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of them are navigable except for boats.--Black river, wbich discharges itself in the S. W. part of the island, about 20 miles W. of Pedro bluff, is the deepest and largest. It is navigable for flatbottomed boats and canoes about 30 miles.
Climate. The climate of the coast is hot and sultry. This is particularly true of the plains on the southern coast, where the average temperature from June to November inclusive, is 80° and but little cooler in the other six months. In the interior it is more temperate. On the highlands about eight miles from Kingston, the thermometer seldom rises above 70°, and about six miles farther at the beight of 4200 feet above the level of the sea, it averages from 59° to 65o.
Chief Towns.) Spanishtown or St. Jago de la Vega, the capital of the island, stands on the river Cobre, six miles from its entrance into Kingston harbor. Population about 5000.
Kingston is on the south coast of the island, about 10 miles E. of Spanishtown, on the north side of a beautiful harbor, in which vessels of the largest burden may anchor in safety. It was founded in 1693, after the destruction of Port Royal by an earthquake in the preceding year. It is built on a plain, which commences on the shore and rises with a gradual ascent to the foot of the Liguanea mountains, a distance of about six miles. This plain is covered with the country residences of the principal inhabitants and with sugar estates. The population of the town is 33,000, of which number, 10,000 are whites, 18,000 slaves, 2,500 people of color, and 2,500 negroes.
Pori Royal stands at the extremity of the long and narrow peninsula which bounds Kingston harbor on the south, about 10 miles S. W. of the town of Kingston. It has an excellent harbor, in which a thousand ships could anchor with convenience. It once contained 2.000 houses, but in June 1692 a dreadful earthquake overwhelmed the town, and buried pine tenths of it eight fathoms under water. It was, however, rebuilt, but about 10 years afterwards it was laid in ashes by a terrible fire, and in 1722, one of the most dreadful hurricanes ever known, reduced it a third time to a heap of rubbish. Though once a place of the greatest wealth and importance in the West Indies, it is now reduced to three streets, a few lanes, and about 200 houses. It still contains, however, the royal navy yard, the navy hospital, and barracks for a regiment of soldiers. The fortifications are remarkably strong and are kept in excellent order.
Moniego bay, in the N. W. part of the island, is a flourishing commercial town with about 230 houses. In 1795 it was almost destroyed by an earthquake. Savannah la Mer in the S. W. has good anchorage for large vessels. It was almost destroyed by a dreadfui hurricane and inundation of the sea in 1780.
Population.] In 1812, according to an official return there were 319,913 slaves, and the number of whites and free people of color was estimated at 40,000, making a total of nearly 360,000
Religion.] The bishop of London claims this and the other British West India islands, as a part of his diocese ; but his jurisdiction is renounced by the laws of Jamaica. The governor, as head of the provincial church, inducts into the various rectories, The United Brethren, the Baptists, and the Methodists employ missionaries here, principally among the negroes.
Government.] The legislature of Jamaica is composed of the governor, of a council nominated by the crown, consisting of 12 gentlemen, and a house of assembly containing 43 members, who are elected by the freeholders. A bill becomes a law as soon as the governor's assent is olitained, but if the royal disapprobation is afterwards officially signified, it ceases to be valid.
Commerce.] The most important exports are sugar, rum, mo. lasses and coffee, and next to these cacao, cotton, indigo, pimento and ginger. The amount of sugar exported has gradually increased from 11,000 hhds. in 1742 to 140,000 in 1802. In 1791 the coffee exported amounted to about 600,000 lbs.; in 1807 it had increased to 28,500,000 lbs.
4. PORTO RICO.
Situation and Extent.] Porto Rico, called by the natives Boriqua, lies to the E. of Hispaniola, between 17° 54°and 18° 30' N. lat, and between 65° 30' and 67° 45' W. len. It is 115 miles long from E. to W. and has a mean breadth of 36, containing 4,140 square miles. Its shape is nearly that of a paralellogram.
Fuce of the Country, Soil, &c.] The country is pleasantly diversified with hills and vallies. The soil is generally fertile. The principal agricultural productions are sugar, cotton, rice, maize, and tobacco. Hurricanes are not unfrequent, and are sometimes very destructive.
Chief Town St. Juan de Porto Rico, the capital, is on the north side of the island, about 15 leagues west from cape St. Jgan. It stands on a peninsula in a spacious bay, and is connected with the main land hy an isthmus of considerable length. The harber is spacious and safe, and admits vessels of any burden. The entrance is less than half a mile wide, and the fortifications are strong and commanding. The population is variously estimated from 10 to 30,000.
Population.] The population in 1778 was 80,660. In 1795 it received a large accession from St. Domingo, many of the Spanish inbabitants of that island removing hither. At present it is supposed to exceed 100,000.
Government.] Porto Rico is a captain generalship. Originally, with Cuba, it was a part of the viceroyalty of Mexico; then it wa: attached to the government of Cuba ; and finally made a distinct province.
Situation and Extent. The Bahama islands lie directly north of the Greater Antilles and are separated from Cuba by the Oid Bahama channel, and from Florida by the New Bahama channel or Gulf of Florida. They lie between lat. 20° and 28° N. and between lon. 69° and 80° W.
Banks and Keys] There are two noted banks in these seas ; the Great and Little Babama banks. The Great Babama bank lies between lat. 21° 40' and 26° N. and between lon. 74° 50' and 80° 20' W. Its length, from Verde key in the S. E. to Isaacs? key in the N. W. is 450 miles. Its breadth io the south is about 140 miles. A little north of the tropic it is divided by an arm of deep water called Providence bay.which is 100 miles long from S. E. to N.W. and about 30 broad, and opens on the N.W. side of New Providence into the N. E. channel. The Old Bahama channel separates this bank from Cuba, and the New Bahama channel from Florida; the N. W. channel on the N. divides it from the Little Bank ; Rock sound and Exuma sound on the N. E. separate it from Eleuthera and Guanahani. Little Bank is bounded by the New Bahama channel on the W.; by the N. W. channel on the S.; by the N. E. channel on the S. E. and the Atlantic ocean on the N. E. Ite length, from the Hole in the Wall in the S. E. to Maranilla Reef in the N. W. is about 180 miles. The depth of water on the Great Bank varies from one to seven fathoms on the Little Bank from three to twelve.
The Keys or Kays are rocks or sand islands scattered in great profusion over this part of the ocean. Their number has been computed at 700. The larger and more remarkable have received appropriate names; the rest are known only by the generic name of Keys.
Islands.] Besides the Keys already mentioned, the Bahamas consists of 14 islands or groupes of islands. The following are their names arranged in geographical order, beginning in the S. E. 1. Turks islands.
8. Watling's island. 2. Caicos.
9. Guanahani or St. Salvador. B. The Inaguas.
10. Eleuthera and Harbor islands. 4. Mayaguana.
11. New Providence. ő. Crooked island groupe
12. Andros. 6. Long island.
13. Abaco. 17. Exuma.
14. Great Bahama. Turks islands are famous for their salt ponds, which in some years have yielded more than 30,000 tons of salt for exportation. Guanahani, called by Columbus St. Salvador, and by the English sailors Cat island, is celebrated as the spot where Columbus first landed in the
Face of the Country, Soil, &c.] These islands are heaps of limestone and shells, covered with vegetable mould. The Keys are chiefly rocky and sandy: on some of them a few trees are found. All the large islands that front directiy upon the Atlantic stretch from S. E. to N. W. and the ridge of each is in the same direction. The soil of all the islands is a thin but rich vegetable mould. It yields for a few years luxuriantly, but is soon exhausted. The chief production is cotton.
Navigation.] Owing to the immense number of sand banks, rocks, and breakers, every where dispersed over these seas, the navigation is extremely dangerous, and thousands of vessels have been wrecked here. Vessels bouod to New Orleans from the United States first make for the Hole in the Wall, the southern point of Abaco. Proceeding through the N. E. channel, they enter on the Great Bank S. of Berry islands, and leave it S. of the Cat Keys, whence they make for the Havana. Those bound to Jamaica pass to the leeward of Crooked island, between it and the Great Bank, and leaving the Inaguas on the left make for the Windward channel between Cuba and Hispaniola.
Population and Occupation..] In 1803 the population consisted of 3,923 whites and 11,395 blacks; in all, 14,318. The inhabitants are divided according to their occupations into two classes, residents and wreckers. The residents are chiefly loyalists and their descendants, who emigrated from Carolina and Georgia at the close of the American war. The wreckers are constantly employed in the business of rescuing shipwrecked vessels with their crews and cargoes from the waves. They sail in small flat bottomed sloops, just fitted for the seas which they navigate. They are excellent sailors, are familiar with all the Keys, shoals and breakers; and with alacrity and courage encounter any danger or hardship. They are licensed by the governor, and receive salrage on all property rescued from the waves. The number of these vessels is very great, 40 sail being sometimes seen in one inlet. By day they are always cruising, at night they usually put into the nearest harbor. Their great places of rendezvous are the Florida Gulf, the Hole in the Wallo and the Hogsties. The Hogsties are small keys, with reefs of rocks on each side in the form of a horse-shoe, which form a harbor, in lon. 74° W. about half way between Grand Inagua and South Crooked island.
1. St. Thomas, about 12 leagues E. of Porto Rico, is 9 miles. long and contains about 40 square miles. The soil is well water
ed and fruitful. The number of plantations is 74, of which 40 are devoted to the cultivation of sugar, and 34 to that of cotton. The population in 1815 was estimated at 5,050, of which number 550 were whites, 1500 free negroes and 3,000 slaves. St Thomas, the chief town, is on the S. E. side of the island, and has a safe and commodious port in which 200 ships can be accommo. dated.
2. St. Johns, 6 miles S. E. of St. Thomas, contains about 40 square miles. The soil produces sugar, coffee, tobacco and cotton. The population is 2430, of which number 180 are whites, 50 mulattoes and 2200 negroes. , 3. Santa Cruz or St. Croix lies south of St. Johns, and contains about 100 square miles. The soil is tolerably fruitful and is divided into 346 plantations. The principal productions are sugar and cotton. The population in 1813 was 31,387 of whom 2,223 were Danes, 1,164 mulattoes and free blacks, and 28,000 slaves. Christianstadt, the chief town, and capital of all the Danish West India islands, is on the north coast. It has a harbor, a fort, 660 houses and 5,000 inhabitants.
The value of all the property, public and private, in the three Danish islands, is estimated at £5,014,440, viz. Santa Cruz £3,728,640; St. Thomas £747,800 ; and St. John £538,000.
4. Tortolu lies N. E. of St. Johns, and is 15 miles long by 6 broad. It is well cultivated, and is one of the healthiest islands in the West Indies. It has a large and safe barbor on the S. E. side.' The productions are sugar and colton. Population about 10,000.
5. Virgin Gorda is 8 miles E. of Tortola. It is 15 miles long and produces sugar and cotion. The population is stated at 8,000. Anegada, the largest of its dependencies, is low and almost covered by water at high tides.
The five preceding islands are called The Virgin islands.
6. Anguilla or Snake island, so called from its winding tortuous figure, is about 30 miles long. It produces sugar, cotton, tobacco and maize, and has about 800 inhabitants. It belongs to the British.
7. St Martin, 5 miles south of Anguilla, is 15 miles long and contains about 90 square miles. It produces sugar, cotton, and tobacco, but is principally valuable for its salt pits. The island was formerly divided between the Dutch and French, and afterwards between the Dutch and English, but it now belongs wholly to the king of the Netherlands. The population, amounting to 6,100, consists partly of Dutch and French, partly of mulattoes and negroes.
8. St. Bartholomew is a small island, 15 miles S. E of St. Martin, containing about 60 square miles. It was first settled by the French in 1648, but in 1785 was ceded to Sweden, lo whom it still belongs. It produces sugar, cotton, cacao, tobacco and mapioc, also iron wood, and lignumvitae. There is no lake or spring on the island. The inhabitants depend on the skies for water, which they keep in cisterns, and when they fail, it is procured from St.