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Huron through St. Clair river, and discharges itself into lake Erie through Detroit river. Lake Eric touches upon the terrilory in the S. E.
Rivers.] St. Mary's river or strait, which connects lake Superior with lake Hurun, is about 30 miles long. The tall, or Sault de St. Marie, is near the head of the strait, fifteen miles from lake Superior. The river here descends 22 leet 10 inches in 900 yards, and cannot be ascended at any season with large vessels, but canoes and barges are towed up along the bank without much difficulty or danger. The Indians are drawn hither in great numbers by the advantages for taking white-fish, which are so abundant at the foot of the rapids, that a skilful tisherman will take 500 in two hours.
The principal rivers which discharge themselves from the eastern shore of the territory are, 1. Saganaw river, a large and deep stream which falls into Saganaw bay, at its southern extremity. 2. 'The Huron, which discharges itself into lake St. Clair, 20 miles north of Detroit, after an easterly course of 60 or 70 miles. 3. The Raisin, which runs into lake Erie, 15 miles from the mouth of Detroit river, after an easterly course of 60 or 70 miles. It is navigable for small vessels 7 miles, to Mooroe, where there are rapids.
Numerous, small rivers discharge themselves into lake Michigan from its eastern shore, the most noted of which are, 1. St. Joseph river, which rises in Indiana, near the sources of the Maumee, and running in a north-westerly direction falls into the lake near its southern extremity ; and, 2. Grand river, which rises near the sources of the Saganaw and the Raisin, and running in a westerly direction falls into the lake about 60 miles north of the St. Joseph: it is navigable for boats nearly to its source, and a capal, connecting it with Saganaw river, it is said could be opened at a small expense.
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.] A ridge of highlands divides the waters Bowing into lake Michigan from those which fall into lakes Huron, St. Clair and Erie. The country along the eastern shore of Jake Michigan, and extending into the interior as far as the dividing ridge, consists of sand hills, sometimes crowned with a few siinted trees, and a scanty vegetation, bot generally bare, and thrown by the wind into a thousand fantastic shapes. The whole of this tract has been gained from the lake, and the land is still cootinually encroaching upon the water; every storm throwing up new quantities of alluvion. The eastern part of the territory, consisting of lands ceded by the Indians, has never till recently been brought into notice. It is now ascer: tuined to be a fertile region, well fitted for wheat and fruit of all kinds, generally level and watered by tine rivers, most of which present facilities for the transportation of produce from the interior. Since the lands were offered for sale by the V. States' government, ia 1318, emigrants have flocked hither in great numbers, and perhaps in uo country, north of the cotton and sugar climate, could the farmer find a better field for enterprise or a surer pros,
-pect of reward. The lands on Saganaw river and bay, which were ceded by the Indians in 1819, are represented to be of an excellent quality and beautifully situated.
Climate. The climate is healthful, and much milder than in the Atlantic states in the same latitude. In the eastern part it re.sembles that of the western counties of New-York and Pennsyl. vania; towards the southern boundary it is much milder, but upon the coast of lake Huron, and even that of St. Clair, it is more severe.
Animals.] No state in the Union is so bountifully supplied with fish, aquatic fowis, and wild game. The trout of Michillimackinac have a superior relish : they weigh from 10 to 70 pounds, and are taken at all seasons. White fish are caught in prodigious numbers in the straits of St. Mary, the river Detroit and lake St. Clair. Sturgeon are common to lakes Erie, St. Clair, Huron and Michigan. The beaver frequents the rivers running into lake Michigan; bears, wolves, elk, deer and foxes are also found in the forests.
Chief Towns and Forts.] The city of Detroit, the capital of the territory, is regularly laid out on the west baok of Detroit river, 9 miles from lake St. Clair. It contains about 250 houses, and in 1820, had a population of 1,422, exclusive of the garrison. It is finely situated for commerce, and was settled as early as 1683, by the French from Canada, for the purposes of the fur trade. At present, its commerce is chiefly with Ohio and NewYork, and with the military posts on the Upper lakes.
Michillimackinac, commonly called Mackinaw, is on an island in the straits,of the same name. The island is about 9 miles in circumference, and the village is on the S. E. side, on a small cove, which is surrounded with a steep cliff 150 feet high. On the top of the cliff stands the fort. Behind the fort, at the distance of half a mile, is another sunmit, 150 feet higher, and 300 feet above the level of the lake, on which fort Holmes is erected; and from this spot there is an extensive prospect inlo lake Huron and lake Michigan. The figure of the island suggested to the Indians the appropriate name of Michi-Mackinaw or Great Turtle. It exhibits a beautiful appearance as seen from the lake. During the summer Mackinaw is the resort of many fur traders, and ser. eral thousand Indians from the north-west and south-west, visit the island on their way to Drummond's island, at the mouth of St. Mary's river, where the British have an establishment, and annually distribute presents to the Indians to the amount of £4,000.
St. Mary's village is at the foot of the rapids in St. Mary's river. It contains 15 or 20 buildings, occupied by five or six French and English families, and there was formerly a French fort within half a mile of the rapids. As a military and trading post this position is of the first importance, being at the head of ship navigation on the great lakes, and the grand thoroughfare of communication with the Indians of the upper counties as far as the Arctic circle; all the fur trade of the north-west being compelled
to pass through it. The government of the United States have resolved to occupy this post, and in June, 1820, obtained from the Chippeway Indians the cession of a tract of land 4 miles square, commencing at the rapids and extending 2 miles up and the same distance down the river, with a depth of 4 miles, including the portage and the site of the village and old fort, but reserving to the Indians the right of fishing at the falls. The lands on the banks of the river St. Mary are very fertile.
Green bay settlement is on Fox river, a mile and a half above its entrance into Green bay, and 184 miles S. W. of Mackidaw. The settlement extends along both sides of the river about 4 miles. It is of ancient standing, having been first begun by the French in the year 1670. The present inhabitants, about 500 in number, are almost without exception of mixed blood, the French baving intermarried with the Jodians. The country around the settlement has a healthful climate with a fertile and well: watered soil.
Fort Howard is a military post in Green bay settlement. The present fort is on a low sandy spot, on the north side of Fox river, balf a mile from its mouth ; but a new stone fort was commenced in 1820, on a beautiful rising ground, 3 miles above the old fort. The number of the garrison is 600.
Fort Gratiot is a military post on St. Clair river, and commands the entrance into lake Huron. It stands a little below the point where the river leaves the lake. Opposite the fort, and for a mile below, there is a rapid in which the water runs with a vefocity of 6 or 7 miles in an hour.
History.) This territory was first settled about the year 1670, by the French, who built forts at Detroit and Michillimackinac for the protection of the fur trade. In 1759 the country fell with Canada into the bands of the British. Since 1783 it has belonged to the United States. During the late war Michillimackjpač and Detroit fell into the hands of the British, but were restored on the return of peace.
Population.] The population, exclusive of Indians, in 1810, was 4,762, and in 1820, 8,896, none of whom were slares. The wbite settlements at present are chiefly in the S. E. on lake Erie, the river Detroit, lake St. Clair, and the rivers which fall into them, particularly the Maumee, Raisin and Huron.
Indians.] The number of lodians in this territory is estimated at between 9 and 10 thousand. The two principal tribes are the Chippewas and Ottawas. The Chippewas are about 6,000 in Bumber, and live principally on Saganap bay, Saganaw river and the vicinity : they bave settlements also along the river St. Mary's, particularly at the falls. The Ottawas are between 2 and 3 thousand in number: their principal villages are on Grand river, and at L'Arbre Croche, 36 miles S. W. of Mackinaw.
Commerce.] The territory is finely situated for commerce, being almost surrounded by navigable waters, which will soon be connected by canals with the Hudson on the one hand, and the Mississippi on the other. The vessels which navigate the lakes
are generally from 10 to 60 tons burden. The amount of ship. ping in 1919 was 600 tons. The merchants supply themselves with European goods mostly from the city of New-York. The goods are iransported by land to Buffalo, and thence by water to Detroit; but the revenue is defrauded to a cousiderable amount by smuggling carried on from the neighboring province of Upper Canada.
Islands.] There are numerous islands belonging to this territory, in lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior. Grand isle is near the southern coast of lake Superior, between 86o and 87° W. lon. more than 100 miles from the eastern extremity of the lake. The island is celebrated for its fine harbor, which is said to be the most capacious, deep and completely land-locked of any in America. The St. Martin's islands lie about 10 miles north-east of Michillimackinac, and are noted chielly for gypsum of a fine quality, which has been recently discovered upon them. The specimens, it is said, bear a greater resemblance to the Nova Scotia gypsum,
of the numerous beds hitherto discovered in New-York, and other states of the Union. The quantity as far as can be judged from appearances, is inexhaustible.
Pictured Rocks.] The Pictured rocks are a series of losty bloffs, which extend along the southern shore of Jake Superior, immediately east of Grand isle. They consist of a surprising group of overhanging precipices, towering walls, caverns, water falls, and ruins, which are here mingled together, and burst upon the view in ever-varying succession. The rock ni which this part of the shore is composed rises to the height of 300 feet in a perpendicular wall from the water. It is made up of coarse grains of sand, united by a calcareous cement, and occasionally im!redding pebbles of quartz. Externally, it presents a great variety of color, as black, reil, yellow, brown, and white ; which is owing partly to mineral waters that have cozed out of the crevices of the rock, but mainly, to the washing down of colored clay from the superincumbent soil. This stupendous wall of rock, exposed to the fury of the waves, which are driven up by every north wind across the whole width of lake Superior, has heen partially prostrated at several points, and worn out into numerous bays, caverns and irregular indentations, which, at a dislance, present the appearance of dilapidated battlements and de. bolate towers.
Among many striking objects in this assemblage of grand and picturesque scenery, two are worthy of particular admiration, the Cascade La Portaille, and the Doric Arch. The Cascade is a handsome stream, which is precipitated about 70 feet from tlie bluff into the lake, at one leap. Its form is that of a rainbow, rising from the lake to the top of the precipice ; and it strikes the water at such a distance from the shore that boats can easily pass between. The Doric rock is an isolated mass of sand stone, consisting of four natural pillars, supporting an entablature of the same material, and presenting the appearance of a work of art. On the top of this entablature rests a stratum of alluvial soil, cov
ered with a handsome growth of pine and spruce trees, some of which appear to be 50 or 60 feet in height. To add to the artificial appearance of the scene, that part of the entablature included between the pillars is excavated in the form of a common arch, giving it very much the appearance of a vaulted passage into the court-yard of some massy pile of antiquated buildings.
Situation and Extent.] This territory is bounded N. by the boundary line between the United States and the British possesvions ; E. by Michigan territory; S. by the state of Ulinois, and W. by the Mississippi. It extends from 42° 30° to 49° N. lat. and contains about 140,000 square miles. The Northwest Territory has no existence in law, but is incorporated with the gove ernment of Michigan, and constitutes the county of Crawford, which has been already mentioned under the divisions of that territory.
Lakes and Bays) Lake Superior, the largest lake in North America, and supposed to be the largest boily of fresh water on the globe, lies on the boundary line between the United States aod the British possessions. Its greatest length from east to west is 490 miles, and its circumference 1700. The country on the north and east of the lake is said to be mountainous and barren, and the coasts are an embankment of rock from 300 to 1,500 feet high. The southern coast is very elevated, in some places sandy, but generally rocky and sterile. The lake is dangerous of navigation, being subject to fogs, mists and storms, which often prove disastrous to capoes. The principal bays are Fond du Lac, at the western extremily of the lake ; Chegoimegon bay, which is separated by a peninsula from the Fond du Lac, and affords a fine harbor; and Keweena bay, an extensive body of water, on the east side of a promontory, which extends 45 miles into the lake from the middle of the southern shore.
Sandy lake is a small lake, about 12 miies in circumference, in the western part of the territory, near lat. 47° 10' N. and lon. 94° W. It communicates with the Mississippi through Sandy lake river, which is 2 miles loog,30 yards wide at its mouth, and boatable. On the south shore of the lake, near its outlet, is a fort occupied by the American S. W. Fur company. Spirit lake, 12 miles long and 4 wide, lies two days journey south of Sandy lake. The Mississippi, near its source, passes through Cassina or Upper Red Cedar lake, lake Winnipec, and several smaller bodies of water, whicb may be regarded as mere expansions of the river.
Rivers.) The Mississippi forms the western boundary. Its principal tributaries from this territory are, 1. Sandy lake river, which forms the outlet of Sandy lake. 2. The Mississagaiegon,