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then up the Appalachicola to the parallel of 31° N. lat. ; thence, due west along that parallel, to the Mississippi. The river Appalachicola divided this country into East and West Florida. The part lying between the Mississippi and Pearl river is now included in the state of Louisiana, the part between Pearl river and tiie Perdido belongs to the states of Mississippi and Alabama; and the part east of the Perdido, is the country that is now properly called Florida. It lies between 25° and 31° N. lat. and between 80° 30' and 87° 20' W. lon. The area has been estimated at 50,000 square miles.
Rivers.] The Perdido forms the western boundary. The Escambia rises in Alabama, and falls into Pensacola bay, a little east of the Perdido. The Appalachicola is formed by the union of Flint and Chattahoochee rivers at the S. W. extremity of Georgia, and running in a southerly direction discharges itself into St. George's sound, the western part of Apalachy bay.
The St. John's is the principal river of Florida. It rises in the southern part of the peninsula, between 26° and 27°N. latand running in a northerly direction, expands into several lakes; one of which, called lake George, is 20 miles long and 15 wide. Within 20 miles of its mouth, the river turns to the east and falls into the Atlantic, near lat. 30° N. Its whole length is about 300 miles, and it is navigable for vessels which can pass the bar at its mouth to lake George, 150 miles. The bar has 9 feet of water at low tide, and there is good anchorage outside of the bar for large vessels.
Bay.] Pensacola bay, at the mouths of Escambia and Almirante rivers, is 15 miles long, and from 3 to 7 broad. It is completely landlocked, so that vessels are perfectly safe from every wind. The water is said to be sufficiently deep for vessels of the largest class, and the entrance is capable of being effectually defended. This bay is a great acquisition to the United States, as it is the only commodious and safe harbor' for large ships in the gulf of Mexico. Soil and Production. The soil is very various.
In some parts, especially on the banks of the rivers, it is equal to any in The world ; in other parts, indifferent; and there are large tracts which are represented to be of little value. The country, however, has been bat imperfectly explored, and few agricultural experiments have been made. Much of the land, which op a superficial view has been supposed to be not worth cultivating, it is believed may be turned to very profitable account. The productions are corn, rice, potatoes, cotton, bemp, oranges, and other tropical fruits, and it is supposed that coffee and the sugar cane will flourish here. The forests yield fine live oak and pitch pine.
Chief Towns.] St. Augustine is pleasantly situated and regular-ly laid out on the eastern coast, a few miles south of the mouth of St. John's river. The harbor has a bar at the mouth, over which at the lowest tides there is only 6 feet of water; but there is a roadstead outside of the bar' which affords anchorage for
larger vessels. The town and the entrance to the harbor are welt defended by a strong fort. The atmosphere is remarkably dry and healthful, and invalids frequently resort hither for the benefit of the climate. The population is estimated at 5,000.
Pensacola is on the west side of Pensacola bay, 50 miles 6. S. E. of Mobile. It stands in a healthful situation, on a dry sandy plain, elevated 18 or 20 feet above the level of the water. The population, in 1319, was about 2,000. Since tbe cessjon of Florida to the United States, emigrants from various parts of the Union have resorted to this place in great numbers.
History and Population. Florida bas frequently changed masters. Until 1763 it belonged to Spain. It was then ceded to Great Britain ; but in 1783, was restored to Spain, with whom it remained till 1821, when it was ceded to the United States. The white population is cornposed of Spaniards, English, Scotch, Irish and Americans. Their number is supposed out to exceed 10 or 15,000. Extensive tracts of the country have never yet been explored by white men. The Seminole Indians formerly possessed the most fertile districts, but in their recent contest with the United States they were nearly exterminated.
TERRITORY OF OREGON. This name bas been applied to the part of the United States west of the Rocky mountains, and derives its name from the river Oregon or Columbiu. Our knowledge of the territory is principally contined to this river. It rises in the Rocky mountains near lat. 55° N. and running in a S. W. direction, falls into the Pacific ocean, in lat. 46° 15' N. The whole length of the river is estimated at 1500 miles. Its principal tributaries are the Wallaumut or Multnomah, Lewis river, and Clarke's river, all of which join it on the S. E. side ; the first, 125 miles from its mouth, the second 413, and the third about 600. Vessels of 300 tons may ascend the Columbia as far as the mouth of the Wallaumut. The tide flows up 183 miles, and large sloops may ascend this distance. Seven miles further up the navigation is interrupted by the great rapids. Above the rapids, the river is navigable for 65 miles, till it is interrupted by the long narrows, aod 6 miles further up by the falls. Above the falls there are no obstructions for 150 miles, to the mouth of Lewis river. The portages around the great rapids, long narrows, and falls, are in all five iniles. As yon ascend the river the country for the first 160 miles is covered with heavy timber, mostly of the pine species; thence the woods diminish gradually for 60 miles, till nothing is fouod but stinted trees and shrub oaks. The banks of the Columbia are inhabited by various Indian tribes, who subsist chiefly on the salmon, which the river yields in immense quantities. The American Fur company have a settlement, called Astoria, on the S. side of the river, 14 miles from the ocean.
MEXICO OR NEW SPAIN.
Situation. This country is bounded N. and N. E. hy the United States ; E. by the Gulf of Mexico; S E. hy Guntimala ; and W. by the Pacific Ocean. It extends from 16° to 420 N. lat. and from 38° to 124° W. lon.
Divisions.) Much of the northern part of the country is inhabited by savage Indians. The remainder is divided into 15 intendencies and provinces, as follows:
Divisions. Sq. Miles. Pop. in 1803. Chief Towns. 1. Old California
55,800 9,000 Loreto 2. New California
16,278 15,600 Monterey 3. Vew Mexico
4?,731 40,200 Santa Fe 4. Sonora
146,635 121,400 Arispe 5. Darango or New Biscay 139,247 159,700 Durango 6. San Luis Potosi
263,109 331,900 St. Luis Potosi 7. Guadalaxara
73,628 630,500 Guadalaxara 8 Zacatecas
18.0~9 153,300 Zacatecas 9. Guanaxuato
6,378 517,300 Guanaxuato 10. Valladolid
26,396 376,400 Valladolid 11. Mexico
45,401 1,511,800 Mexico 12 Puebla
20,651 813,300 Puebla 13. Vera Cruz
31,720 150,000 Vera Cruz 14. Oaxaca
34,061 534,800 Oaxaca 15. Yucatan, or Merida 45,784 465,800 Merida
Sea Coast.] The eastern coast of New Spain, properly speakiing, possesses no port; for Vera Cruz, through which the whole commerce is carried on, is merely a bad anchorage. The cause: of this disadvantage is the Gulf Stream,which, in its passage alors the shore, continually throns up the sands of the ocean, forming bars over which large vessels cannot pass. The sands thus heaped up by the stream are continually adding to the continent, and the ocean is every where retiring. These obstacles do not exo ist on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. San Francisco in New Cale ifornia, San Blas in the intendancy of Guadalasara, near the mouth of the river Santiago, and especially Acapulco are magnificent ports. A very serious inconvenience, however, is common to the eastern coast and the coast of the Pacific Ocean. They are rendered inaccessible for several months of every year by violent tempests, which effectually prevent all navigation.
Face of the Country. The land on both the coasts is low, but rises gradually as you approach the interior, till it has aítained the height of 6 or 8,000 feet above the level of the ocean; it then spreads out into broad plains or table lands, presenting Lhe strange spectacle of an immense level country on the top of
a lofty range of mountains. These plains extend along the range from lat. 18° to lat. 40° N. a distance of 1700 miles.
Mountains. A chain of colossal mountains, called the Cordillera of M-xico, passes through the whole length of this country from southeast to northwest. It may be considered as a prolongation of the Andes of Peru, or a part of the great chain which runs throngh the American continent from Cape Horn to the Frozen Ocean. Its top, as we have already mentioned, consists of extensive plains or table land. From these elevated plains single mountains occasionally shoot up, whose summits are covered with everlasting snow. Several peaks near the city of Mexico are more than 15,000 feet high, and the loftiest are volcanoes.The crest or highest part of the chain sometimes approaches the Pacific Ocean, at other times it occupies the centre of the country, and sometimes it bends towards the Gulf of Mexico. In the province of Oaxaca, for example, it occupies the centre of the Mexican isthmus ; from 18 to 21° N. lat. in the intendancies of Puebla and Mexico, it stretches from soạth to north, and approaches the eastern coast, after which it turns to the northwest towards the city of Guanaxuato To the north of thai city it divides into three branches, of which the most eastern runs into the intendancy of San Luis Potosi, towards the mouth of the Rio Brayo del Norte. The western branch traverses the intendancies of Guadalaxara and Sonora to the banks of the Rio Gila. The third branch, which may be considered as the central chain of the Mexican Andes, occupies the whole extent of the intendancy of Zacatecas, and passing through Durango and New Mexico under various names, joins the Rocky Mountains of the United States.
The highest summits in the Cordillera of Mexico are Popocatepetl, a volcano, 17,720 feet above the level of the ocean; Citlaltepetl or the Pic d'Orizaba, a volcano, 17,371 feet; Iztaccihuatl, 15.700 feet; and Toluca, 15,159 feet. All these are near the parallel of 19° N lat.
Climate.) Almost one third of the territory included in the provinces of New Spain is sitụated in the torrid zone ; and for this reason it might be supposed that the heat would be excessive; but the climate of a country does not depend allogether on its distance from the pole, but also on iis elevation above ihe lev. el of the sea. Hence, of the 50,000 square leagues lying under the torrid zone, more than three fifths enjoy rather a cold or temperate than a burning climate. In the low plains on both coasts, the heat is very oppressive and the climate unhealthy to Europeans; but when you advance into the interior, and begin to ascend the declivity of the Cordillera, it becomes more temper. ate, and at the elevation of 4 or 5,000 feet there reigns perpetually a soft spring temperature, which never varies more than 8 or 9 degrees, and is very healthy, the extremes of heat and cold being equally unknown. As you advance still higher the climate becomes cooler, and at length on the tops of some of the loftiest mountains you come to the region of perpetual snow,
Thus in the course of two or three days, the traveller may enjoy ali the variety of summer, spring and winter.
Soil and Productions. / A considerable part of the country situated to the north of the tropic is rendered barren by the want of moisture; and in many parts aiso of the table land within the tropics, the piains are arid and destitute of wood. Still a great portion of New Spain belongs to the most fertile regions of the earth. On the banks of all the rivers, and wherever there is a supply of moisture, the fertility is extreme. The declivity of the Cordillera is exposed to humid winds and frequent fogs, and the vegetation, nourished by these aqueous vapors, exhibits an uncommon beauty and strength. The humidity of the coasts also, assisted by a burning sun, though it generates some terrible diseases, is favorable to the growth of the richest produce of tropical climates.
The productions of this country are as various as its climate. In the course of a few hundred miles, you may meet with almost all the fruits of the temperate and torrid żones. The fertile regiops on the coast produce in aburidance sugar, indigo arid cotton. The banana also, which supplies the place of bread to the inhabitants of the torrid zone, and which is said to produce a greater quantity of nutritive substance than any other plant on the same space
of ground, flourishes luxuriantly in all the low country. A piece of land which, if planted with wheat, would yield barely sufficient for the snbsistence of two individuals, would be capable of maintaining at least fifty if planted with bananas. Accordingly, a European newly arrived in Mexico; is struck with nothing so much, as the extreme smallness of the spots under cultivation round a cabin which contains a numerous family of Indians. The same region in which the banana flourishes produces also the manioc, which yields a very nutritious bread, and is extensively cultivated along the coasts. But by far the most important agricultural production is maize, and the year in which the maize harvest fails is a year of famine and misery for the inhabitants of Mexico. It grows in the low country, and on all the table land except some of the highest plains, and the produce is most abundanı, being in some places eight hundred fold, and on in average one hundred and fifty fold. In the most warm and humid regions it will yield two or three harvests annually, Wheat, ryc, and other European grains have been successfully in. troduced in the northern provinces, and on the elevated plains within the tropics. All the garden vegetables and fruit trees of Europe are now also possessed by the Mexicans. The central table land produces in the greatest abundance cherries, prunes, peaches, apricots, figs, grapes, melons, apples and pears. The vine and the olive would also flourish in this delightful climate, but through the influence of the merchants in the mother country their cultivation has been prohibited, and the colonists are štill obliged to import their oil and wine from Old Spain.
Rivers.] The Arkansaw forms a part of the northeastern boundary. Red river rises in this country and Hows southeast into the