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it is confined between 73 and 84. In the interior it seldom rises above 80, and during the night frequently falls as low as 50 or 60.
Rivers.] All the rivers west of the mountains are tributaries of the Orinoco and the Amazon. They traverse ap uncultivated couutry, the greater part of which has never yet heen explored. The principal rivers which fall directly into the Atlantic, beginning in the north, are the Essequebo, the Demerara, the Berbice, the Coruntine, the Surinam, the Maroni, or Marawina, the Oyapok and the Aruary All these rise in the mountains, and are generally navigable for some distance into the interior.
Soil and Productions. The soil is surprisingly fertile, and overspread with the most luxuriant vegetation, abounding in the finest woods, in all the tropical fruits, and in an infinite variety of both rare and useful plants. The low country, during the rainy season, owing to its extreme flatness, is usually covered with water to the depth of two feet, which so enriches the soil, that in some places 30 crops of rice may be raised in succession, while in the West India islands the richest lands never yield more than two successive crops, Cultivation is as yet confined to the immediate vicinity of the coast, and the banks of the navigable rivers which fall directly into the Atlantic, all of which are lined with plantations of coffee, sugar, cacao, cotton and indigo.
Animals. Guiana abounds in a variety of wild animals and beasts of prey. Of the latter, the most powerful and ferocious is the jaguar, which grows to a large size, and frequently attacks borses and cows. Many of the domestic animals of Europe, such as the ox, the hog, the sheep, &c. have been imported from the old continent, but they do not appear to thrive. The oxen and sheep have degenerated in size and quality. Owing to the heat and moisture of the climate, insects and reptiles are produced in great abundance, and are excessively troublesome to the inhabitants.
Divisions. The coast of Guiana is divided between five different European nations, as follows:
1. Spanish Guiana, extending from the mouths of the Orinoco to the mouth of the Essequebo. It forms one of the provinces of the captain-generalship of Caraccas.
2. English Guiana, extending from the Essequebo to the Cor. antine, and embracing the three districts of Essequebo, Dernerara and Berbice, each of which extends along the banks of the river of the same name.
3. Dutch Guiana or Surinam, extending from the Corantine to the Marawina. It formeriy extended west to the Essequebo, but during the late war in Europe, the British took possession of all that is now included in English Guiana, and this part was ceded io them by the treaty of Paris in 1814.
4. French Guiana, which formerly extended from the Marawina to the Aruary, but at the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, the Oyapok was made the boundary.
5. Portuguese Guiana, which occupies the rest of the coast from Oyapok to the Amazon.
The whole western part of the country, extending as far south as the equator, is considered as belonging to Spanish Guiana. The boundaries, however, between the different divisions, in the interior, are not accurately determined, and there is no necessity for determining them at present, because the white settlements do not extend far from the sea coast, the interior being occupied by warlike Indians.
Chief Towns.] Georgetown, formerly Stabroek, the capital of the district of Demerara, in English Guiana, is on the east bank of Demerara river, about a mile froin its mouth. The town is built on a flat strand, very little elevated above the level of the water. The houses are of wood, seldom above two stories high, and stand on low brick foundations. The population is estimated at 8,500, of which number 1,500 are whites, 2,000 free people of color, and 5,000 negroes.
New Ainsterdam, the capital of the district of Berbice, in Eng. lish Guiana, is on the river Berbice, about a mile from its mouth, at the point where it is joined by the river Canje. The town is intersected by canals, which are filled and emptied at every tide, by which means all the filth is carried away before it has time to stagnate a d render the air unhealthy.
Paramaribo, the capital of Surinam or Dutch Guiana, is on Surinam river about 18 miles from its mouth. It is handsomely laid out, all the streets being perfectly straight, and lined with orange, tamarind and lemon trees. The trade of the town is very Aourishing. The population is estimated at 20,000, of whom 2,000 are Dutchmen, 3,000 Jews, 4,000 free people of color and 11,000 slaves.
Cayenne, the capital of French Guiana, is on the north point of an island of the same name, at the mouth of the river Cayenne, It has a large and convenient port defended by a castle, and contains 1500 inhabitants.
Population.) Spanish Guiana contains 34.000 inhabitants, of whom 20,000 are civilized Indians. Portuguese Guiana is considered as a part of Brazil. The population of the three remaining divisions is given in the following table.
Whites. Free blacks. Slaves. Total. English Guiana, 4.160 5,380 102,201 111,741 Dutch Guiana,
5,000 5,000 51,937 62,000 French Guiana,
10,748 12,449 Inilians.] The principal tribes of Indians in the neighborhood of the colonists are, the Caribs, who inhabit the coast hetween the Esseqyebo and the Orinoco; the Worrows, who live al-o on the coast, between the Demerara and the Suriņam; the Arrowanks, who live behind the Worrows at the distance of 20 or 30 leagues from the sea; and the Accawarus, who inhabit the country around the sources of the Essequebo, the Demerara and the Berbice. Besides these, there are numerous tribes fariher in the interior, who are but little known.
Runaway negroes. ? From the earliest times the Dutch colonies have been exposed to depredations from runaway ne.
groes, who at different periods have been driven by the excessive cruelly of their masters, to take refuge in the woods. Their number had so greatly increased in 1728, that several detachments of soldiers were sent against them without success, and the colonists found themselves compelled to conclude a treaty of peace with them. In 1772 a rebellion broke out in the colony, and great numbers of the slaves joined their comrades in the woods. In this extremity it was resolved, instead of employing white soldiers, who generally fell a prey to the climate, to arm the free negroes. These troops, in connection with a few whites, pursued the revolted negroes into the woods, dislodged them from their strong bolds, and so far reduced them, that the colony is now tolerably secure, though still exposed to occasional irruptions.
Situation and Extént.] Peru is bounded N. by New Granada ; È. by Brazil; S. by Buenos Ayres, and the desert of Atacama which separates it from Chili; and W. by the Pacific Ocean. It extends on the coast from the river Tumbez, in lat. 3° 25' S. to the port de Loa, in' lat. 21° 30' S. The area is estimated at 1,000,000 square miles.
Divisions.) Peru is divided into seven intendancies, which are subdivided into 51 districts. The following is a list of the intendancies, each of which derives its name from its principal town. Intendancies. Whites. Indians. Mestiçoes. Mulalioes. Slaves, Tolal. Lima,
22,370 63,180 13,747 17,864 29,763 149,112 Cuzco, 31,828 159,105 23,104 993 283
216,382 Arequipa, 39,357 66,609 17,797 7,003 5,258 136,801. Truxilio, 19,098 115,647 76,949 13,757 4,725
4,725 230,967 Guamanga, 5,378 75,284 29,621 943
111,559 Guancavelica, 2,341 23,899 4,537
41 30,917 Tarma, 15,939 105,187 78,682 844 236 201,259
Total, 136,311 608,911 244,437 41,404 40,336 1,076,997
Face of the country.) The Andes pass through Peru, from S. E. to N. W. parallel with the coast. Soon after crossing the southero boundary they divide into three principal ridges or cordilleras, which continue till about the sixth degree of s. lat. where they are again united into a single chain. Along the whole coast is a narrow plain, from 35 to 70 miles wide, called the country of Valles, consisting of a succession of barren sandy deserts. Immediately east of this is the lower or western ridge of the Andes, reaching the whole length of Peru; not in one unbroken elevation, like the cordillera of Mexico, but composed of successive summits of immense height, between which the eastern inbabitants find a laborious passage to the country of Valles. Between the western and central ridges of the Andes there is a series of plains, varying in width from 100 to 170 miles, elevated generally
8,000 or 10,000 feet above the level of the ocean, and separat. ed from each other by deep vallies. The central cordillera consists also of separate summits, but is less broken than the western, and has an average height of 15,000 feet. The valley included between the central and eastern cordilleras is watered by the river Tunguragua. Beyond the eastern cordillera there are immense unexplored plains, which reach into Brazil, and are traversed from south to north by several of the principal tributaries of the Amazon.
Climate. In the country of Valles, included between the western cordillera and the coast, rain, thunder and lightning are entirely unknown. During the wioter, however, which lasts from July to November, the ground is almost constantly covered with a thick fog, which towards the close of the day generally dissolves into a very small mist or dew, and moistens the earth equably. During the summer the sun's rays occasion an intense heat throughout all this region; the more so as they are received upon a sandy soil, whence they are strongly reflected. This low region is far from being healthy. Malignant, intermittent and catarrhal fevers, pleurisies and constipations are the most common diseases, and rage constantly at Lima. The elevated plains between the western and central cordilleras, calleở by Humboldt the high table land of Peru, has scarcely any variation of temperature throughout the year; the mercury of Fahrenheit's thermometer always standing at about 65° or 66o. The climate is here mild and genial. The only distinction of seasons arises from the rains, which prevail from November to May. The highest Andes are perpetually covered with snow, and experience an uninterrupted winter between the tropics. Here are also many volcanoes which are flaming within, while their summits, chasms, and apertures, are involved in ice.
Soil and Productions.] The country of Valles has a sandy soil, and owing to the want of moisture, is principally destitute of vegetation. The only spots capable of cultivation are the banks of the small rivers, or such as are within the reach of artificial irrigation. The elevated plains between the Andes are perpetually verdant, and the grains, the vegetables and fine fruits of Europe, flourish here amidst those of the torrid zone. Wine, oil and sugar are the most valuable productions of the coast; and corn, wheat, Peruvian bark, and cacao, of the high country.
Mines.] The mountainous districts abound in metallic wealth. In 1791 the number of gold mines and washings worked in Peru was 69, the number of silver mines 784, of quicksilver 4, of copper 4, and of lead 12. The annual produce of the whole is valved at 4,500,000 dollars, of which the silver constitutes seven eighths. These ricb mines, however, are under miserable management. There is in every department not only the greatest ignorance of the art of mining, and of the best methods of extracting the metal from the ore, but, in those which are worked for the government, the most shameful and glaring corruption.
Rivers.] There are no rivers of any importance on the western side of ihe Andes, all the streams which rise there having but a short course from their sources to the Ocean. On the east of the Andes are the Amazon, and several of its tributaries, the principal of which, beginning in the west, are the Guullaga, which rises in lat. 10° 57' S. and pursues a northerly course of 500 miles; the Ucayale, which is formed by the junction of the Apurimac and the Beni; the Jutay, the Juruay and the Puros, all of which are said to take their rise from the small lake Roguaguado, in lat. 13° S. but very little is known respecting them, as they traverse an unexplored country.
Chief towns.) Lima is situated about 2 leagues from the coast, in lat. 12° S. in the centre of a delightful valley watered by the small river Rimac, which flows along the north side of the city. It is surrounded with a brick wall, which was erected merely as a defence agaiost the sudden attacks of the Indians The houses are generally handsome, though low and constructed of wood on account of the frequent earthquakes. The principal square in the middle of the city is of great extent and beauty, and contains in the centre a large and magnificent fountain. On its sides are the cathedral and the archbishop's Palace, the viceroy's palace, the town-house, and prison. The other principal buildings are the churches and chapels, which are partly built of stone, and decorated in the most splendid style with paintings, and ornaments of gold, silver and diamonds of the greatest value. The convents also are extremely numerous, and there are several colleges and 10 or 12 hospitals. The population, in 1790, was 52,627, of which number 17,215 were whites, 8,960 negroes, 3,912 Indians, and the remainder mulattoes, mestizoes, &c. Or the whites about 3,000 were monks, and nuns. Luxury in dress, and fondness for. show and splendor prevail to an extravagant degree among the inhabitants of Lima. The public walks and malls are always crowded with carriages, and the richest stuffs of Europe are worn by the lower classes as ordinary dresses.
Callao, the port of Lima, is two leagues distant, on a low flat point of land, near the mouth of a small river of the same name. The port is one of the most safe and commodious on the coast of the Pacific ocean, and is defended by numerous batteries. It is the rendezvous of about 17,000 tons of shipping, employed in commerce with the other provinces of South Aunerica, and with Europe. The houses are generally built of slight materials on account of the frequent earthquakes, the most remarkable of which happened in 1746, when three fourths of Lima was laid in ruins, and Callao was entirely demolished, only 200 of the inhabitants escaping the general destruction. The population is about 5,000.
Cusco, the ancient capital of the Peruvians, is 550 miles E, S. E. of Lima. It was founded in the eleventh century by Manco Capac, the first Inca of Peru, and was taken possession of by the Spaniards under Pizarro in 1534. The Spaniards were struck with astonishment at the grandeur and magnificence of the edifices