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Face of the Country and Soil.] Taking the whole country together, it may be pronounced an extensive region of open plains and meadows, interspersed with barren hills. It is almost destitute of woods, except in the neighborhood of streams, and in most parts can scarcely be said to admit of settlemen's. The tracts lying immediately on the great rivers constitute the most valuable parts. The banks of the Mississippi afford suitable situations for settlements as high up as the falls of St. Anthony, and the country watered by the Yellowstone and its branches is said to be as fertile and extensive as the valley of the Ohio, and capable of supporting as numerous a population.
Animals.] Buffaloes and other wild animals wander in immense herils over almost every part of the territory ; but particularly on the banks of the Arkansas and Missouri, which are regarded as the paradise of hunters,
Indians. This territory is inbabited, except at a few military posts, exclusively by Indians. The tribes best known to os are the Sioux, Osages and Fox Indians. 'The Sioux are the most powerful tribe in North America. They inbabit, with triiling exceptions, all the country between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, south of the parallel of 46° N. lat. Their country als includes large tracts south of the Missouri and east of the Mississippi. They are brave, spirited and generous, with proud potions of their origin, and of their superiority as hunters and warriors. Their number has been estimated at 22,000. They are almost constantly at war with the Chippeways. live principally in this territory, but partly in Arkansas. Those in this territory are called Osages of the Missouri, and are divided into Great and Little Osages. They live in two separale villages, which are 6 miles apart, on Osage river, about 360 miles above its junction with the Missouri, in lat. 37° N. and lon. 96° 40' W. Their whole number is estimated at 6,000, of whom about 4,000 are Great Osages, and 2,000 Little Osages. The distinction between them is merely nominal, as they form parts of one nation, The Fox Indians are a small but warlike tribe, on both sides of the Mississippi, between the Ouisconsin and Rock rivers. Within their territory are Dubuque's lead mines which are considered as the richest yet found in the United States. They are on the west side of the river, 75 miles below Prairie du Chien, and are at present wronght exclusively by the Indiane,
Military posts.] lo 1805 the government of the United States purchased of the Indians a tract of land around the falls of St. Anthony, 9 miles square ; and in 1813, 300 soldiers were sent 10 occupy it as a military position. A fort has been erected on a high bluff within this tract at the junction of the river St. Peter's with the Mississippi, a spot which commands the navigation of both rivers, and appears capable of being rendered impregnable with
As a military position it is of great importance, þeing in the neighborhood of many powerful Indian tribes, who þave heretofore been under the exclusive influence of the British Fur companies. The garrison will have a ready access into the
heart of the countries occupied by these tribes, lig three distinct channels of communication; by the Mississippi, which is navigable towards the north 600 miles above the falls ; by the St. Croix, on the N. E. which joins the Mississippi just below the faits, and communicates with lake Superior by a portage of half a mile; and by the St. Peter's on the N. W. which runs through the territory of the Sioux, the most powerful of the Indian tribes, and is navigable for several hundred miles.
The Mandan village, on the Missouri, in lat. 47° 20' N. and lon. 100° 50' W. has been selected by the government of the United States for a military post. It is only 150 miles south of the establishment of the Hudson bay company on Assinniboin river, and is well situated to prevent that company from extending their trade towards the head waters of the Missouri, and along the Rocky mountains ; a tract of country which is said to produce fur of a better quality and in greater abundance than any other portion of North America.
Council Bluff, on the east side of the Missouri, a little above the mouth of the Platie, is occupied as a military post. It is in the centre of the most pumerous Indian population west of the Mississippi, and is at that point on the Missouri, which approaches nearest to the post at the mouth of the St. Peter's, with which, in the event of hostilities, it may co-operate,
Situation.) Arkansas territory is bounded N. by Missouri territory and state ; E. by the Mississippi; S. by Louisiana, and by Rad river which separates it from the Spanish dominions; and W. by the Spanish dominions.
Divisions.] The territory is divided into 7 counties.
Slares Counties. Pop. Slavés in 1820. in 1820.
in 1820. in 1820, Arkansas, 1,260
178 Phillips, 1,201 145 Clark,
171 Hempstead, 2,248 481 Lawrence, 5,602 490
14,273 1,617 Miller,
82 Rivers.] Arkansas river enters the territory near its N. W. corner, and running in a direction east of south discharges itself into the Mississippi 400 miles above the mouth of Red river.
White river rises in the western part of the territory near 979 W. Ion. and 36° N. lat. and after a circuitous course of more than 1,200 miles, falls into the Mississippi 20 miles above the mouth af the Arkansas. The lands on this river and its branches have never been explored till recently. They are now universally represented as extremely fertile and among the finest in America for settlement. The St. Francis terminates its course in this ter ritory, The Ouachitu rises here, and runs south into Louisiana,
Chiof Settlements.] The village of Little Rock, on Arkansas river, about 140 miles from its mouth, is the seat of government. The settlement was commenced in 1820. The post of Arkansas was established by the French more tban a century ago on Arkansas river, 65 miles from its mouth. Most of the inhabitants are of mixed blood, descendants of French and Indians.
Indians.] The principal tribes are the Osages and Cherokees. The Osages of the Arkansas are 2,000 in number, and inbabit seyeral villages on branches of Arkansas river, about 150 miles S. W. of the villages of the Great and Little Osages in Missouri territory. One of their principal villages is on Grand river, 25 miles from its junction with the Arkansas, in lat. 35° 30' N. and lon. 37° 20' W. This spot has been fixed upon by the United Foreign Missionary society as a missionary station. It is named Union, and in the sunimer of 1820, a mission family, consisting of more than 20 persons, was sent to occupy it.-In the years 1818 and 1819, about 5,000 of the Cherokee Indians removed from their residence on the east of the Mississippi to a fine tract of country on the north bank of Arkansas river, between 94° and 95° W. lon. At their desire, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions have recently established a missionary station among them, called Dwight.
Population.] The population, in 1810, was 1,062 ; and in 1820, 14,273, exclusive of Indians and hunters. The hunter population is composed of persons from various sections of the Union, who have either embraced hunting from an excessive fondness for the pursuit, or have fled from society to escape the severity of the laws, and to indulge in uprestrained passion. They subsist almost entirely by hunting, and differ very little in any respect from the savages. They live chiefly on White river, the Arkansas, and Red river. Their number is estimated at 1,000 or 1,500.
Hot Springs.] The celebrated Hot Springs of Ouachita or Wachita are in Clark county, on Hot Spring creek, which falls into the Wachita 8 miles below. The accomodations are miserable, the country being almost a wilderness, yet there are frequently 200 or 300 persons collected here, some from a distance of 1,000 miles. The temperature is nearly that of boiling water.
Situation and Extent.] Florida is a long narrow peninsula, jutfting out from the southern extremity of the United States, and bounded N. by Alabama and Georgia ; E. by the Atlantic; S. and W. by the gulf of Mexico. Formerly the name was applied to the whole country east of the Mississippi, and bounded as follows: N. by the river St. Mary from the sea to its source ; thence, west, to the junction of Flint river with the Appalachicola; then up the Appalachicola to the parallel of 31° N. lat. ; thence, due west along that parallel, to the Mississippi. The river Appalachicola divided this country into East and West Florida. The part lying between the Mississippi and Pearl river is now included in the state of Louisiana, the part between Pearl river and tile Perdido belongs to the states of Mississippi and Alabama; and the part east of the Perdido, is the country that is now properly called Florida. It lies between 25° and 31° N. lat. and between 80° 30' and 87° 20' W. Ion. The area has been estimated at 50,000 square miles.
Rivers.) The Perdido forms the western boundary. The Escambia rises in Alabama, and falls into Pensacola bay, a little east of the Perdido. The Appalachicola is formed by the union of Flint and Chattahoochee rivers at the S. W. extremity of Georgia, and running in a southerly direction discharges itself into St. George's sound, the western part of Apalachy bay.
- The St. John's is the principal river of Florida. It rises in the southern part of the peninsula, between 26° and 270 N. lat. and running in a northerly direction, expands into several lakes; one of which, called lake George, is 20 miles long and 15 wide. Within 20 miles of its mouth, the river turns to the east and falls into the Atlantic, near lat. 30° N. Its whole length is about 300 miles, and it is navigable for vessels which can pass the bar at its mouth to lake George, 150 miles. The bar has 9 feet of water at low tide, and there is good anchorage outside of the bar for large vessels.
Bay) Pensacola bay, at the mouths of Escambia and Almirante rivers, is 15 miles long, and from 3 to 7 broad. It is completely Jardlocked, so that vessels are perfectly safe from every wind. The water is said to be sufficiently deep for vessels of the largest class, and the entrance is capable of being effectually defended. This bay is a great acquisition to the United States, as it is the only commodious and safe harbor for large ships in the golf of Mexico. Soil and Productions. The soil is very various.
In some parts, especially on the banks of the rivers, it is equal to any in she world; in other parts, indifferent; and there are large tracts which are represented to be of little value. The country, however, has been bat imperfectly explored, and few agricultural experiments have been made. Much of the land, which on a superficial view has been supposed to be not worth cultivatiog, it is believed may be turned to very profitable account. The productions are corn, rice, potatoes, cotton, bemp, oranges, and other tropical fruits, and it is supposed that coffee and the sugar cane will flourish here. The forests yield fine live oak and pitch pine.
Chief Towns.] St. Augustine is pleasantly situated and regularly laid out on the eastern coast, a few miles south of the mouth of St. John's river. The harbor has a bar at the mouth, over which at the lowest tides there is only 6 feet of water; but there iş a roadstead outside of the bar which affords anchorage for
larger vessels. The town and the entrance to the harbor are welt defended by a strong fort. The atmosphere is remarkably dry and healthful, and invalids frequently resort hither for the benefit of the climate. The population is estimated at 5,000.
Pensacola is on the west side of Pensacola bay, 50 miles 6. S. E. of Mobile. It stands in a healthful situation, on a dry sandy plain, elevated 18 or 20 feet above the level of the water. The population, in 1319, was about 2,000. Since tbe cessjon of Florida to the United States, emigrants from various parts of the Union have resorted to this place in great numbers.
History and Population. Florida bas frequently changed masters. Until 1763 it belonged to Spain. It was then ceded to Great Britain ; but in 1783, was restored to Spain, with whom it remained till 1821, when it was ceded to the United States. The white population is cornposed of Spaniards, English, Scotch, Irish and Americans. Their number is supposed out to exceed 10 or 15,000. Extensive tracts of the country have never yet been explored by white men. The Seminole Indians formerly possessed the most fertile districts, but in their recent contest with the United States they were nearly exterminated.
TERRITORY OF OREGON. This name bas been applied to the part of the United States west of the Rocky mountains, and derives its name from the river Oregon or Columbiu. Our knowledge of the territory is principally contined to this river. It rises in the Rocky mountains near lat. 55° N. and running in a S. W. direction, falls into the Pacific ocean, in lat. 46° 15' N. The whole length of the river is estimated at 1500 miles. Its principal tributaries are the Wallaumut or Multnomah, Lewis river, and Clarke's river, all of which join it on the S. E. side ; the first, 125 miles from its mouth, the second 413, and the third about 600. Vessels of 300 tons may ascend the Columbia as far as the mouth of the Wallaumut. The tide flows up 183 miles, and large sloops may ascend this distance. Seven miles further up the navigation is interrupted by the great rapids. Above the rapids, the river is navigable for 65 miles, till it is interrupted by the long narrows, aod 6 miles further up by the falls. Above the falls there are no obstructions for 150 miles, to the mouth of Lewis river. The portages around the great rapids, long narrows, and falls, are in all five iniles. As yon ascend the river the country for the first 160 miles is covered with heavy timber, mostly of the pine species; thence the woods diminish gradually for 60 miles, till nothing is fouod but stinted trees and shrub oaks. The banks of the Columbia are inhabited by various Indian tribes, who subsist chiefly on the salmon, which the river yields in immense quantities. The American Fur company have a settlement, called Astoria, on the S. side of the river, 14 miles from the ocean.