuracy. The prosperity of Birmingham bas been greatly promoted by various canals, which connect it with the coast and with all parts of the interior. The population is 85,753.
Sheffield, which has also been long noted for its hardware manufactures, is situated 36 miles S. of Leeds, in a district abounding in coal, on the river Don, which opens a navigable communication to the Aire and the Humber. Its manufactures consist of two principal divisions, viz. cutler's goods and plated goods. To the first division belong edge-tools, tiles, knives of all kinds, razors, spuffers, scissars, saws, scythes, &c. Plated goods comprise an end. less variety of articles, such as tea-uros, coffee-pots, cups, candlesticks, tankards, &c. The manufacture of plated goods is confined to the town of Sheffield, but that of cutler's goods extends to all the villages and hamlets for seven miles around. The population of the town in 1811 was 35,840.
Bath, celebrated for its medicinal springs, is beautifully situated on the Avon, 12 miles above Bristol. It is a famous resort of invalids and votaries of pleasure. The houses are of very
beautiful construction, being built of freestone, and Bath has long been considered as one of the most elegant cities in Europe. The population is 38,434.
Newcastle is on the north bank of the Tyne, 10 miles from its mouth, in the midst of the greatest coal district in the world. From this magazine the whole of the eastern and most of the southern coast of the island, together with the opposite coast of France, Netherlands and Germany, have for centuries been supplied. The principal collieries are along the Tyne, both above and below the town, and the amount of coal annually exported is more than 1,500,000 tons. This trade is an excellent nursery for
The shipping belonging to the port measures 184,149 tons, and employs 8,732 men. The populaton of Newcastle in 1811 was 35,711.
The other remarkable towns on the coast are, Falmouth, near the S. W. extremity of the island, whence packets sail regularly to Spain, the West-Indies, and other parts of the world; Brighton or Brightelmstone, one of the most fashionable places of resort in the kingdom, particularly for sea-bathing ; Dover, on the strait of the same name, the principal place of embarkation for France; Ramsgate, a little further on, famous for its excellent artificial barbor, built at an expense of £600,000; Harwich, on the eastern coast, the port from which the packets sail regularly for Holland and Germany; Yarmouth, a little further north, famous for the
herring fishery ; Berwick, on the north side of the Tweed, half a mile from its mouth, famous for the salmon tishery; Holyhead, in Wales, at the N. W. point of the island of Anglesea, whence the packets sail regularly for Dublin ; and Milford Haven, at the SW. extremity of Wales, famous for its fine harbor, and the station of the packets for Waterford in Ireland.
The principal towns in the interior, not already described, are York, on the Ouse, the second town in rank in the kingdom ; Notbingham on the Trent, and Leicester on the Soar, a branch of the Trent, both famous for the stocking manfacture ; Norwich on the Wensom, 22 miles west of Yarmouth, containing 37,000 inhabitants, and noted for its trade and extensive manufactures; Coventry, near the centre of the kingdom, 18 miles 3. E. of Birmingham, famous for the manufacture of ribbons and watches; Oxford, on the Thames, 80 miles west of London, celebrated for its universitv, and the magnificence of its public buildings; Cambridge, 51 miles N. of London, the seat of another famous university; and Windsor, on the Thames, 22 miles W. of London, the favorite country residence of the British kings.
Conals.] The river Trent is navigable to the centre of the kingdom, and it is there connected hy canáls with the Mersey, the Severn and the Thames. Aninland water communication is thus opened between the four great ports of the kingdom. London is connected with Liverpool, and Bristol with Hull There is besides a canal from the Severn to the Thames, connecting Bristol more directly with London, and another from the Severn to the Mersey connecting Bristol directly with Liverpool. The canal from Manchester tó Leeds completes the water communication across the island from Liverpool to Hull. Besides these there are other canals too numerous to be mentioned. Several years since there were more than 250, intersecting the island in every direction, and imparting life and activity to commerce and manufactures.
Minerals.] The tin mines in Cornwall, at the S. W. extremity of the kingdom, are supposed to be the richest in the world. Copper is also produced in abundance in Cornwall, the adjoining county of Devonshire, and some other parts of England, but most abundantly in the N. W. part of the island of Anglesea. Lead and iron are found in various places, both in the north and south, The coal mines, the source of so much wealth and power to Great Britain, are found in the central and western parts, but particularly in the northern, around Newcastle. Mines of rock salt are found near Liverpool which produce more than 150,000 tons annnally
Government.] The islands of Great Britain and Ireland constitute one kingdom, styled the United kingdom of Great Britain and Irelanl. The constitution is a hereditary monarchy, in which the power of the sovereign is controled by the influence of the aristocracy in the house of the peers, and by that of the people in The house of commons. The house of peers consists of all the nobility of England, 16 peers from Scotland, who are the repretentatives of the peerage of that country, and 28 from. Ireland, as