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abounds with colossal summits, the highest of which rises to more than 20,000 feet above the level of the sea. In Chili, Peru, and New Granada the loftiest peaks form one row of volcanoes, many of which are in a state of constant eruption.
The eastern range of South American mouotains, sometimes termed the Brazilian Andes, runs along the coast of Brazil from about 12° to 32° S. lat. It is connected with the great western range by a ridge called by Humboldt the Andes of Chiquitos, which winds its way irregularly across the continent between 10° and 20° S. lat. separating the waters which flow north into the Amazon from those which flow south into the Plata.
Rivers.] Owing to the peculiar construction of South America, no river of any magnitude flows from it into the Pacific ocean, the Andes forming a continued barrier along the whole western coast. For the same reason no important stream enters the Atlantic between 12 and 32° S. lat. More than three fourths of all the water which falls on this continent is carried to the ocean through the channels of the three great rivers, the Orinoco, the Amazon and the Plata.
The Orinoco rises in lat. 5° N. and lon. 65o W. Its course is very crooked, somewhat resembling the figure 6. For the first 300 miles it runs from Ņ. to S. It then torns, and proceeds in a westerly direction for several hundred miles, to St. Fernando, where it receives from the S. W. the Guaviari, a very considerable river. Here it turns northward, and after receiving the Vichada from the west, pours its waters down the cataracts of Atures. These cataracts are 740 miles from the mouth of the Orinoco, and 760 from its source, and completely obstruct the navigation. At the distance of 90 miles below the cataracts the river is enlarged by the junction of the Meta, one of its principal tributaries, which is 500 miles long and navigable 370 miles. About 90 miles below the mouth of the Mela, the Orinoco receives from the west the Apura, a large and deep river, 520 miles long, having numerous and wide spreading branches, and more rapid than the Orinoco into which it empties its waters by many mouths. After receiving the Apura it turns, and running about 400 miles in an easterly direction divides into many branches, and discharges its waters into the ocean by 50 mouths, the two most distant of which are 180 miles apart. Only seven, however, are navigable, and but one of them, the southern, called the Ship's Mouth, for vessels of more than 200 tons. All the rivers which rise on the southern declivity of the chain of Venezuela, and on the eastern declivity of the Andes between the parallels of 2° and 9° N. lat. are tributaries of the Orinoco. It thus forms the channel which conveys to the ocean the waters of an immense valley, extending from east to west about 1,000 miles, and from north to south, in many parts between 500 and 600.
The Amazon, the largest river in the world, rises in Peru between two ridges of the Andes in about lat. 10° S. under the naine of the Tunguragua, and after running in a northerly d rection through four or five degrees of latitude leaves the mountains, and pursuing a direction a little north of east completely across the continent, discharges its waters voder the equator by a muuth 180 miles wide, after a course of more than 4,000 miles. The tide flows up 400 miles, and the river is navigable to the very foot of the Andes:
The principal branches from the south are, 1. The Ucayale, which from size and the length of its course is well entitled to be considered the main stream. It is formed by the junction of two large rivers, the Apurimac and the Beni, the last of which rises in the Andes near Lake Titicaca between 17o and 18° S. lat and running towards the north is joined by the Apurimacy near latitude 10° S. The united stream, under the name of Ucayale, then continues a northerly course of nearly 1,000 miles, and joins the Amazon in 4° 25' s. lat. 2. The Madeira, is the principal tributary of the Amazon. It rises in the Andes in Buenos Ayres between 19° and 20° S. lat. and passes under variouš names into Brazil, where it is joined by numerous other rivers, and makes its way in a northeasterly direction to the Amazon, into which it falls after a course of more than 2,000 miles. 3. l'he Tocantins, which discharges itself into the Amazon near its mouth, after a northerly course of about 1500 miles. Its principal tributary, the Araguay, rises between the parallels of 18° and 19° S. lat. The other principal tributaries of the Amazon from the south are the Jutay, the Juruoy, and the Puros, which join it between the Ucayale and the Madeira; and the Tupajoe and Xingu, which join it between the Madeira and the Tocantins. The principal rivers which fall into the Amazon on its northern bank, beginning in the west, are the Napo, the Putumayo or Ica, the Japura and the Negro. The Negro is remarkable for sending off a branch towards the north, which under the name of Cassiquiari falls into the Orinoco, and thus unites the Amazon with that mighty stream. All the rivers which rise on the eastern declivity of the Andes between the parallels of 2° N. lat. and 20° S. lat: are tributaries of the Amazon. Noi a single brook rises in all this distance which does not contribute to swell its waters. The valley of the Amazon is thus more than 1500 miles long from north to south; from east to west it is more than 2,000, and its area may be estimated at 3,000,000 square miles, comprehending nearly half of South America.
The Plata is a very broad stream, formed by the Uruguay and the Parana, which unité near lat. 34o S. It is more properly the mouth or estuary of these two rivers, as it is no where less than 30 miles broad, and at its entrance into the ocean between the parallels of 350 and 36°; expands to the width of 150 miles. The Uruguay, the eastern branch of the Plata, rises on the western de olivity of the Apdes of Brazil, and pursues a southwesterly course of more than 1,000 miles, for the last 200 of which it is navigable. The Parana, or western branch of the Plata, is formed by the union of several small streams which rise on the western declivity of the Andes of Brazil, between 18o and 21° S. lat. It runs on the whole in a southwesterly direction for about 1000 piles, vill it receives the Paraguay from the north, when it turns to the souti, and after a further course of 500 miles joins the Uruguay. The Paraguay is formed by several streams which rise between the parallels of 130 and 14° S. lat. on the southern declivity of the Andes of Chiquitos, near the head waters of the Tapajos, the Xingu, the Tocantins and other tributaries of the Amazon. It runs a southerly course through nearly 14 degrees of latitude, and joins the Parana under the parallel of 27°. The Pilcomayo and the Vermejo, the principal western branches of the Paraguay, both rise in the Andes between 20° and 23° . lat. and pursue a southeasterly course of more than 1,000 miles. The Salado, the principal western branch of the Parana, rises in a branch of the Andes under 24° S. lat. and after a southeasterly course of 800 miles joins the Parana at Santa Fe. The Saladillo is a considerable stream which rises in the interior of Buenos Ayres, and joins the La Plata about 50 miles from its mouth, after a southeasterly course of several hundred miles. The valley of the Plata thus includes the extensive country bounded west by the Aodes of Chili, north by the Andes of Chiquitos, and east by the Andes of Brazil, embracing more than two thirds of Buenos Ayres and the soutbern part of Brazil, and covering an area of about 1,200,000 square miles.
Situation and Extent.] New Granada is bounded N. by the Caribbean sea ; E. by Caraccas, Spanish Guiana and Brazil ; S. by Peru; W. by the Pacific ocean, and N. W. by Guatimala, in North America, with which it is connected by the isthmus of Darien. It extends on the coast of ibe Pacific from lat. 9° N. to 3° 25' S. and on the coast of the Caribbean sea from 72° 30' to: 82° 30' W. lon. The area is about , 1400,000 square miles.
Divisions.] New Granadà is divided into 24 provinces, which are under the jurisdiction of three audiences, as follows : 1. Audience of Panama.
12. Novita. 1. Veragua.
13. Rapasa. 2. Panama.
14. Popayan. 3. Darien.
III. Audience of Quito II. Audience of Santa Fe.
15. Barbacoa. 4. Choco.
16. Pastos. 5. Zinu.
17. Atacamés. 6. Carthagena.
18. Quito 7. Santa Martha.
19. Riobamba. S. Merida.
20. Guayaquil. 9. San Juan de los Llanos. 21. Macas. 10. Santa Fe
22. Cuenca. 11. Antioquia.
24. Jaen de Bracamoros. Bays.] The principal bays on the coast of the Pacific ocean are the gulf of Guayaquil in the south, the bay of Choco in the
middle, and the bay of Panama in the north. On the coast of the Caribbean sea is the gulf of Darien, which is separated from the bay of Panama by the isthmus of Darien.
Mountains.] The Andes come from Peru and proceed along the coast of the Pacific ocean, through the whole extent of this country, from south to north. Soon afier passing the southern boundary the range divides into two distinct ridges, which run in a northerly direction, parallel with each other for 200 miles, inclosing between them a longitudinal valley 20 or 30 miles broad, and elevated 9,000 feet above the level of the sea. Between the 2d and 3d degrees of N. lat. the range again divides into three separate chains; the eastern is the chain of Venezuela ; the middle, the chain of Santa Martha, and the western, the proper Andes. The chain of Venezuela runs in a northeasterly direction towards the southern extremity of the lake of Maracaybo, where it divides into two branches, one of which proceeds on the west side of the lake, and terminates near Cape de la Vela on the Caribbean sea ; the other continues a northeasterly direction and winds along the whole northern coast of Caraccas. The chain of Santa Martha is the loftiest of the three. It forms the dividing ridge between the waters of the Rio Magdalena and those of the Rio Cauca, and often rises beyond the limits of perpetual snow. The western chain separates the waters of the Rio Cauca from those of the Pacific ocean. Its highest elevation is scarcely 5,000 feet, and it sinks so low in its progress northward, that its course can scarcely be traced into the isthmus of Darien.
The loftiest summits of the Andes are immediately south of the equator, in the two ridges in the province of Quito. These ridges rise above the valley included between them like two walls, and are beset with colossal suna mits exceeding in height all the other mountains of the new world. The loftiest peak is the celebrated Chimborazo, which rises between 1° and 20 s. lat, to the height of 21,440 feet above the level of the sea, and for nearly -5,000 feet from its top is covered with perpetual snow. This vast mountain presents a most magnificent spectacle from the shores of the Pacific ocean, after the long rains of winter, when the air is remarkably transparent. Its enormous circular summit is then seen projected upon the deep azure blue of the equatorial sky, towering with commanding majesty over the whole chain of the Andes. In 1797 it was ascended by Humboldt and M. BonpJand. These enterprizing travellers attained the height of 19,300 feet, the highest spot of earth on which man ever trod. They were prevented from advancing farther by a chasin 500 feet wide ; and at the height 1o which they had already attained, they encountered unusual hardships. The air was intensely cold and pierciog, and owing to its extreme tenuity respiration was dishe cult. The blood oozed from the eyes, the lips, and gums. One of the party fainted, and all of them felt extreme weakness.
Volcanoes.] Volcanoes are very numerous. Of these the most dreadful on account of the frequency and violence of its eruptions is Cotopaxi, which rises, at the distance of 40 miles S. E. of the
city of Quito, to the height of 18,893 feet ahove the level of the
It is the most beautiful of the colossal summits of the Andes, being a perfect cone, covered with an enormous layer of snow, and shining at sunset with dazzling splendor. The most remarkable eruptions took place in the years 1698, 1738, 1742, 1744, 1766, 1768 and in 1803. In some of these the flames bave risen nearly 3,000 feet above the brink of the crater, cities and towns have been overwhelmed, and the roarings of the volcano have been heard at the distance of 600 miles. The explosion in January 1803 was preceded by the dreadful phenomenon of the sudden melting of the snow around the mountain. For 20 years before no smoke or vapor, that could be perceived. had issued from the crater'; 'and in a single night the subterraneous fire became 80 active, that at day-break the external walls of the code, heated by the action of the flames, appeared naked. The melted snow desended in an impetuous torrent on the neighboring plains, sweeping down every obstacle, and involving in destruction all that was exposed to its fury. Humboldt, who was at this time at the port of Guayaquil, 150 miles distant, mentions, that day and pight, so long as the eruption lasted, the roar of the volcano was beard like the continued discharge of cannon.
Rivers.) All the rivers which rise east of the Andes are tributaries of the Orinoco and the Amazon; those which rise west of the Andes fall into the Pacific Ocean ; and tbose between the eastern and western branches flow north into the Caribbean sea.
The Magdalena is the great river of New Granada. It rises near Popayan, between the parallels of 1° and 2° N. lat. and pursuing a northerly course between the eastern and middle branches of the" Andes, falls into the Caribbean sea, after a course of 1,000 miles, for 600 of which it is navigable. The Cauca rises also near "Popayan, and pursuing'a northerly course of about 500 miles between the middle and western branches of the Andes, falls into the Magdalena.'' The Airato is a considerable river, which falls into the gulf of Darien, after a northerly course of 2 or 3 hundred miles. The Guayaquil, which falls into the gulf of the same name, iş navigable for 120 miles. The Tumbez, a small river which falls into the gulf of Guayaquil in 3° 25' S. lat. forms part of the boundary between New Granada and Peru.
The principal rivers which fall into the Orinoco are the Meta, the Vichada, and the Guaviari, all of which rise on the east side of the chain of Venezuela, and pursue an easterly course for several hundred miles. "The Mela is 500 miles long and is pavigable for 370 miles. The principal tributaries of the Amazon are the Napo, the Putumayo or Ica, the Yapura and the Negro, all of which rise east of the Andes and pursue a sontheasterly course.
Face of the country] The country inclosed between the ridges of the Andes consists of elevated plains, as we have already mentioned. On the east of the Andes there are low plains extending on a dead level for hundreds of miles towards the Orinoco