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Christopher. The shores are dangerous and cannot be approached without a good pilot. The only port is Le Carenage, on the west side, near which stands Gustavia the principal town. Gustavia is inhabited by Swedes, English, French, Americans and Jews. The planters are chiefly French The population is about 8,000, two thirds of 'whom are negro slaves.
9. Saba, a small island, 12 miles in circumle rence, lying 30 miles S.W. of St. Bartholomew, belongs to Netherlands, and is dependent on the neighboring island, St. Eustatius. It consists of a delightful valley which produces the necessaries of life, and the materials for several manufactures, but being destitute of any port; its commerce is very inconsiderable. The sea is shallow and full of rocks for some distance from the coast, and none but smail vessels can approach very near. The access to the interior of the island is by a difficult road cut out of the rock, by which only one person can ascend at a time. The population is estimated at 1,600.
10. Barbuda, belonging to the English, is 20 miles E. S. E. of St. Bartholomew, and is 21 miles long The land is low but fertile, and produces cotton, pepper, indigo, tobacco and especially cocoa trees, which are here extremely fine. There is no harbor, but a well sheltered road on the west side. It belongs to the Codrington family, by one of whom the revenue arising from this island, and from several other plantations, was bequeathed to the society for propagating the Gospel. The population is estimated at 1500.
11. St. Eustatius, 12 miles S. E. of Saba, and 9 N. W. of St. Christopher, is a huge rock rising out of the waves in the form of a pyramid, 29 miles in circumference. Sugar, cotton and maize are raised here, but the principal production is tobacco; which is cultivated on the sides of the pyramid to its very top. There is but one landing place, and that ihough difficult of access, is strongly fortified. The number of inhabitants is 20,000, of whom 5,000 are whites, chiefly Dutch, and 15,000 negroes. The island was taken by the English in 1801 but in 1814 was restored to the king of the Netherlands.
12. St. Christopher, called by sailors St. Kitts, is 9 miles S. E. of St. Eustatius, and contains 43,276 acres, or almost 70 square miles. The interior of the island consists of many rugged precspices and barren mountains. Mount Misery, the loftiest summit, rises 3,711 feet above the level of the sea. It is evidently a decayed volcano. Near the shore, the country is level and the soil extremely fertile, no part of the West Indies being so well euited to the production of sugar. Particular spots have been known to yield 5 hhdi. of 16 cwt. each io the acre, and a whole plantation has yielded 4 hhds. to the acre. Of the 43,726 acres which the island contains, 17,000 are devoted to sugar, 4,000 to pasturage and perhaps 2 or 3,000 to cotton, indigo and provisions; the rest is unfit for cultivation. The population in 1794 was 25,000, of whom 4,000 were whités, and 21,000 negroes. Basseterre, the capital, is on the S.W. coast, at the mouth of a river
opening into a bay called Basseterre road. It contains 800 houses, and is defended by three batteries. The island was formerly divided beiween the English and the French, but after much contention, the whole, in 1713, was finally ceded to the English, by whom it is still retained.
13. Nevis. This beautiful little spot is nothing more than a single mountain, rising like a cone in an easy ascent from the sea, 3 miles S. E. of St. Christopher. The circumference of its base does not exceed 24 miles. It is well watered and the land in general is fertile. About 3000 acres are devoted to the cultivation of sugar, and the annual crop is 4,000 hhds. The island was undoubtedly produced by a volcano, for there is a crater near the summit still visible. The population consists of about 1,000 whites and 10,000 negroes. Charlestown, the capital, is on the west side of the island, and is defended by a fort. The island belongs to Great Britain.
14. Antigua, 16 leagues E. of Nevis, and 18 E. by S. of St. Christopher, is 50 miles in circumference and contains 93; square miles or 59,838 acres, of which 34,000 are appropriated to sugar, a small part is unimprovable, and the rest is devoted to cotton, tobacco and pasture. The population in 1817 according to official returns was 35,739, of whom 2,102 were whites, 2,185 free blacks and people of color, and 31,452 slaves. St. Johns, the capital, is built on the west shore on an excellent harbor, the entrance to which is defended by a fort.
Antigua constitutes along with St. Christopher, Nevis, Montser-rat, and those of the Virgin islands which belong to the English, aseparate government. The governor, who is styled captain gen-: eral of the leeward Caribbean islands,generally resides at Antigua, and occasionally visits the other islands.
15. Montserrat, 7 leagues S. E. of Nevis and 8 S.W. by W. of Antigua, is 9 miles long, and contains about 30,000 acres or nearJy 47 square miles, almost two thirds of which are mountainous or barren. Of the cultivated land, about 6,000 acres are appropriated to sugar, 2,000 to cotton, 2,000 to provisions, and 2,000 to pasturage. The population in 1805 was 10,750, of whom 1,000 were whites, 250 people of color, and 9,500 slaves.
16. Guadaloupe consists really of two islands nearly equal in size, divided by a short and narrow channel called the Salt river. That part of the island which lies N. E. of this channel is call. ed Grand Terre; that on the S. W. Basse Terre. The channel which separates them is more than 6 miles long, and in some places not more than 90 feet broad. It runs north and south, and communicates with the sea at each end by a large bay. Both divisions of the island are of volcanic origin, and covered with rug. ged mountains, particularly Basse Terre, in which the volcano La Souffriere or the brimstone mountain rises to a great height, and continually throws out thick black smoke mingled with fire. Basse Terre is much the most fertile part, being well supplied with water which fails in Grand Terre. The produce is the same with that of the other. West India islands. In 1810 the ex
ports consisted of 12,700,437 lbs, of sugar, 1,334,387 gallons of rum and molasses, 2,661,726 lbs. of coffee, 112,208 lbs. of cotton, and 2,162 lbs. of cacao. The population, in 1812, according to an official return made to the British House of Commons, was 114,839, of whom 12,747 were whites, 94,328 slaves, and 7,764 free negroes. Ti: island was 'originally settied by the French in 1635. It has been repeatedly taken by the English and the last time in 1810; but in 1814 it was restored to France.
17. Deseada and Mariegalante are dependencies of Guadaloupe. Deseada is 12 miles long and 6 broad. It lies 12 miles N. E. of point Chateau the eastern extremity of Guadaloupe, and contains about 900 inhabitants. Mariegalante is of a circular form, 14 miles in diameter. It lies 15 miles S. of Guadaloupe, is very fertile in sugar, coffee, cotton, &c. and contained in 1788, 12,385 inhabitants, of whom 1,938 were whites, 226 people of color and 10,121 slaves.
18. Dominica lies 30 miles S. S. E. of Guadaloupe. It is 29 miles long, and contains 186,436 acres or 291, square miles. It has many high and rugged mountains, though it is interspersed with fertile valleys, and watered by upwards of 30 rivers. Several of the mountains contain unextinguished volcanoes. Coffee is the great object of agriculture. In favorable years the island has produced 3,000,000 lbs. There are 200 plantations devoted to coffee and 50 to sugar. The population in 1805 consisted of 1,594 whites, 2,822 people of color, and 22,083 slaves; in all 26,499. The island belongs to the British.
B. WINDWARD ISLANDS.
1. Martinico lies 10 leagues S. S. E. of Dominica. It is 50 miles long from N. W. to S. E. and contains about 370 square miles. The island is very uneven and intersected in all parts by hillocks, which are chiefly of a conical form. Three mountains rise above these smaller eminences, one of which in the N. W. is obviously an extinguished volcano. The soil is generally very good and well watered. The principal productions are sugar, coffee, cassia, cotton, cacao, ginger, &c. The population in 1810, according to an official return, was 96,413, of whom 9,206 were whites, 8,630 free persons of color, and 78,577 slaves. Fort Royal, the capital, is on the west coast, on a large bay which forms one of the best harbors in the West Indies. St. Pierre, also on the west coast, 15 miles N. W. of Fort Royal, is a port of entry and the most commercial town on the island. It contains about 2,000 houses and 12,000 inhabitants. The harbour is easy of access but unsafe in storms. Martinico was seitled by the French in 1635. It has repeatedly fallen into the hands of the English, but has always been restored to France to whom it now belongs.
2. St. Lucia lies 9 leagues S. of Martinico. It is 32 miles long from N. to S. and contains 225 square miles. The country as billy, the climate healthy, and the soil generally good, yielding
all the tropical productions. There are 45 plantations devoted to the sugar cultivation, 225 to cotion, and 133 to coffee. The population in 1803 was 16,640, of whom 1,290 were whites, 1660 colored persons, and 13,690 slaves. Little Carenage bay on the west side of the island is the best harbor in all the Caribbean islands. It is large and deep, has an xcellent bottom, is free from worms, and is perfectly safe even in hurricanes. St. Lucia has often been taken and retaken in the wars between England and France. It was ceded to France in 1763, but early in the late war it fell into the hands of the English and has never since been restored.
3. St. Vincent lies 8 leagues S. S. W. of St. Lucia. It is 24 miles long from N. to S. and contains about 84,000 acres or 131
The country is generally very rugged and mountainous. Of the 84,000 acres in the island about 47,000 are cultivated. The remaining 37,000 are unfit for agriculture. The soil of the good land is a fine mould well fitted for sugar, which is the principal production. The sovereignty of the island is divided between the English and a race of independent negroes called black Caraibes. The English part is in the S.W. and includes about half of all the land fit for cultivation. The rest belongs to the black Cara;hes whoʻlive in the N. E. The population in 1791 consisted of 1450 whites, 11,853 slaves, 500 red Caraibes, and about 10,000 black Caraibes, Kingston, the capital of the English part of the island, is built on a bay to which it gives name, on the S. W. coast.
This island was discovered in 1672, and the English soon after made several unsuccessful attempts to settle it. In 1685 a slave ship from Africa with a cargo of negroes was wrecked on Bequia, a little island near the southern coast. From this island they soon went over to St. Vincent, and were made slaves hy the Caraibes. Finding their numbers increase, their masters came to a resolution to kill all the negro male children; on which the blacks rose in a body and defeated their design. The Caraibes afterwards occupied one half the island, and the blacks the other. By the accession of runaway slaves from Barbadoes, the blacks became very numerous. The French from Martinico, in 1719, attacked the negroes at the request of the Indians, and were very roughly handled. The English met with the same success in 1723. The Caraibes gradually diminished in number and in 1791 they amounted only to 500. The independent blacks are called black Caraibes, partly because there was an actual intermixture, but principally because they adopted the Caribbean customs. The island was ceiled in 1763 to the English who at first designed to exterminate the blacks, but in 1973 a treaty of friendship was formed between his majesty and the chiefs of the pegroes. In 1779 the island was taken by the French assisted by the negroes, but in 1783 was restored.
4. Barbadoes lies 28 leagues east of St. Vincent and is the
s' eastern of all the West India islands. t is 21 miles long from N. to S. and contains 106,470 acres or about 166 square miles,
most of which is under cultivation. The soil in the low lands is black, on the hills of a chalky marl, and near the sea generally sandy. Of this variety of soil the black mould is best suited for the cultivation of the cane, and with the aid of manure has given as great returns of sugar, in favorable seasons, as any in the West Indies, the prime lands of St. Christopher excepted. The population in 1811, according to returns made to parliament, was 81,939, of whom 16,289 were whites, 3,392 free people of color, and 62,258 slaves. An alarming insurrection of the blacks broke out in Barbadoes in 1816, which was suppressed after the loss of many lives. The island has suffered severely from hurricanes. That of October 1780 destroyed 4,326 lives, and property to the amount of £1,320,000. Bridgetown, the capital, is one of the finest cities in the West Indies. It lies on the S. W. coast of the island on the bay of Carlisle, which is large enough to contain 500 ships. The city contains 1200 houses built mostly of brick and about 12,000 inhabitants. It has often been destroyed by fires and hurricanes. The island was first discovered by the Portuguese. In 1605 the English found it upinhabited, took possession of it, and have retained it to the present time.
5. Grenada lies 20 leagues S.S.I. of St. Vincent. It is 24 miles long from N. E. to S. W. and contains about 80,000 acres 109 square miles. The interior is mountainous but no where inaccessible. The soil, on the whole, is in a high degree fertile. Of the 80,000 acres nine tenths are probably susceptible of cultiva. tion. Sugar, cotton and coffee are the principal productions. The population in 1811, according to an official return, was 31,362, of which number 771 were whites, 1210 free people of color, and 29,381 slaves. St. George, the capital, formerly called Fort Royal, lies on a spacious bay in the S. W. part of the island Its harbor is one of the best in the West Indies, and is defended by a fort. Grenada was settled in 1650 by the French who exterminated the natives. The English took it in 1762 and it was confirmed to them by the” peace of 1763. In 1779 it was taken by the French but was restored to Britain at the peace of 1783.
The Grenadines are a cluster of small islands dependent on Grenada, and lying between that island and St. Vincent. Cariacou the largest contains 10 square miles.
6. Tobago lies 30 leagnes S, E. of Grenada. It is 30 miles long from N. E. to S.W. and contains 140 square miles. The country is in general undulating but in the N. W. mountainous. Its soil is chiefly a rich black mould well fitted for all the fruits of the climate. The population in 1805 consisted of 900 whites, 700 people of color and 14,883 slaves; in all nearly 16,500 souls. The island lies out of the usual track of the hurricanes, and in this respect has an incalculable advantage orer those farther north. Tobago has been alternately in the hands of the English and French several times within the last century, but was confirmed to the former by the treaty of Paris in 1814."
7. Trinidad lies opposite the mouths of the Orinoco, near the coast of South America, from which it is separated by the gulf of