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and handsomest part of the town, is on a sandy island, connected with Recife by a narrow bridge. Boa Vista, situated on the continent, and united with St. Antonio by a wooden bridge, consists chiefly of small houses built in a straggling manner. The harbor is formed by a reef of rocks, which runs in front of the division of Recife, and parallel with it, at a very small distance. It has two entrances, defended by two forts. The tide enters under the bridges, and forms a large expanse of water more than three miles in length, having much the appearance of a lake, on the north side of the town. Pernambuco is a thriving place, inhabited by many opulent merchants, who carry on considerable commerce, chiefly in cotton. The population is estimated at 32,000.
Para, the capital of the province of the same name, is on the river Tocantins, 60 miles from its mouth. The town contains about 10,000 inhaloitants, who are in general very poor. The commerce of the town is very limited, the navigation of the Tocantins being difficult and seldom attempted except by small craft. Maranham, or St. Louis de Maranhain, is on an island of the same name, at the mouth of three small rivers which discharge themselves on the northern coast in lon. 43° 37' W. It has a convenient harbor defended by a strong castle, and about 15,000 inhabitants. Paraiba is a small town of 4,000 inhabitants, about 10 miles from the mouth of a river of the same name, which discharges itself in 7° S. Jat.
Santos, situated on the coast W. S. W. of Rio Janeiro, is a place of considerable commerce, being the storehouse of the capitania of St. Paul, and employing many vessels in the coasting trade to the Rio de la Plata. The situation is low and unhealthy. The number of inhabitants is about 6,000.
St. Paul, the capital of the capitania of the same name, is an interior town about 40 miles from Santos, in the neighborhood of gold mines, which were formerly very productive, but have been exhausted for more than a century. The town stands on a pleasant eminence, surrounded on three sides by low meadow lands. The situation is as salubrious as in any part of South America; the surrounding country is very fertile, and since the abandonment of the mines has been well cultivated. The population is 15,000, of which oumber 500 are clergy, including all orders.
St. Catherine is on an island of the same name, south of Santos. The town is well built and contains about 6,000 inbabitants. It has little trade, but affords an agreeable retirement to merchants who have discontinued business, and other persons of independent fortunes.
Rio Grande, or St. Pedro, near the southern extremity of Brazil, in about lat. 32° S. is a new but very flourishing commercial town. The port is dangerous to enter, the water being shoal, and a violent sea always running. There is, notwithstanding, a great trade carried on from this place to all the ports of Brazil, in brigs and small ressels that do not draw above 10 feet water. The vicinity of the town is very populous, the number of inhabitants in a circuit of 20 leagues being estimated at 100,000. Their prin
cipal occupation is the breeding of cattle, and the number of hide! exported from Rio Grande is almost incredible. Wheat is also shipped from this port to all the towns on the coast.
Villa Rica, the capital of the province of Minas Geraes, is in the interior, 250 miles north of Rio Janeiro, in the vicinity of gold mines, which for many years were esteemed the richest on the globe. Between 1730 and 1750, when they were in the beight of their prosperity, the king's fifth is said to have amounted to at least a million sterling annually.
These mines are now much less productive than formerly; and the town in consequence has begin to decline. The inhabitants are represented as extremely indolent, and perpetually indulging in visionary prospects of sudden wealth. Contemplating the immense fortunes accumulated by their ancestors from the mines, they have become averse to sober industry. The town is pleasantly situated on the side of a large mountain, and most of the streets range in steps from the base to the summit. The population is about 20,000.
Tejuco, the capital of the diamond district, lies 200 miles N. of Villa Rica, near the sources of the Jigitonhonha, a branch of the Rio Grande. The number of inhabitants is about 6,000, who are dependent for a supply of provisions on farms situated several leagues distant, the district being very sterile.
Cuiaba, the most western of the mining stations in Brazil, is on a river of the same name, 96 leagues from its confluence with the Paraguay. The town and its dependencies are supposed to contain 30,000 inhabitants. The country around is well adapted for cultivation, and has rich gold mines.
Inland Communication.] The roads in the interior are frequently bad; although there are some which have been made at great expense, and which are tolerably good. The road from the coast to St. Paul, which passes over lofty mountains, is carried through deep forests, and frequently a path is cut through the solid rock, at a vast expence. The usual mode of travelling and of transporting produce is by mules. The communication between the coast and the mining district around Cuiaba, is carried on from St. Paul and Santos by means of the intervening rivers. The following is the common route from St. Paul to Cuiaba : from St. Paul to the banks of the Tiete, a branch of the Parana which passes within a few leagues of the town; then down the Tiete into the Parana, and down the Parana, to the mouth of the Rio Pardo, which falls into it frou the west. Proceeding up the Rio Pardo and its branches, you arrive within a short distance of the branches of the Taquari, a branch of the Paraguay. Crossing the portage to the Taquari, you descend that river to the Paraguay, and proceed up the Paraguay to the Porrúdos, and up the Porrudos, to the inouth of the Cuiaba, and up the Cuiaba to the town of the same name. By this route, salt, iron, ammunition, &c. are sent annually by the government of Brazil to the western districts. Trading parties frequently arrive at St. Paul, from Cuiaba, in the month of February, and return in April or May
Population.) The total population at present is estimated at 2,400,000. In 1792 it consisted, according to Hassel, of 2,184,273, of which number one sixth were wbites of Portuguese origin, one half negroes and mulatioes, and the remainder independant Indians. From 16,000 to 20,000 negroes have usually been imported annually from Africa. The Indians occupy nearly the whole country, except the districts along the coast
. They are hostile, to the whiļes, and frequently make incursions upon the infant settlements in the interior. A considerable district lying between the mountains and the coast, to the east of the province of Minas Geraes, is inhabited by a race of canoibals called the Anthropophagi.
Government and Religion.) Brazil is a Portuguese colony, governed by a viceroy. In the year 1806, when Portugal was invaded by the French, the royal family, to escape the impending danger, removed to Brazil and established their government at Rio Janeiro, which continued for 14 years to be the capital of the Portuguese possessions in both hemispheres. The king has now returned to Europe, and Brazil is reduced to its former state of coloniai dependence on the mother country. The religion is Roman Catholic, under one archbishop and eight bishops.
Commeroe.) The commerce of Brazil was formerely subjected by the Portuguese government, to all the usual restraints imposed by the colonial system of Europe. But after the emigration of the court to Rio Janeiro, the old restrictions were done away, and a commercial treaty was concluded with Great Britain, by which all the ports of the country were opened to British ves. sels and produce, on payment of a duty of 15 per cent. British manufactures of every description are now imported to a great extent. Portugal continues to send oil, wine, brandy, linens and cottons. From the United States are imported flour, salted provisions, household furniture and naval stores India and China goods are also in great plenty. The principal exports are cotton, coffee, sugar, tobacco, and Brazil wood from the northern prova inces ; gold and diamonds, from the middle; and wheat, hides, hore, hair and tallow from the southern.
Situation and Extent.) Buenos Ayres is bounded N. by Peru; E. by Brazil ; S. E. by the Atlantic Ocean ; S. by Patagonia, and W. by the Andes, which separate it from Chili and Peru. The desert of Atacama, lying along the coast between Peru and Chili, is also included in this country, which makes the Pacific ocean the western boundary for nearly 300 miles. It extends from 14° 10 38° 30' S. lat. a distance of more than 1,700 miles, and the number of square miles is computed at 1,300,000.
Divisions.] This country was divided in 1778 into eight in tendancies, and each intendancy was subdivided into partidos of districts, which took their names from their principal towns. Intendancies.
Chief towns. 1. Buenos Ayres, Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, S'ta Fe,Corrientes. 2. Paraguay, Assumption, Candelaria. 3. Cordova, Cordova, Mendoza, S. Juan, S. Luis, Rioja. 4. Salta,
Salta, S. Miguel de Tucunan, Santiago del
Estero, Catamarca, Jujuy. 5. Potosi,
Potosi, Chayanta, Chicas. 6. Charcas, Chuquisaca or La Plata, Yamparaes, Oruro. 7. La Paz, La Paz, Sıcasica. Pacajes, Omasuyos. 8. Cochabamba, Orepesa, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Mizque.
Besides i he intendancies there are the two military governments of Chiquitos and Moxos, which comprehend very extensive tracts in the northern part of the country inhabited principally by Indians.
Face of the Country.) The chain of the Andes runs from south to north along the whole western boundary, and the country for several hundred miles to the east of the Andes is generally mountainous ; the territory east of the rivers Paraguay and Parapa is a fine, waving, well watered country; the intermediate district, lying between these rivers and the mountains, and extending front north to south through the whole length of the country, consists of extensive plains. In the north these plains are elevated, and during the rainy season are in many parts liable to be overflowed; in the south they are called Pampas, and are remarkably dry and destitute of trees. One of the Pampas, which commences near the banks of the Parana, extends beyond the southern boundary into Patagonia, and measured in its entire extent is 1,500 miles long, and from the ocean to its western limits 500 broad. Over all this immense space there are no trees, no hills, not a single object to relieve or vary the scene.
The eye passes over it as over the ocean in a calm.
Climate.) In so extensive a country there is of course a considerable variety of climate. In the plains the heat of summer is extremely oppressive, while in the more elevated regions the atmosphere is cool and healthy. At the city of Buenos Ayres, in the southern part of the country, the thermometer occasionally in the course of the winter'descends to the freezing point, but if this happens frequently the winter is reckoned severe. The north winds invariably bring heat, and have the effect of the Sirocco on the feelings. When moderate they continue for several days, but when violent they seldom last longer than 24 hours, shifting to the south and southeast with rain and thunder. The southwest winds blowing over the immense plains or pampas in the south, are called Pamperos. During their prevalence the atmosphere is remarkably dry, and animal putrefaction scarcely goes on at all. Animal substances dry up, and this quality in the air enables the inhabitants to burn in their furnaces and kilns, the Agsh and bones of animals. Sheep were formerly dryed, stacked,
and sold at two dollars and a half the hundred for these pur. poses
Soil and productions. A large portion of the soil is fertile, and owing to the variety of climate, capable of producing all the common fruits and vegetables of the temperate and torrid zones. Such, however, are the temptations to pasturage, for which the country is eminently adapted, that agriculture has been hitherto almost entirely neglected. Immense herds of cattle and horses graze on the extensive plains, and constitute at this time the prins cipal source of wealth. The territory cast of the Paraguay and Parana is considered the fairest portion of the country, the soil being every where exceedingly fertile, producing the sugar cane, the orange, fig, olive and vine, together with wheat, Indian corn and barley. Hitherto, however, this fine soil has been appropriated chiefly to pasturage. The grounds in the immediate neighborhood of the cities are in general bighly improved. The prorince of Paraguay produces that singular herb called matte or paraguay tea, which, being prepared by boiling it in water like common tea, makes the favorite beverage of the inhabitants, and is extensively used in various parts of South America. Large quantities ofát are annually exported to Peru and Chili.
Rivers. The Paraguay is the principal river of this country. Il rises in the Andes of Chiquitos, in the very centre of South America, and pursuing a southerly course of more than 2,000 miles enters the ocean by a mouth 150 miles broad, between cape Santa Maria on the north, and cape St. Antonio on the south. Its principal tributaries are the Parana and the Uruguay from the east, and the Pilcomayo, the Vermejo, the Salado, and the Salladillo from the west. From the innction of the Parana to the junction of the Uruguay it is usually called Parana river; and from the junction of the Uruguay to the ocean, the Rio de la Plata. It is navigable for large vessels.io Assumption, a little above the mouth of the Pilcomayo, and nearly 1,000 miles from the ocean ; and for small craft to the 19th degree of S. Jat. Just above this parallél it oyerflaws its banks, during the rainy seasons, and spreads itself over the flat country, forming an immense lake, called Lake Xarayes, which is generally 330 miles long and 129 broad, but so shallow that it is not navigable in any part except for canoes and small boats.
The Parana, which robs the Paraguay of its name, rises in the mountains of Brazil in the province of Minas Geraés, and running on the whole in a southwesterly direction for about 1,000 miles, joins the Paraguay at Corrientes. It runs in a broad, deep channel, and seldom overflows its banks. In lat. 21° is the fall of Itu, formed by a collection of rocks, which rise from the bed of the river in separate masses and leave channels for the passage of the water. Boats pass down without difficulty and are drawn up by ropes.
The Uruguay rises on the declivity of the Brazilian, Andes in the province of Rio Grande, near the parallel of 28°S. lat, apoi pursues a southwesterly course of more than 1,000 miles. Il