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to pass through it. The government of the United States have resolved to occupy this post, and in June, 1820, obtained from the Chippeway Indians the cession of a tract of land 4 miles square, commencing at the rapids and extending 2 miles up and the same distance down the river, with a depth of 4 miles, including the portage and the site of the village and old fort, but reserving to the Indians the right of fishing at the falls. The lands on the banks of the river St. Mary are very fertile.
Green bay settlement is on Fox river, a mile and a half above its entrance into Green bay, and 184 miles S. W. of Mackidaw. The settlement extends along both sides of the river about 4 miles. It is of ancient standing, having been first begun by the French in the year 1670. The present inhabitants, about 500 in number, are almost without exception of mixed blood, the French baving intermarried with the Jodians. The country around the settlement has a healthful climate with a fertile and well: watered soil.
Fort Howard is a military post in Green bay settlement. The present fort is on a low sandy spot, on the north side of Fox river, balf a mile from its mouth ; but a new stone fort was commenced in 1820, on a beautiful rising ground, 3 miles above the old fort. The number of the garrison is 600.
Fort Gratiot is a military post on St. Clair river, and commands the entrance into lake Huron. It stands a little below the point where the river leaves the lake. Opposite the fort, and for a mile below, there is a rapid in which the water runs with a vefocity of 6 or 7 miles in an hour.
History.) This territory was first settled about the year 1670, by the French, who built forts at Detroit and Michillimackinac for the protection of the fur trade. In 1759 the country fell with Canada into the bands of the British. Since 1783 it has belonged to the United States. During the late war Michillimackjpač and Detroit fell into the hands of the British, but were restored on the return of peace.
Population.] The population, exclusive of Indians, in 1810, was 4,762, and in 1820, 8,896, none of whom were slares. The wbite settlements at present are chiefly in the S. E. on lake Erie, the river Detroit, lake St. Clair, and the rivers which fall into them, particularly the Maumee, Raisin and Huron.
Indians.] The number of lodians in this territory is estimated at between 9 and 10 thousand. The two principal tribes are the Chippewas and Ottawas. The Chippewas are about 6,000 in Bumber, and live principally on Saganap bay, Saganaw river and the vicinity : they bave settlements also along the river St. Mary's, particularly at the falls. The Ottawas are between 2 and 3 thousand in number: their principal villages are on Grand river, and at L'Arbre Croche, 36 miles S. W. of Mackinaw.
Commerce.] The territory is finely situated for commerce, being almost surrounded by navigable waters, which will soon be connected by canals with the Hudson on the one hand, and the Mississippi on the other. The vessels which navigate the lakes
are generally from 10 to 60 tons burden. The amount of ship. ping in 1919 was 600 tons. The merchants supply themselves with European goods mostly from the city of New-York. The goods are iransported by land to Buffalo, and thence by water to Detroit; but the revenue is defrauded to a cousiderable amount by smuggling carried on from the neighboring province of Upper Canada.
Islands.] There are numerous islands belonging to this territory, in lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior. Grand isle is near the southern coast of lake Superior, between 86o and 87° W. lon. more than 100 miles from the eastern extremity of the lake. The island is celebrated for its fine harbor, which is said to be the most capacious, deep and completely land-locked of any in America. The St. Martin's islands lie about 10 miles north-east of Michillimackinac, and are noted chielly for gypsum of a fine quality, which has been recently discovered upon them. The specimens, it is said, bear a greater resemblance to the Nova Scotia gypsum,
of the numerous beds hitherto discovered in New-York, and other states of the Union. The quantity as far as can be judged from appearances, is inexhaustible.
Pictured Rocks.] The Pictured rocks are a series of losty bloffs, which extend along the southern shore of Jake Superior, immediately east of Grand isle. They consist of a surprising group of overhanging precipices, towering walls, caverns, water falls, and ruins, which are here mingled together, and burst upon the view in ever-varying succession. The rock ni which this part of the shore is composed rises to the height of 300 feet in a perpendicular wall from the water. It is made up of coarse grains of sand, united by a calcareous cement, and occasionally im!redding pebbles of quartz. Externally, it presents a great variety of color, as black, reil, yellow, brown, and white ; which is owing partly to mineral waters that have cozed out of the crevices of the rock, but mainly, to the washing down of colored clay from the superincumbent soil. This stupendous wall of rock, exposed to the fury of the waves, which are driven up by every north wind across the whole width of lake Superior, has heen partially prostrated at several points, and worn out into numerous bays, caverns and irregular indentations, which, at a dislance, present the appearance of dilapidated battlements and de. bolate towers.
Among many striking objects in this assemblage of grand and picturesque scenery, two are worthy of particular admiration, the Cascade La Portaille, and the Doric Arch. The Cascade is a handsome stream, which is precipitated about 70 feet from tlie bluff into the lake, at one leap. Its form is that of a rainbow, rising from the lake to the top of the precipice ; and it strikes the water at such a distance from the shore that boats can easily pass between. The Doric rock is an isolated mass of sand stone, consisting of four natural pillars, supporting an entablature of the same material, and presenting the appearance of a work of art. On the top of this entablature rests a stratum of alluvial soil, cov
ered with a handsome growth of pine and spruce trees, some of which appear to be 50 or 60 feet in height. To add to the artificial appearance of the scene, that part of the entablature included between the pillars is excavated in the form of a common arch, giving it very much the appearance of a vaulted passage into the court-yard of some massy pile of antiquated buildings.
Situation and Extent.] This territory is bounded N. by the boundary line between the United States and the British possesvions ; E. by Michigan territory; S. by the state of Ulinois, and W. by the Mississippi. It extends from 42° 30° to 49° N. lat. and contains about 140,000 square miles. The Northwest Territory has no existence in law, but is incorporated with the gove ernment of Michigan, and constitutes the county of Crawford, which has been already mentioned under the divisions of that territory.
Lakes and Bays) Lake Superior, the largest lake in North America, and supposed to be the largest boily of fresh water on the globe, lies on the boundary line between the United States aod the British possessions. Its greatest length from east to west is 490 miles, and its circumference 1700. The country on the north and east of the lake is said to be mountainous and barren, and the coasts are an embankment of rock from 300 to 1,500 feet high. The southern coast is very elevated, in some places sandy, but generally rocky and sterile. The lake is dangerous of navigation, being subject to fogs, mists and storms, which often prove disastrous to capoes. The principal bays are Fond du Lac, at the western extremily of the lake ; Chegoimegon bay, which is separated by a peninsula from the Fond du Lac, and affords a fine harbor; and Keweena bay, an extensive body of water, on the east side of a promontory, which extends 45 miles into the lake from the middle of the southern shore.
Sandy lake is a small lake, about 12 miies in circumference, in the western part of the territory, near lat. 47° 10' N. and lon. 94° W. It communicates with the Mississippi through Sandy lake river, which is 2 miles loog,30 yards wide at its mouth, and boatable. On the south shore of the lake, near its outlet, is a fort occupied by the American S. W. Fur company. Spirit lake, 12 miles long and 4 wide, lies two days journey south of Sandy lake. The Mississippi, near its source, passes through Cassina or Upper Red Cedar lake, lake Winnipec, and several smaller bodies of water, whicb may be regarded as mere expansions of the river.
Rivers.) The Mississippi forms the western boundary. Its principal tributaries from this territory are, 1. Sandy lake river, which forms the outlet of Sandy lake. 2. The Mississagaiegon,
which forms the outlet of Spirit lake, and runs into the Mississippi, a short distance above the falls of St. Anthony. 3. St. Croix river, which joins the Mississippi a little below the falls of St. Anthony, after a southerly course of several hundred miles. 4. The Chippewny, which enters it in 43° 45' N. lat. 5. The Ouisconsin is a large river which rises near the centre of the territory, and running at first in a southerly and afterwards in a westerly direction, joins the Mississippi at Prarie du Chien, near the S. W extremity of the territory. It is a rapid river, but is navigable for boats 150 miles.
Fox river is a large stream, which falls into the S. W. end of Green bay, after running in a westerly direction for several huna dred miles. In one part of its course it approaches within two miles of Ooisconsin river, and the portage between them is over a level prairie. Both streams are navigable to the portage for boats. The Menomonee rods into Green bay, 60 miles north of the mouth of Fox river.
The principal rivers which run into lake Superior from this territory, are, 1. St. Louis river, which discharges itself into Fond du Lac bay at the extreme western point of the lake. 2. The Bois Brule, which rises near the sources of the St. Croix, and running in a northerly direction falls into Fond du Lac bay. It is navigable 80 miles. 3. Mauvais river, wbich discharges itself a few miles east of Chegoimegon bay. It is navigable for canoes 100 miles. 4. Montreal river, which enters the Jake 12 miles east of the Mauvais, interlocks with the Chippeway and Ouisconsin, but the connection is interrupted by long portages. 5. The Ontonagon, which discharges itself near lon. 89° W. after a northerly course of 120 miles. It is navigable only 36 miles on account of the rapids.
Mland Communication. One of the best and most frequented routes of communication between the great lakes and the Mississippi, is through the Fox and Quisconsin rivers. The Ouisconsin is ascended in canoes 90 miles above the portage, and is also connected by short portages with the Ontopagon and Montreal rivers of lake Superior. A communication is also maintained between lake Superior and the Mississippi by means of St. Louis river, which at one place approaches very near Savannah river, a small stream that discharges itself into Sandy lake.
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.) This territory has. been very imperfectly explored; but the alluvial bottoms on its rivers, wherever they have been examined, are said to be as rich as those of Ohio and Michigan. The lands on Fox river particularly, are spoken of as remarkably good. The most remarkable vegetable production is the wild rice, a productive and highly valuable aquatic plant, with which the lakes, rivers and bays generally abound. It grows in water of from 4 to 7 feet deep. When it is ripe the Indians pass through it in their canoes, lined with blankets, and bending the stalks over the sides, beat off the grain with sticks; and such is the abundance of the harvest, that an expert ada n will soon fill canoe.
Settlements.) Prairie du Chien is a settlement on the Mississippi, 3 miles above the mouth of the Quisconsin. It was originally formed by the French, who intermarried with the Indians, and the present inhabitants, amounting to between 300 and 400, are almost entirely of mixed blood. Above the settlement stands fort Crawford, which is strong and well garrisoned. The American S. W. Fur company have an establishment on the south shore of Sandy lake ; another on St. Croix river, 100 leagues from its mouth : and another on St. Louis river, 21 miles from its entrance into lake Superior.
Indians.] The principal tribes of Indians in this territory are the Chippeways, the Winnebagoes, and the Menomonees. The Chippeways are not contined to this territory, but consist of numerous petty bands, scattered over the immense region from Detroit to the sources of the Mississippi. Their whole number is estimated at more than 11,000, about one half of whom are in this territory. They are almost constantly at war with the Sioux, who live west of the Mississippi. The Winnebagoes live in the southern part of the territory, on Fox river and the Ouisconsin. Their number is nearly 6,000. The Menomonees are nearly 4,000 in number, and live principally on the west side of Green bay, along Menomonee river, and on Fox river in the lower part of its course. The whole number of Indians in the N. W. territory is estimated at 18,000.
Copper Mines.] The southern coast of lake Superior yields iron, lead and various other metals, but particularly copper. On the banks of the river Ontonagon large masses of this metal are found in a pure state, and from the appearances of the surrounding country there is little doubt that extensive copper mines exist in the vicinity. The largest mass examined by Mr. Schoolcraft weighed, according to his estimate, 2,200 lbs. and is said to be the largest piece of pure native copper in the world.
Situation and Extent.] Missouri territory is bounded N. by the British dominions ; E. by the N. W. territory and the states of Illinois and Missouri ; S. by Arkansas territory ; S. W. by the Spanish dominions ; and W. by the Rocky mountains. The area is estimated at 800,000 square miles.
Rivers.] The Mississippi forms the eastern boundary. Its principal tributaries from this territory, are St. Peter's river and The river Des Moines. - The Missouri pursues a circuitous course through the heart of the territory. Its principal tributaries are, the Yellowstone, the Platte and the Kansas. All these rivers have been described. See pages 70, 71 and 72.