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which forms the outlet of Spirit lake, and runs into the Mississippi, a short distance above the falls of St. Anthony. 3. St. Croix river, which joins the Mississippi a little below the falls of St. Anthony, after a southerly course of several hundred miles. 4. The Chippewny, which enters it in 43° 45' N. lat. 5. The Ouisconsin is a large river which rises near the centre of the territory, and running at first in a southerly and afterwards in a westerly direction, joins the Mississippi at Prarie du Chien, near the S. W extremity of the territory. It is a rapid river, but is navigable for boats 150 miles.
Fox river is a large stream, which falls into the S. W. end of Green bay, after running in a westerly direction for several huna dred miles. In one part of its course it approaches within two miles of Ooisconsin river, and the portage between them is over a level prairie. Both streams are navigable to the portage for boats. The Menomonee rods into Green bay, 60 miles north of the mouth of Fox river.
The principal rivers which run into lake Superior from this territory, are, 1. St. Louis river, which discharges itself into Fond du Lac bay at the extreme western point of the lake. 2. The Bois Brule, which rises near the sources of the St. Croix, and running in a northerly direction falls into Fond du Lac bay. It is navigable 80 miles. 3. Mauvais river, wbich discharges itself a few miles east of Chegoimegon bay. It is navigable for canoes 100 miles. 4. Montreal river, which enters the Jake 12 miles east of the Mauvais, interlocks with the Chippeway and Ouisconsin, but the connection is interrupted by long portages. 5. The Ontonagon, which discharges itself near lon. 89° W. after a northerly course of 120 miles. It is navigable only 36 miles on account of the rapids.
Mland Communication. One of the best and most frequented routes of communication between the great lakes and the Mississippi, is through the Fox and Quisconsin rivers. The Ouisconsin is ascended in canoes 90 miles above the portage, and is also connected by short portages with the Ontopagon and Montreal rivers of lake Superior. A communication is also maintained between lake Superior and the Mississippi by means of St. Louis river, which at one place approaches very near Savannah river, a small stream that discharges itself into Sandy lake.
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.) This territory has. been very imperfectly explored; but the alluvial bottoms on its rivers, wherever they have been examined, are said to be as rich as those of Ohio and Michigan. The lands on Fox river particularly, are spoken of as remarkably good. The most remarkable vegetable production is the wild rice, a productive and highly valuable aquatic plant, with which the lakes, rivers and bays generally abound. It grows in water of from 4 to 7 feet deep. When it is ripe the Indians pass through it in their canoes, lined with blankets, and bending the stalks over the sides, beat off the grain with sticks; and such is the abundance of the harvest, that an expert ada n will soon fill canoe.
Settlements.) Prairie du Chien is a settlement on the Mississippi, 3 miles above the mouth of the Quisconsin. It was originally formed by the French, who intermarried with the Indians, and the present inhabitants, amounting to between 300 and 400, are almost entirely of mixed blood. Above the settlement stands fort Crawford, which is strong and well garrisoned. The American S. W. Fur company have an establishment on the south shore of Sandy lake ; another on St. Croix river, 100 leagues from its mouth : and another on St. Louis river, 21 miles from its entrance into lake Superior.
Indians.] The principal tribes of Indians in this territory are the Chippeways, the Winnebagoes, and the Menomonees. The Chippeways are not contined to this territory, but consist of numerous petty bands, scattered over the immense region from Detroit to the sources of the Mississippi. Their whole number is estimated at more than 11,000, about one half of whom are in this territory. They are almost constantly at war with the Sioux, who live west of the Mississippi. The Winnebagoes live in the southern part of the territory, on Fox river and the Ouisconsin. Their number is nearly 6,000. The Menomonees are nearly 4,000 in number, and live principally on the west side of Green bay, along Menomonee river, and on Fox river in the lower part of its course. The whole number of Indians in the N. W. territory is estimated at 18,000.
Copper Mines.] The southern coast of lake Superior yields iron, lead and various other metals, but particularly copper. On the banks of the river Ontonagon large masses of this metal are found in a pure state, and from the appearances of the surrounding country there is little doubt that extensive copper mines exist in the vicinity. The largest mass examined by Mr. Schoolcraft weighed, according to his estimate, 2,200 lbs. and is said to be the largest piece of pure native copper in the world.
Situation and Extent.] Missouri territory is bounded N. by the British dominions ; E. by the N. W. territory and the states of Illinois and Missouri ; S. by Arkansas territory ; S. W. by the Spanish dominions ; and W. by the Rocky mountains. The area is estimated at 800,000 square miles.
Rivers.] The Mississippi forms the eastern boundary. Its principal tributaries from this territory, are St. Peter's river and The river Des Moines. - The Missouri pursues a circuitous course through the heart of the territory. Its principal tributaries are, the Yellowstone, the Platte and the Kansas. All these rivers have been described. See pages 70, 71 and 72.
Face of the Country and Soil.] Taking the whole country together, it may be pronounced an extensive region of open plains and meadows, interspersed with barren hills. It is almost destitute of woods, except in the neighborhood of streams, and in most parts can scarcely be said to admit of settlemen's. The tracts lying immediately on the great rivers constitute the most valuable parts. The banks of the Mississippi afford suitable situations for settlements as high up as the falls of St. Anthony, and the country watered by the Yellowstone and its branches is said to be as fertile and extensive as the valley of the Ohio, and capable of supporting as numerous a population.
Animals.] Buffaloes and other wild animals wander in immense herils over almost every part of the territory ; but particularly on the banks of the Arkansas and Missouri, which are regarded as the paradise of hunters,
Indians. This territory is inbabited, except at a few military posts, exclusively by Indians. The tribes best known to os are the Sioux, Osages and Fox Indians. 'The Sioux are the most powerful tribe in North America. They inbabit, with triiling exceptions, all the country between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, south of the parallel of 46° N. lat. Their country als includes large tracts south of the Missouri and east of the Mississippi. They are brave, spirited and generous, with proud potions of their origin, and of their superiority as hunters and warriors. Their number has been estimated at 22,000. They are almost constantly at war with the Chippeways. live principally in this territory, but partly in Arkansas. Those in this territory are called Osages of the Missouri, and are divided into Great and Little Osages. They live in two separale villages, which are 6 miles apart, on Osage river, about 360 miles above its junction with the Missouri, in lat. 37° N. and lon. 96° 40' W. Their whole number is estimated at 6,000, of whom about 4,000 are Great Osages, and 2,000 Little Osages. The distinction between them is merely nominal, as they form parts of one nation, The Fox Indians are a small but warlike tribe, on both sides of the Mississippi, between the Ouisconsin and Rock rivers. Within their territory are Dubuque's lead mines which are considered as the richest yet found in the United States. They are on the west side of the river, 75 miles below Prairie du Chien, and are at present wronght exclusively by the Indiane,
Military posts.] lo 1805 the government of the United States purchased of the Indians a tract of land around the falls of St. Anthony, 9 miles square ; and in 1813, 300 soldiers were sent 10 occupy it as a military position. A fort has been erected on a high bluff within this tract at the junction of the river St. Peter's with the Mississippi, a spot which commands the navigation of both rivers, and appears capable of being rendered impregnable with
As a military position it is of great importance, þeing in the neighborhood of many powerful Indian tribes, who þave heretofore been under the exclusive influence of the British Fur companies. The garrison will have a ready access into the
heart of the countries occupied by these tribes, lig three distinct channels of communication; by the Mississippi, which is navigable towards the north 600 miles above the falls ; by the St. Croix, on the N. E. which joins the Mississippi just below the faits, and communicates with lake Superior by a portage of half a mile; and by the St. Peter's on the N. W. which runs through the territory of the Sioux, the most powerful of the Indian tribes, and is navigable for several hundred miles.
The Mandan village, on the Missouri, in lat. 47° 20' N. and lon. 100° 50' W. has been selected by the government of the United States for a military post. It is only 150 miles south of the establishment of the Hudson bay company on Assinniboin river, and is well situated to prevent that company from extending their trade towards the head waters of the Missouri, and along the Rocky mountains ; a tract of country which is said to produce fur of a better quality and in greater abundance than any other portion of North America.
Council Bluff, on the east side of the Missouri, a little above the mouth of the Platie, is occupied as a military post. It is in the centre of the most pumerous Indian population west of the Mississippi, and is at that point on the Missouri, which approaches nearest to the post at the mouth of the St. Peter's, with which, in the event of hostilities, it may co-operate,
Situation.) Arkansas territory is bounded N. by Missouri territory and state ; E. by the Mississippi; S. by Louisiana, and by Rad river which separates it from the Spanish dominions; and W. by the Spanish dominions.
Divisions.] The territory is divided into 7 counties.
Slares Counties. Pop. Slavés in 1820. in 1820.
in 1820. in 1820, Arkansas, 1,260
178 Phillips, 1,201 145 Clark,
171 Hempstead, 2,248 481 Lawrence, 5,602 490
14,273 1,617 Miller,
82 Rivers.] Arkansas river enters the territory near its N. W. corner, and running in a direction east of south discharges itself into the Mississippi 400 miles above the mouth of Red river.
White river rises in the western part of the territory near 979 W. Ion. and 36° N. lat. and after a circuitous course of more than 1,200 miles, falls into the Mississippi 20 miles above the mouth af the Arkansas. The lands on this river and its branches have never been explored till recently. They are now universally represented as extremely fertile and among the finest in America for settlement. The St. Francis terminates its course in this ter ritory, The Ouachitu rises here, and runs south into Louisiana,
Chiof Settlements.] The village of Little Rock, on Arkansas river, about 140 miles from its mouth, is the seat of government. The settlement was commenced in 1820. The post of Arkansas was established by the French more than a century ago on Arkansas river, 65 miles from its mouth. Most of the inhabitants are of mixed blood, descendants of French and Indians.
Indians. The principal tribes are the Osages and Cherokees. The Osages of the Arkansas are 2,000 in number, and inbabit several villages on branches of Arkansas river, about 150 miles S. W. of the villages of the Great and Little Osages in Missouri territory. One of their principal villages is on Grand river, 25 miles from its junction with the Arkansas, in lat. 35° 30' N. and lon. 37° 20' W. This spot has been fixed upon by the United Foreign Missionary society as a missionary station. It is named Union, and in the summer of 1820, a mission family, consisting of more than 20 persons, was sent to occupy it. In the years 1818 and 1819, about 5,000 of the Cherokee Indians removed from their residence on the east of the Mississippi to a fine tract of country on the north bank of Arkansas river, between 94° and 95° W. lon. At their desire, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions have recently established a missionary station among them, called Dwight.
Population.] The population, in 1810, was 1,062 ; and in 1820, 14,273, exclusive of Indians and hunters. The hunter population is cumposed of persons from various sections of the Union, who have either embraced hunting from an excessive fondness for the pursuit, or have fled from society to escape the severity of the laws, and to indulge in uprestrained passion. They subsist almost entirely by hunting, and differ very little in any respect from the savages. They live chiefly on White river, the Arkansas, and Red river. Their number is estimated at 1,000 or 1,500
Hot Springs.] The celebrated Hot Springs of Ouachita or Wachita are in Clark county, on Hot Spring creek, which falls into the Wachita 3 miles below. The accomodations are miserable, the country being almost a wilderness, yet there are frequently 200 or 300 persons collected here, some from a distance pf 1,000 miles. The temperature is nearly that of boiling water.
Situation and Extent.] Florida is a long narrow peninsula, jutring out from the souihern extremity of the United States, and bounded N. by Alabama and Georgia ; E. by the Atlantic ; S. and W. by the gulf of Mexico. Formerly the name was applied to the whole country east of the Mississippi, and bounded as fol. lows: N. by the river St. Mary from the sea to its source ; thence, wesi, to the junction of Flint river with the Appalachicola;