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particularly of the temple of the Sun, the walls of which were incrusted with gold and silver, and adorned with the idols of the various nations subdued by the Incas. The city still preserves inany monuments of its ancient grandeur, and among others the great fortress built for its defence. The population is 32,000, of whom 16,000 are whites, 14,000 Indians, and the rest of mixed blood.
Arequipa, 217 leagues S. E. of Lima, is on the banks of a small river, 20 leagues from the coast. It is one of the largest towns in Pero, containing 24,000 inhabitants. Truxillo, in 8° S. lat. . about half a league from the sea, contains 6,000 inhabitants. Guamanga, 190 miles S. E. of Lima, is an Indian town', containing 25,970 souls, of whom only 169 are whites. Tarma, 85 miles E. of Lima, contains 5,538 souls, of whom only 361 are whites, and the rest principally Indians and mestizoes: Guancavelica, celebrated for its mine of quicksilver, and for the gold and silver mines in its vicinity, is 140 miles S. E. of Lima, and contains 5,156 inhabitants, of whom 560 are whites, and the rest Indians and mestizoes.
Population.] According to a census taken in 1795, the seven intendancies of Peru contain 1,076,997 inhabitants. Of this number 136,311 are whites, 608,911 Indians, 244,437 mestizoes, 41,404 mulattoes, and 40,336 slaves. This population is concentrated in the western part of the country, in the country of Valles and along the ridges of the Andes, seldom extending many hundred miles from the coast. The independent Indians, who are not included in the census, and whose number is unknown, occupy all the plains to the east of the mountains.
Inland communication. From the nature of the country, Peru labors under great disadvantages in regard to inland communication. The deep vallies which separate the elevated plains, and the losty mountains which rise hetween the table land and the coast, prevent the inhabitants from travelling to an adjacent district except on foot, or on horse-back. In many parts there is a total want of roads and bridges, and in others the paths lie along, the edge of sleep and rugged precipices, and are so narrow that the mules have scarcely room to set their feet. In the most mountainous districts of this country, as well as in New-Granada, it is customary, for those who can afford it, to travel on the backs of lodians. In this way they are carried for 15 or 20 days together, over roads winding through uninhabited forests.
Religion and Government.] The religion is Roman Catholic, and the affairs of the church are under the control of one archbishop and four bishops. The government is vested in a viceroy and a royal audience. All the important offices, civil, military and ecclesiastical, are in the hands of the European Spaniards, the creoles being excluded from all posts of honor and trust. The revolutionary movements which have so extensively agitated the other parts of Spanish America, have as yet very little affected this country. The revolutionists, however, in Chili and Buenos Ayres, have for some time past contemplated the liberation of
Peru from the Spanish yoke, and have actually sent a fleet and troops for that purpose. It is just now announced, that on the 10th of July 1821, Lima, the capital and key of the whole country, fell into their hauds.
Commerce.) Peru trades with Europe, with the Philippine islands, coastwise with Guatimala and Chili,and over land with Buenos Ayres. Its exports are chietly gold and silver, wine, brandy, sugar, pimento, Peruvian bark, salt, vicuna wool, and coarse woollens. It receives in return from Europe, manufactured goods, particuJarly silks, superfine cloth, lace, fine linen and other articles of luxury and show ; from the Philippine islands, muslins, tea and other East India goods ; from Guatimala, indigo; from Chili, wheat and copper; and from Buenos Ayres, mules and Paraguay
Situation and Extent. Brazil, including Portuguese Guiana, is bounded N. by Spanish Guiana, French Guiana, and the Atlantic Ocean ; E. and S. E. by the Atlantic; and W. by Buenos Ayres, Peru and New Granada. It extends on the coast, from the mouth of the Oyapok, in lat. 4° N. to lat 33° 3' S. The area is estimated at 2,200,000 square miles, or nearly one third of South America. Besides the above territory, the Portuguese have recently taken possession of all that portion of Buenos Ayres, lying south and east of the Parana, and extending on the coast to the mouth of the Plata, but their right to this country has neyer been acknowledged.
Divisions.] Portuguese Guiana includes nearly all the part north of the Amazon. The rest of the country is divided into the following 12 provinces, called capitanias. Capitanias.
Capitanias. 1. Para.
7. Rio Janeiro. 2. Maranham.
8. St. Paul. 3. Seara.
9. St. Catherina. 4. Pernambuco.
10. Rio Grande. 5. Bahia.
11. Goias. 6. Minas Geraes.
12. Matto Grosso. The ten first lie along the coast, from north to south, in the order in which they are here mentioned. Goias and Matto Grosso are in the interior.
Face of the country.) A ridge of mountains, termed the Braxilian Andes, runs parallel to the coast, at no great distance, from 12° to 32° s. lat, with the steepest side towards the sea, and slopping more gradually towards the interior. In the west, the country again rises, and by gentle gradations attains to the height of from 3,000 to 5,000 or 6,000 feet above thi level of the sea, where it spreads out into those barren and sandy plains, koown under the name of Campos Parexis, which occupy the very centre of South America, around the sources of the Tapajos and the hrad waters of the Madeira Nearly the.whole of Brazil is cofered by a vast and impenetrable forest, scarcely 20,000 square
miles, out of the 2,200,000 which it contains, being as yet brought under cultivation. This immense wilderness is traversed by the principal tributaries of the Amazon and La Plata, whose head streams are separated from each other by the Andes of Chiquitos, which winds its way irregularly from east to west through the very heart of the country, between 10° and 20° S. lat.
Rivers. The principal tributaries of the Amazon, beginning in the west, are the Madeira, the Tapajos, the Xingu, and the Tocantins, all of which take their rise in the Andes of Chiquitos, and proceed from south to north, and the least of them has a course of more than 1,000 miles. The Paraguay, the Parana, and the Uruguay, rise in this country and pass into Buenos Ayres. All these rivers have been heretofore described. They open a nav, igable communication from the oceạn to almost every part of the interior.
The most remarkable streams which fall directly into the oceap, beginning in the north, are, 1. the Parnaiba, which discharges itself on the northern coast, in lon. 43° W. 2. The Rio Francisco, which rises on the western declivity of the Brazilian Andes, near the parallel of 20° S. lat. and pursuing a northerly course along the foot of the mountains, at last turns to the east, and discharges its waters under the parallel of 11 S. lat. after a course of 1,000 miles. 3. The Rio Grande, which rises near the sources of the Francisco, and falls into the ocean a little north of Porto Seguro, in lat. 16° 20 S. 4. The Paraiba, which pursues a northeasterly course of 150 miles along the foot of the eastern declivity of the mountains, and discharges itself in lat. 21° 34' S. 5. The Rio Grande, the second of the same name, discharges itself in lat. 32° S. about 60 miles from the southern boundary. Climate.] The greater part of the country is in the torrid
In the neighborhood of the Amazon, and in the northern regions generally, the heat is intense, but tempered by the humidity of the climate, and by the copious dews which fall to refresh the thirsty soil. In the southern provinces the climate is mild and temperate, and sometimes cold; Fahrenheit's thermometer falling occasionally below 40°. The country generally is considered healthy; but the west wind, passing over vast, forests and marsby grounds, becomes sometimes unhealthy in the interior. The rainy season commences in March, and continues till August ; the dry season occupies the rest of the year. The northern provinces frequently suffer from the want of rain ; vegetation languishes, and all verdure fades away under the influence of unintermitted and parching heats; but those parts which have the advantage of shelter and moisture, present the appearance of perpetual spring; and when the earth is refreshed by the periodical rains, it is clothed with the most luxuriant verdure.
Soil and Productions.] The soil, so far as it has been explored, is extremely fertile and well watered. In so extensive a country, the production, must of course be different in different parts. The northern provinces produce cotton, sugar, coffee, tobacco, and
all the common fruits and vegetables of tropical climates; while in the south, wheat and other European grains are raised in abundance, and in some districts the country swarms with innumerable herds of cattle. The forests every where abound with the greatest varieties of useful and beautiful wood, well adapted for dyeing, for cabinet work, or for ship-building. But the most precious productions of Brazil are diamonds and gold, which are found in abundance, especially in the capitania of Minas Geraes.
Gold and Diamonds.] The gold and diamonds of Brazil are chiefly found in the beds of the mountain torrents, or in deep vallies, in a stratum of rounded pebbles or gravel, from which they are separated by washing. All the head waters of the great rivers which flow northward and fall into the Amazon, as the Araguaya, the Xingu, the Tapajos, and the Madeira, are found productive of gold. The principal diamond ground is in the capitania of Minas Geraes, among the mountains in which the Rio Francisco and the Rio Grande have their rise. What is termed the Diamond district, extends about 50 miles from north to south, and 25 from east to west around the sources of these rivers. This territory is under military government, and guards are stationed on all the roads to examine travellers, and detain persons sus-, pected of smuggling diamonds. No one is allowed to enter the Diamond district without the permission of the governor. The person who is detected in smuggling, is punished with the confiscation of his whole property and exile to Africa, or with imprisonment, sometimes for life. The average quantity of diamonds obtained in this district, may be estimated at from 20,000 to 25,000 carats annually, which are sent under a military escort to Rio Janeiro, and there lodged in the royal treasury. The collection of diamonds now in possession of the king of Portugal is the finest in the world, and is supposed to exceed in value three millions sterling. The largest diamond ever found in America, weighing almost an ounce, is one of the collection.
Agriculture. The gold and diamonds with which Brazil abounds, have proved a great obstacle to agricultural improveznent. All classes have a fatal propensity to engage in searching after these hidden treasures; and so engrossed are their minds with the sanguine prospect of immense and suilden wealth, which they expect from these projects, that they disdain to seek a moderate but certain competence through the slow process of ordinary industry. No country would yield to its inhabitants a richer or more varied produce than Brazil, containing as it does such variety of climate, and such a happy diversity of hill and valley. But all these advantages are neglected. Mining is the favorite pursuit, and so much has this prejudice affected the national manpers, that a person engaged in mining is universally considered az of higher rank than an husbandman. It is remarkable also, that most of the towns in the interior of Brazil were originally mining stations, established by bands of adventurers; and it was not till all the riches of the surrounding country were exhausted, that they seriously applied themselves to agriculture.
Chief Towns.) Rio Janeiro, or St. Sebastian, stands in lat. 22 54' S. on the shore of a large bay or harbor, at the foot of several high mountains which rise behind it. The harbor is easy of access, and one of the finest in the world for capaciousness and security. The entrance, which is about two miles wide, is bounded on one side by a conical hill, 700 feet in height, and on the other by a huge mass of granite, which supports the castle of Santa Cruz Near the middle lies a small island, on which Fort Lucia is built. The channel through which ships enter lies between the two förts. Though at first parrow, the barbor gradually widens to about three or four miles; in several directions it branches farther than the eye can reach, and is interspersed with numerous little islands and peninsulas. The town stands on the west side of the harbor, four miles from the entrance, on a projecting tongue of land, at the extreme point of which is a fort commanding the town. Opposite this point, and separated from it by a deep and narrow channel, is Serpent island, around which are the usual anchoring places for the shipping that frequent the port. The town is generally well built, the houses being usually of stone or brick, and the churches and convenis are numerous. The population is estimated at 100,000, of whom about one half are negroes. This city is the chief mart of Brazil, especially of the provinces of Minas Geraes, St Paul, Goias, and Matto Grosso, whicle contain the mining districts.
St. Salvador, or Bahia, is in lat. 12° 45' S. on the bay of All Saints, which puts up from S. to N. about 40 miles, and is eight miles broad at the mouth. The town is built on the eastern shore of the bay, commencing about one mile from the point at the entrance. It extends upwards of three miles along the coast, and near the centre, more than a mile into the interior, gradually narrowing, however, towards each extremity. A single street runs along the shore the whole length of the town. Immediately back of this, the land rises suddenly to the height of 400 feet, and the principal part of the town is on the top of the hill, from which there is a magnificent prospect of the bay, and the surrounding country. The descent from the upper to the lower town is steep and laborious, and heavy packages are conveyed up and down by cranes and other machinery. The harbor is well defended by numerous foris and batteries, and affords good anchorage close to the shore, where vessels lie perfectly safe from every wind. The town contains numerous churches and convents, many of them elegant, and the houses are almost universally of stone, and handsomely built. The population is estimated at upwards of 100,000, of whom 30,000 are whites, 30,000 mulattoes, and the rest negroes. The commerce is very extensive.
Pernambuco lies on the coast N. E. of Șt. Salvador, in lat. 8o S. The town consists of three divisions, Recife, St. Antonio, and Boa Vista. The division of Recife, which is nearest the sea, and where the principal part of the business is transacted, is huilt at the extremity of a long narrow sana bank, which projects southward from the main land. The division of St. Antonio, the largest