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Six North Wales.
Counties. Sq. miles. Pop. in 1811. Chief lowns.
309 46,518 Flint
402 37,045 Beaumaris.
Radnorshire, 455 20.900 Presteign.
Breckpockshire, 731 37,735 Brecknock.
Six South Wales.
Mountains.) Along the whole western side of the country, from Cornwall to Scotland, there are ranges of mountains, which may be considered as forming one connected chain. They overspread all the counties of Wales, in which country they attain their greatest elevation; Snowdon, the loftiest summit in South-Britain, rising here to the height of 3,517 feet, and Plynlymon to 2,463 feet. Two lower ranges of hills also commence in the S. W. part of the island, and extend completely across the country; one, passing in an easterly direction through the southern counties, terminates near the strait of Dover; and the other, stretching towards the N. E. in an irregular waving line, passes through the centre of the kingdom, and terminates on the eastern coast near Flamborough head, in lat. 54° 9' N.
Face of the country.] The face of the country in England is beautifully variegated. In some parts verdant plains extend as far as the eye can reach, watered by copious streams, and covered with innumerable cattle. In others the pleasing vicissitudes of gently rising hills and bending vales, fertile in corn, waving with wood, and interspersed with meadows, offer the most delightful landscapes of rural opulence and beauty. Some tracts abound with prospects of the more rornantic kind; lofty mountains, cragy rocks, deep narrow dells and tuinbling torrents. Nor are there wanting as a contrast to so many agreeable scenes, the gloomy features of black, barren moors and wild uncultivated heaths. On the whole, however, few countries have a smaller proportion of land absolutely sterile and incapable of culture.
Climate.) The climate of England is liable to sudden and frequent changes, and to great variations of dryness and moisture. Owing to its insular situation, the extremes both of heat and cold are tempered, and neither the rigor of winter nor the heats of summer are felt here in the same degree as in corresponding latitudes on the continent. Hence, while in winter the seaports of Germany and the Netherlands are locked up with ice, those of England are open at all seasons. No country in the world perhaps displays such a rich and uniform verdure during so large à portion of the year; for the cold in winter is never so severe aš to destroy vegetation, nor in summer does the bloom of nature
syither under parching heats as in more southern climates. The summer seldom begins with any effect or constancy before the middle or end of June. The ensuing months of July, August and September are often oppressively hot. In the northern counties, the month of October may be said to usher in the winter with raw, wet, unsettied weather, and Noveaber'seldom advances fär before the same weather commences in the south.
Soil and Productions. The richest soil is found in the southern and midland counties. Towards the north the country partakes of the barrenness of the neighoring Scotland; the eastern coast is in many paris sandy and marshy, while Wales and all the western counties are covered with mountains, interspersed indeed with vales of great fertility. In no country is agriculture more thoroughly understood or pursued in a grander style. The nobility and gentry mostly residing upon their estates in summer, often retain considerable farms in their own hands, and practise and encourage every agricultural improvement of the 32,000,000 acres which England is supposed to contain, it is calculated that about 10,500,000 are in tillages 14,000,000 in pagturage, and the remainder uncultivated. Of the 10,500,000 acres in tillage, about 3,500,000 are occupied with barley and oats, 2,000,000 with peas, beans, buckwheat, vetches, &c. 2,000,000 with wheat, and the remaining 3,000,000 remain as fallow, or in a course of turnips. Of the uncultivated lands about 3,000,000 acres are capable of being brought into a state of cultivation.
Rivers] The four largest rivers are the Severn, in the S. W. the Thames, in the S. E. the Humber, in the N. E. and the Mersey, in the N. W. The Severn rises in the mountain of Plynlymon in North Wales, and after pursuing an easterly course for some distance, turns to the south, and then to the southwest, and falls. into the Bristol channel. It is 200 miles long, and is navigable almost to its source, though with difficulty on account of the shallows. Its principal branches are the Avon from the east, and the Wye from the west.
The Thanes rises in the western part of the kingdom, near Gloucester on the Severn, and pursuing a course S. of E. for 140 miles, falls into the German ocean. It is navigable for large merchant ships to London, 60 miles from its mouth, and for barges almost to its source.
The Humber is a broad river, or rather estuary, formed by the. union of the Trent and the Ouse. The Trent rises near the centre of the kingdom, and pursues a northeasterly course of more than 100 miles before it joins the Ouse. It is pavigable to Burton. The Ouse is formed by the union of the Yore and the Swale, and flowing S. E. receives the Wharfe, the Derwent and the Aire. It thus forms the drain by which nearly all the waters of the extensive county of Yorkshire are conveyed to the Humber.
The Mersey falls into St. George's channel by a broad mouth, after a southwesterly course of not more than 50 miles in a direct line. It is navigable nearly to its source.
The other considerable rivers are the Tree, which formas part of the boundary between England and Scotland; the Tyne, The Wear and the Tees, which ischarge themselves into the North sea between the Tweed and the Humber; the Withom, the Willand and the Great Olse, which fall into the estuary called the Wash; and lastly, ihe Dee, which falls into St. George's channel near the mouth of the Mersey.
Chief Towns.] The four principal commercial towns stand on or near the four principal rivers ; London, on the Thames, in the S. E.; Bristol, near the Severn, in the S. W ; Liverpool, on the Mersey, in the N. 'W.; and Hull, on the Humber, in the N. E.
Lordon, the capital of the kingdon), the greatest city in Europe, and in commerce, wealth, manufactures, arts, literature, and chara itable institutions, the first city in the world, stands on both sides of the Thames, 60 miles from its mouth. In its widest sense, London comprehends the city of that name and its liberties, with the city and liberties of Westminster, the borough of Southwark, and nearly 30 of the contiguous villages. Its greatest length is from É. to W. nearly seven miles : the circumference is about 30 miles, and the included area 11,520 acres. The city of London, the eastern division, is the place where business is transacted, and consists chiefly of shops, warehouses, wharves, &c. Westminster, the western division, contains the royal palaces, the houses of lords and commons, the courts of law and government offices. Southwark, the southern division,on the south side of the Thames, is devoted to commerce and ship-building, and is distinguished by à vast number of manufactories, iron-founderies, glass-houses, &c.
The main streets of London run parallel with the Thames from E. to W. and the cross streets run mostly from N. to S. Some of them are narrow, but they are all well paved, with granite stones in the middle, and flag stones for foot passengers, on the sides.
Underneath the pavements are large vaulted sewers, which carry off all the filth of the city into the Thames. The subterranean works of London, consisting of sewers, drains, water-pipes and gas-pipes,form an extensive and curious collection.
The following are the most remarkable public buildings : 1. The Cathedral church of St. Paul, the chief ornament of the city, and the most distinguished specimen of architecture in the British empire, is 500 feet long, 223 broad, and 340 high, to the top of the cross. 2. Westminster-Abbey is a grand Gothic edifice, and is the sanctuary of the illustrious dead, kings, statesmen, warriors, poets and philosophers. 3. The three royal palaces in Westminster, viz. St. James' Palace, Buckingham House, and Carlton House. 4. The Tower of London, anciently a royal palace, but now used as a state-prison and depository for arms, records, jewels and other property belonging to the crown. 5. The Bank of England, an immense pile of building. 6. Westminster Hall, one of the largest rooms in Europe. 7. The Munsion House, the residence of the Lord Mayor of London. 8. The London Monument, a noble pillar, 202 feet high, erected to commemorate the great fire of 1666. 9. Waterloo Bridge, one of the noblest struc
iures of the kind in the world, built of granite, at an expense of more than £1,000,000. It was begun in 1811, and completed in 1817. Besides these and numerous other public buildings, London contains more than 500 churches, 22 hospitals, 18 asylums, 18 prisons, 107 alms-houses, and 20 dispensaries.
The principal theatres are those of Drury-lane, Covent-garden and the Haymarket
. Vauckall gardens are, perhaps the most brilliant and magnificent place of public amusement in Europe. Hyde Park, on the west side of the city, contains 39.4 acres, and is the grand Sunday resort of pedestrians and equestrians from the metropolis.
The commerce of the port employs 3,000 vessels, measuring 600,00) tons, and manned by 45,000 seamen. The annual value of the exports and imports is £70,000,000, nearly two thirds of the whole trade of the kingdom. The manufactures consist chiefly of silk, cutlery, jewelry, watches, cut glass, books, car. riages, and other fine goods and articles of elegant use. The manufactures of silk in Spitalfields, and of watches in Clerkenwell, usually employ about 7,000 people each. In general the London manufactures are esteemed the most excellent of their respective kinds, and produce higher prices than those of any other place. The population in 1811, according to the census, was 1,011,546, and the number of inhabited houses 141,732. Among the calamities recorded in the history of the city, are the great plague in 1665, which carried off more than 70,000 persons, and the great fire which broke out in the following year, and destroyed 13,200 dwelling houses, 89 churches, and other buildings, valued in all at £10,730,500.
Bristol is 117 miles west of London, on the river Avon, which is navigable for ships of great burden down to the Severn, four miles distant, where commences the Bristol channel. The harbor formerly labored under serious inconveniences, ships being left aground at the retreat of the tides, which bere rise to the height of 40 feet; but since 1803 extensive works have been erected, at an expense of nearly £600,000, by means of which every difficulty has been removed, and merchant ships of all burdens now lie constantly atloat, and enter or leave the harbor at any time of the tide.
The houses in the older parts of the tosyn are built principally of wood, and are crowded together in narrow, irregular streets, but those of more recent erection, particularly towards the suburbs and outskirts, consist of brick and stone, and are disposed in spacious streets and squares. All bulky articles are conveyed through the city on sledges, carts not being admitted for fear of damaging the arches of the vaults and sewers, which are made under all the streets. There are 18 churches, all of them neat and beautifully decorated, besides numerous meeting houses, and places of worship for dissenters of almost every denomination. Several of the buildings for commercial purposes are elegant edifices, and the city has long been famous for its numerous and well conducted charitable insiitutions.
Among the manufacturing establishments are 20 glass-houses, 18 sugar refineries, and numerous distilleries. Its brass works are the most extensive in England. Bristol has long been engaged in a very extensive foreign trade, though it has not made such rapid advances as many other ports, and particularly its great rival, Liverpool. Its foreign connections are chiefly with the West Todies; and its commerce with Treland is also very extensive. Its internal commerce is carried on by means of the seva ern, and the numerous canals with which it is connected. The population, in 1811, was 76,433. About a'mile west of Bristol, close to the river, is the village of the Hot Wells, celebrated for a warm spring which has been found a powerful remedy in various diseases, and is much resorted to bý invalids' and the fashionable.
Liverpool is 206 miles N. W. of London, near the mouth of the Mersey, which opens to it a ready access to the sea, while a great system of canal navigation affords an inland communication with all parts of England. The town extends along the east bank of the river, ahout three miles, and on an average, about a mile inland. On the river side lie the docks, wharves and ware houses, in one immense range. Towards the interior the town is prolonged into numerou- suburbs, consisting of the villas and country houses of the wealthy citizens.
The houses are built of brick and covered with slate. The streets are mostly spacious and airy, some of them elegant, and the greater part lighted with gas. The public buildings are in a style of costly elegance and splendor suited to the opulence of the inhabitants T'he exchange buildings, erected in 1803, at an expense of £100,000, are perhaps the most splendid structure ever raised in modern times for purposes purely commercial. There are at present 20 churches in the city attached to the establish. ment, and a greater number of chapels belonging to various denominations of dissenters. The Liverpool docks are very numérous and form a remarkable feature in the port. They cover in all an area of 77 acres, and are superior to those of any other port in Great Britain.
The growth of Liverpool in population and commerce has been remarkably rapid. In 1700 the number of inhabitants was only 5,000 ; in 1811 it was 94,376, exclusive of 7,000 sailors and the inhabitants of the villages nearly connected with the town, which would have made probably 120,000. The number of vessels which paid dock duties in 1819, was 7.849, measuring 867,318 tons. The most important branch of commerce is the trade with Ireland, and next to this the trade with the United States of America. 'More than three fourths of all the commerce between Great Britain and the United States is carried on from this port. The principal cause of the prosperity of Liverpool is its connection by means of canals with the great manufacturing towns of the northern countie
Hull, or Kingston upon Hull, is 174 miles north of London, on the Humber, at the point where this river receives the Hull. From