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groes, who at different periods have been driven by the excessive cruelly of their masters, to take refuge in the woods. Their number had so greatly increased in 1728, that several detachments of soldiers were sent against them without success, and the colonists found themselves compelled to conclude a treaty of peace with them. In 1772 a rebellion broke out in the colony, and great numbers of the slaves joined their comrades in the woods. In this extremity it was resolved, instead of employing white soldiers, who generally fell a prey to the climate, to arm the free negroes. These troops, in connection with a few whites, pursued the revolted negroes into the woods, dislodged them from their strong bolds, and so far reduced them, that the colony is now tolerably secure, though still exposed to occasional irruptions.
Situation and Extént.] Peru is bounded N. by New Granada ; È. by Brazil; S. by Buenos Ayres, and the desert of Atacama which separates it from Chili; and W. by the Pacific Ocean. It extends on the coast from the river Tumbez, in lat. 3° 25' S. to the port de Loa, in' lat. 21° 30' S. The area is estimated at 1,000,000 square miles.
Divisions.) Peru is divided into seven intendancies, which are subdivided into 51 districts. The following is a list of the intendancies, each of which derives its name from its principal town. Intendancies. Whites. Indians. Mestiçoes. Mulalioes. Slaves, Tolal. Lima,
22,370 63,180 13,747 17,864 29,763 149,112 Cuzco, 31,828 159,105 23,104 993 283
216,382 Arequipa, 39,357 66,609 17,797 7,003 5,258 136,801. Truxilio, 19,098 115,647 76,949 13,757 4,725
4,725 230,967 Guamanga, 5,378 75,284 29,621 943
111,559 Guancavelica, 2,341 23,899 4,537
41 30,917 Tarma, 15,939 105,187 78,682 844 236 201,259
Total, 136,311 608,911 244,437 41,404 40,336 1,076,997
Face of the country.) The Andes pass through Peru, from S. E. to N. W. parallel with the coast. Soon after crossing the southero boundary they divide into three principal ridges or cordilleras, which continue till about the sixth degree of s. lat. where they are again united into a single chain. Along the whole coast is a narrow plain, from 35 to 70 miles wide, called the country of Valles, consisting of a succession of barren sandy deserts. Immediately east of this is the lower or western ridge of the Andes, reaching the whole length of Peru; not in one unbroken elevation, like the cordillera of Mexico, but composed of successive summits of immense height, between which the eastern inbabitants find a laborious passage to the country of Valles. Between the western and central ridges of the Andes there is a series of plains, varying in width from 100 to 170 miles, elevated generally
8,000 or 10,000 feet above the level of the ocean, and separat. ed from each other by deep vallies. The central cordillera consists also of separate summits, but is less broken than the western, and has an average height of 15,000 feet. The valley included between the central and eastern cordilleras is watered by the river Tunguragua. Beyond the eastern cordillera there are immense unexplored plains, which reach into Brazil, and are traversed from south to north by several of the principal tributaries of the Amazon.
Climate. In the country of Valles, included between the western cordillera and the coast, rain, thunder and lightning are entirely unknown. During the wioter, however, which lasts from July to November, the ground is almost constantly covered with a thick fog, which towards the close of the day generally dissolves into a very small mist or dew, and moistens the earth equably. During the summer the sun's rays occasion an intense heat throughout all this region; the more so as they are received upon a sandy soil, whence they are strongly reflected. This low region is far from being healthy. Malignant, intermittent and catarrhal fevers, pleurisies and constipations are the most common diseases, and rage constantly at Lima. The elevated plains between the western and central cordilleras, calleở by Humboldt the high table land of Peru, has scarcely any variation of temperature throughout the year; the mercury of Fahrenheit's thermometer always standing at about 65° or 66o. The climate is here mild and genial. The only distinction of seasons arises from the rains, which prevail from November to May. The highest Andes are perpetually covered with snow, and experience an uninterrupted winter between the tropics. Here are also many volcanoes which are flaming within, while their summits, chasms, and apertures, are involved in ice.
Soil and Productions.] The country of Valles has a sandy soil, and owing to the want of moisture, is principally destitute of vegetation. The only spots capable of cultivation are the banks of the small rivers, or such as are within the reach of artificial irrigation. The elevated plains between the Andes are perpetually verdant, and the grains, the vegetables and fine fruits of Europe, flourish here amidst those of the torrid zone. Wine, oil and sugar are the most valuable productions of the coast; and corn, wheat, Peruvian bark, and cacao, of the high country.
Mines.] The mountainous districts abound in metallic wealth. In 1791 the number of gold mines and washings worked in Peru was 69, the number of silver mines 784, of quicksilver 4, of copper 4, and of lead 12. The annual produce of the whole is valved at 4,500,000 dollars, of which the silver constitutes seven eighths. These ricb mines, however, are under miserable management. There is in every department not only the greatest ignorance of the art of mining, and of the best methods of extracting the metal from the ore, but, in those which are worked for the government, the most shameful and glaring corruption.
Rivers.] There are no rivers of any importance on the western side of ihe Andes, all the streams which rise there having but a short course from their sources to the Ocean. On the east of the Andes are the Amazon, and several of its tributaries, the principal of which, beginning in the west, are the Guullaga, which rises in lat. 10° 57' S. and pursues a northerly course of 500 miles; the Ucayale, which is formed by the junction of the Apurimac and the Beni; the Jutay, the Juruay and the Puros, all of which are said to take their rise from the small lake Roguaguado, in lat. 13° S. but very little is known respecting them, as they traverse an unexplored country.
Chief towns.) Lima is situated about 2 leagues from the coast, in lat. 12° S. in the centre of a delightful valley watered by the small river Rimac, which flows along the north side of the city. It is surrounded with a brick wall, which was erected merely as a defence agaiost the sudden attacks of the Indians The houses are generally handsome, though low and constructed of wood on account of the frequent earthquakes. The principal square in the middle of the city is of great extent and beauty, and contains in the centre a large and magnificent fountain. On its sides are the cathedral and the archbishop's Palace, the viceroy's palace, the town-house, and prison. The other principal buildings are the churches and chapels, which are partly built of stone, and decorated in the most splendid style with paintings, and ornaments of gold, silver and diamonds of the greatest value. The convents also are extremely numerous, and there are several colleges and 10 or 12 hospitals. The population, in 1790, was 52,627, of which number 17,215 were whites, 8,960 negroes, 3,912 Indians, and the remainder mulattoes, mestizoes, &c. Or the whites about 3,000 were monks, and nuns. Luxury in dress, and fondness for. show and splendor prevail to an extravagant degree among the inhabitants of Lima. The public walks and malls are always crowded with carriages, and the richest stuffs of Europe are worn by the lower classes as ordinary dresses.
Callao, the port of Lima, is two leagues distant, on a low flat point of land, near the mouth of a small river of the same name. The port is one of the most safe and commodious on the coast of the Pacific ocean, and is defended by numerous batteries. It is the rendezvous of about 17,000 tons of shipping, employed in commerce with the other provinces of South Aunerica, and with Europe. The houses are generally built of slight materials on account of the frequent earthquakes, the most remarkable of which happened in 1746, when three fourths of Lima was laid in ruins, and Callao was entirely demolished, only 200 of the inhabitants escaping the general destruction. The population is about 5,000.
Cusco, the ancient capital of the Peruvians, is 550 miles E, S. E. of Lima. It was founded in the eleventh century by Manco Capac, the first Inca of Peru, and was taken possession of by the Spaniards under Pizarro in 1534. The Spaniards were struck with astonishment at the grandeur and magnificence of the edifices
particularly of the temple of the Sun, the walls of which were incrusted with gold and silver, and adorned with the idols of the various nations subdued by the Incas. The city still preserves inany monuments of its ancient grandeur, and among others the great fortress built for its defence. The population is 32,000, of whom 16,000 are whites, 14,000 Indians, and the rest of mixed blood.
Arequipa, 217 leagues S. E. of Lima, is on the banks of a small river, 20 leagues from the coast. It is one of the largest towns in Pero, containing 24,000 inhabitants. Truxillo, in 8° S. lat. . about half a league from the sea, contains 6,000 inhabitants. Guamanga, 190 miles S. E. of Lima, is an Indian town', containing 25,970 souls, of whom only 169 are whites. Tarma, 85 miles E. of Lima, contains 5,538 souls, of whom only 361 are whites, and the rest principally Indians and mestizoes: Guancavelica, celebrated for its mine of quicksilver, and for the gold and silver mines in its vicinity, is 140 miles S. E. of Lima, and contains 5,156 inhabitants, of whom 560 are whites, and the rest Indians and mestizoes.
Population.] According to a census taken in 1795, the seven intendancies of Peru contain 1,076,997 inhabitants. Of this number 136,311 are whites, 608,911 Indians, 244,437 mestizoes, 41,404 mulattoes, and 40,336 slaves. This population is concentrated in the western part of the country, in the country of Valles and along the ridges of the Andes, seldom extending many hundred miles from the coast. The independent Indians, who are not included in the census, and whose number is unknown, occupy all the plains to the east of the mountains.
Inland communication. From the nature of the country, Peru labors under great disadvantages in regard to inland communication. The deep vallies which separate the elevated plains, and the losty mountains which rise hetween the table land and the coast, prevent the inhabitants from travelling to an adjacent district except on foot, or on horse-back. In many parts there is a total want of roads and bridges, and in others the paths lie along, the edge of sleep and rugged precipices, and are so narrow that the mules have scarcely room to set their feet. In the most mountainous districts of this country, as well as in New-Granada, it is customary, for those who can afford it, to travel on the backs of lodians. In this way they are carried for 15 or 20 days together, over roads winding through uninhabited forests.
Religion and Government.] The religion is Roman Catholic, and the affairs of the church are under the control of one archbishop and four bishops. The government is vested in a viceroy and a royal audience. All the important offices, civil, military and ecclesiastical, are in the hands of the European Spaniards, the creoles being excluded from all posts of honor and trust. The revolutionary movements which have so extensively agitated the other parts of Spanish America, have as yet very little affected this country. The revolutionists, however, in Chili and Buenos Ayres, have for some time past contemplated the liberation of
Peru from the Spanish yoke, and have actually sent a fleet and troops for that purpose. It is just now announced, that on the 10th of July 1821, Lima, the capital and key of the whole country, fell into their hauds.
Commerce.) Peru trades with Europe, with the Philippine islands, coastwise with Guatimala and Chili,and over land with Buenos Ayres. Its exports are chietly gold and silver, wine, brandy, sugar, pimento, Peruvian bark, salt, vicuna wool, and coarse woollens. It receives in return from Europe, manufactured goods, particuJarly silks, superfine cloth, lace, fine linen and other articles of luxury and show ; from the Philippine islands, muslins, tea and other East India goods ; from Guatimala, indigo; from Chili, wheat and copper; and from Buenos Ayres, mules and Paraguay
Situation and Extent. Brazil, including Portuguese Guiana, is bounded N. by Spanish Guiana, French Guiana, and the Atlantic Ocean ; E. and S. E. by the Atlantic; and W. by Buenos Ayres, Peru and New Granada. It extends on the coast, from the mouth of the Oyapok, in lat. 4° N. to lat 33° 3' S. The area is estimated at 2,200,000 square miles, or nearly one third of South America. Besides the above territory, the Portuguese have recently taken possession of all that portion of Buenos Ayres, lying south and east of the Parana, and extending on the coast to the mouth of the Plata, but their right to this country has neyer been acknowledged.
Divisions.] Portuguese Guiana includes nearly all the part north of the Amazon. The rest of the country is divided into the following 12 provinces, called capitanias. Capitanias.
Capitanias. 1. Para.
7. Rio Janeiro. 2. Maranham.
8. St. Paul. 3. Seara.
9. St. Catherina. 4. Pernambuco.
10. Rio Grande. 5. Bahia.
11. Goias. 6. Minas Geraes.
12. Matto Grosso. The ten first lie along the coast, from north to south, in the order in which they are here mentioned. Goias and Matto Grosso are in the interior.
Face of the country.) A ridge of mountains, termed the Braxilian Andes, runs parallel to the coast, at no great distance, from 12° to 32° s. lat, with the steepest side towards the sea, and slopping more gradually towards the interior. In the west, the country again rises, and by gentle gradations attains to the height of from 3,000 to 5,000 or 6,000 feet above thi level of the sea, where it spreads out into those barren and sandy plains, koown under the name of Campos Parexis, which occupy the very centre of South America, around the sources of the Tapajos and the hrad waters of the Madeira Nearly the.whole of Brazil is cofered by a vast and impenetrable forest, scarcely 20,000 square