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Divisions. ] Europe is commonly described under the following divisions : 1. Great Britain.

9. Germany. 2. Ireland

10. Switzerland. 3. Norway.

11. Netherlands, 4. Sweden.

12. France. 5. Denmark.

13. Spain. 6. Russia.

14. Portugal. 7. Prussia

15. Italy. 8. Austria

16. Turkey.

Seas. The following are the principal seas. 1. The White Sca, on the northern coast of Rursia, opening into the Frozen Ocean ; 2. The North Sea, or German Ocean, which is almost inclosed by Great Britain on the west, and Netherlands, Germany, Denmark and Norway on the east. 3. The Baltic, which has Sweden and Denmark on the west, Germany and Prussia on the south, and Russia on the east. It is 600 miles long, from 75 to 150 broad, and contains about 120,000 square miles. 4. The Mediterranean, the largest sea in the world, lies between Europe on the north, Asia on the east, and Africa on the south. It is 2,000 miles long, and on an average between 400 and 500 broad, containing about 900,000 square miles. 5. The Grecian Archipelago, or Egean sea, lies between Greece and Asia Minor, and abounds with small islands. 6. The sea of Marmora is a small body of water 90 miles long, lying between Turkey on the north, and Asia Minor on the south 7. The Black sea,called also the Euxine, lies between Russia on the N. Asiatic Turkey on the E. and and Turkey in Europe on the W. It is 932 miles from east to west, and on an average 320 broad, containing about 300,000 square miles. 8. The scu of Azoph lies N. E. of the Black sea, and contains about 16,000 square miles.

Bays or Gulfs. The principal bays in the Baltic are the Gulf of Bothnia, which separates Sweden from Russia, and the Gulfs of Finland and Riga, which lie wholly in Russia. The bay of Biscay washes the whole western coast of France and the northern coast of Spain, and opens into the Atlantic Ocean between Cape Ortegal and the island of Ushant or Ouessant. The principal bays in the Mediterranean are the gulf of Lyon, on the coast of France, the gulf of Genoa, in the N.W. part of Italy, and the gulf of Venice or Adriotic sea, which stretches from S. E. to N. W. between Italy and Tarkey.

Channels: The English channel lies between England and France. St. George's channel lies between Great Britain and IreJand. The Cattegat separates Denmark from Sweden. The Skager Rack, which separates Denmark from Norway and opens into the North sea, is merely a continuation of the Cattegat.

Straits. The strait of Jenikale connects the sea of Azoph with the Black sea ; the Bosphorus, or strait of Constantinople, connects the Black sea with the rea of Marmora ; the strait of the Dardanelles, the ancient Hellespont, connects the sea of Marmora with the Archipelago ; the strait of Gibraltar separates Spain from Af rica, and connects the Mediterranean with the Atlantic ocean ; the strait of Dover or Calais separates England from France, and connects the English channel with the North sea or German ocean ; the Baltic communicates with the Cattegat by three straits ; the most eastern, called the Sound, lies between the island of Zealand and the coast of Sweden; the middle, called the Great Belt, between the islands of Zealand and Funen; and the western, called the Little Belt, between the island of Funen and the coast of Denmark

Rivers.) The principal rivers are the following, beginning in the southwest. Into the Mediterranean flow the Ebro and the Rhone ; into the gulf of Venice, the Po; into the Black sea, the Danube, the Dniester, and the Dnieper; into the sea of Azoph, the Don; into the Caspian sea, which lies wholly in Asia, the Volga; into the gulf of Archangel, the Dwina ; into the gulf of Riga, the Dwina or Duna ; into the Baltic, the Vistula and the Oder ; into the North sea, the Elbe, the Weser, and the Rhine ; into the English channel, the Seine ; into the bay of Biscay, the Loire and the Garonne ; into the Atlantic ocean, the Duero, the Tagus, the Guadiana and the Guadalquivir.

Most of these rivers are confined in their course to some particular country, under which they will be most conveniently described. The Danube, the Rhine, and the Rhone, however, belong to no one country. The Danube, the largest river of Europe except the Volga, rises near the S, W. corner of Germany, in lat. 48° N. and after pursuing an easterly course througb Germany, passes into Hungary, where it turns to the south and then to the S. E. and becomes for a short distance the boundary between Hungary and Turkey, after which its course lies wholly in Turkey till it discharges itself into the Black sea by five mouths between 44° 30' and 45° 30' of N. lat. It is 1620 miles long and is navigable, though with some interruption from shoals and rapids, to Ulm, in lon. 10° E.

The Rhine rises near the centre of Switzerland, and lowing N.E. falls into the lake of Constance. Issuing from that lake with a copious current, it fows west, forming the boundary between Switzerland and Germany,and then turns to the north, forming the boundary between Germany and France for a short distance, after which its course lies wholly in Germany till it enters the kingdom of the Netherlands, where it turns to the west and divides into several streams, which pursue their way under various names to the North sea. It is 700 miles long, and is navigable with few interruptions from its mouth to the lake of Constance.

The Rhone rises also near the centre of Switzerland, within 5 miles of the source of the Rhine, and flowing west falls into the lake of Geneva. Issuing from that lake it pursues a southwesterly course into France, where it turns to the south, and discharges itself by three mouths into that part of the Mediterranean called the Gulf of Lyon, after a course of 500 miles. It is the most rapid river in Europe, and the upward navigation can be per. formed only by draught or steam.

Mountains.] The principal ranges of mountains are, 1. The Scandinavian chain, which commences at the southern extremity of Norway, and running north, soon becomes the boundary between Norway and Sweden. It proceeds in a northeasterly direction, parallel with the coast of Norway, almost to the 70th degree of N. lat. where it turns to the east, and soon after to the southeast, in which direction it continues till it gradually sinks into hills and terminates among the small lakes between the gulf of Finland and the White sea. In almost every part of its course it is parallel with the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, and in shape it resembles a horse shoe.

2. The Pyrenees run in an easterly direction from the bottom of the bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean, forming the boundary between France and Spain. From the western extremity a branch proceeds into Spain, and soon divides into numerous inferior chains, which diverge from each other, and spread themselves over the whole of Spain and Portugal. From the eastern extremity a branch proceeds into France, in a northeasterly direction till it reaches the sources of the Loire, where it divides into two branches, one of which proceeds in a portherly direction between the Loire and the Rhone, and the other in a northwesterly direction towards the centre of France.

3. The Alps, the loftiest mountains in Europe, form the northern boundary of Italy, separating it from France, Switzerland and Germany. They are in the form of an arch, with one end resting on the gulf of Genoa and the other on the gulf of Venice. Various chains proceed from the Alps in almost every direction. The Apennines commence near the Mediterranean at the S. W. extremity, and pursuing an easterly course around the gulf of Genoa, turn to the S. E. and pass in that direction to the southern extremity of Italy. Another chain commences near the head of the gulf of Venice at the S. E. extremity of the main range, and pursuing at first a southeasterly course, passes in a semicircular form through the centre of European Turkey, and terminates on the Black sea at Cape Emineb; in lat. 49° 30' N. The principal northern branch of the Alps is the Mount Jura chain,

zerland, and in the first part of its course forms the boundary between Switzerland and France, after which it continues to run in a northerly direction, under the name of the Vosges, on the west side of the Rhine, as far as the parallel of 50° N, lat. Besides these three principal branches, the Alps throw off numerous inferior chains in a northeasterly direction, which overspread nearly the whole southern half of Germany.

4. The Carpathian mountains encircle Hungary on three sides, separating it from Germany on the N. W. from Galicia on the N. E. and from Turkey on the S. E. At the southeast extremity of the range, a branch proceeds in a southerly direction across the Danube to the centre of European Turkey, connecting the Carpathian mountains with the great eastera branch of the Alps, At the N. W. extremity also they are loosely connected with the mountains of Germany.

Face of the country. Norway and Sweden are mountainous The countries included in the three southern peninsulas, viz. Portugal, Spain, lialy and Turkey, are also traversed by mountain ranges. The same description applies to a large portion of Hungary, the southern half of Germany, nearly the whole of Switzerland, and the southeastern part of France. All the northern and western parts of France are hilly. The rest of continental Europe, comprising Netherlands, Denmark, the northern part of Germany, Prussia, and Russia, consists chiefly of plains.

Climate As respects climate Europe may be divided into Three regions, very unequal in extent. The first comprehends all below the parallel of 45° N. lat. This is the climate of the olive, the vine, the mulberry and the orange. The second, and much the largest, includes all between the parallels of 45° and 65°. This is the climate of wheat, flax, oats, hemp, &c. The vine is also cultivated successfully as high up as the parallel of 50°. The third region, including all above the parallel of 65°, has a gloomy and desolate aspect. The pines and firs at first cover the hills with their constant mantle of dark green, but towards the northern part every species of vegetable which is useful to man entirely fails ; and nothing appears but dwarf trees and a few scattered bushes.


Situation and Extent. Great Britain, the largest of the European islands, is situated between 50 and 581 N. lat. and is bounded N. by the Atlantic Ocean ; E, by the North sea or German Ocean; S. by the English channel, and W. by St. George's chanpel and the Atlantic Ocean. It is 580 miles long from north to sonth, and on an average 150 broad, the area being computed at 88,573 square miles. The figure of the island is very irregular, but bears some resemblance to a wedge, being narrow in the northern part, and growing broader towards the south, and its whole coast is deeply penetrated by bays, creeks and estuaries, which afford many safe and commodious harbors.

Divisions. The island is divided into North-Britain or Scotland, and South-Britain or England including Wales.


Situation and Extent.] This country is bounded N. by Scotland, from which it is separated by the river Tweed, and a line running in a southwesterly direction to the Fritb of Solway; E. by the German Ocean ; S. by the English channel; and W. by Si. George's channel. It extends from 50° to 55° 40' N. lat, and contains 68,335 square miles, of which number 50,210 are in England and 8.125 are in Wales

Divisions.) England is divided into 40 counties, and Wales into 12, which are given in the following table, arranged in geographical order.

Counties. Sg. milus. Pop. in 1811. Chief louns.

Northumberland, 1,809 172,161 Newcastle. Six Cumberland, 1,497 133,744 Carlisle. northern Dorbam,

1,040 177,695 Durham. coun 1 Yorkshire, 6,013 973,113 York. ties. Westmoreland, 722 45,929 Appleby.

(Lancashire, 1,806 828,309 Lancaster. Four (Chesbire,

1,017 227,031 Chester. border- Shropshire, 1,403 194,398 Shrewsbury. ing on Herefordshire, 971 94,073 Hereford. Wales. (Monmouthshire, 516 62.127 Monmouth.

Nottinghamshire, 774 162,900 Nottinghang.

1,077 185,487 Derby.
Staffordshire, 1,196 295,153 Stafford.
Leicestershire, 816 150,119 Leicester.

Rutlandshire, 200 16,380 Okeham. Twelve Vorthamptonshire, 965 141,350 Northamptour. midland. Warwickshire, 984 928,735 Warwick.

Worcestershire, 674 160,546 Worcester.
Gloucestershire, 1,124 985,514 Gloucester.
Oxfordshire, 742 119,191 Oxforil.
Buckinghamshire, 748 117,650 Aylesbury.
( Bedfordshire, 430 70,213 Bedford.
(Lincolnshire, 2,787 237,891 Lincoln
Huntingdonshire, 315 42,208 Huntingdon.

Cambridgeshire, 686 101,109 Cambridge.

2013 291,999 Norwich. eastern. Suffolk,

1,566 236,211 Ipswich. Essex,

1,525 252,473 Chelmsford. Hertfordshire, 602 111,654 Hertford. Middlesex,

297 953,976 London. Three (Surry,

811 323,851 Guilford. south- Kent,

1,462 373,095 Maidstone. eastero. Sussex,

1,461 190,003 Lewes. Berkshire, Four

744 118,277 Reading. ) Wiltshire, 1.283 south

193,828 Salisbury. Hampshire,

1,533 245,080 Winchester. (Dorsetshire, 1,129 124,693 DorchesterThree (Somersetshire, 1,549 303,180 Taunton.

south- Devonshire, 2,483 383,308 Exeter. western Cornwall, 1,407 216,667 Launceston.


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