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sissippi, 18 miles below the mouth of the Missouri, 200 above the mouth of the Ohio, and 1,200 above New Orleans. The situation, in point of beauty, health and convenience, is rarely equalled. The bank of the river ascends gradually from the landing to the rear of the town, where it terminales in a plain which extends for 15 miles around, and consists of a stratom of rich alluvial soil, bottomed on limestone rock. The houses are principally built on three parallel streets, which extend more than 2 miles along the river, and rise each above the other.
No ioland town in the world is more advantageously situated for commerce than St. Louis. It is near the point where several of the largest rivers in America unite their waters. It is the nat ural depot for the vast and fertile regions watered by the Missouri, the Upper Mississippi, the Illinois, and their numerous tributaries ; rivers, which traverse the continent for thousands of miles in various directions, and along whose banks the tide of population is now rolling with unexampled rapidity. Measures have already been taken by the government of the United States to divert the fur trade of the north-west regions and the Upper Missouri, [wbich has been heretofore engrossed by British traders and carried on through the fakes and Montreal,] into its natural channels, the Mississippi and Missouri, and whenever it is accomplished, St. Louis will be the centre of this profitable commerce. İntercourse by steam-boats is now constantly maintained with the towns on the Ohio and Mississippi, particularly with New-Orleans. The town is in a state of very rapid improvement. Population, in 1816, 2,000; in 1820, 4,598.
Herculaneum, the capital of Jefferson county, is on the Mississippi, 30 miles below St. Louis, and 36 from the centre of the lead mine country. . Here are store-houses for the lead, and several shot towers, where shot is made. The value of lead exported from this place in 18 months, ending in June, 1818, was $170,000.
St. Genevieve, the capital of the county of the same name, is on the Mississippi, 30 miles below Herculaneum. It is one of the priocipal lead markets, and before the settlement of Herculaneum, all the lead made at the mines was shipped from this place.
St. Charles is a handsome and flourishing town, on the north side of the Missouri, 21 miles from its mouth, and 18 N. W. of St. Louis. It was originally settled by the French, but there are now many American settlers.
Franklin, the capital of Howard county, is on the Missouri, and is surrounded by one of the richest tracts of land west of the Alleghany mountains. Emigrants are now flocking 10 this country in great numbers.
Potosi, the capital of Washington county, is 60 miles W. S. W. of St. Louis, and 45 W. of St. Genevieve. It is in the centre of the mining district. Within a circle of 20 miles around it, there are about 40 lead mines.
Among the other towns are Cape Girardeau, on the Mississippi 20 miles above the mouth of the Ohio; New Madrid, on the Mississippi, 70 miles below the mouth of the Ohio ; and Caton
dalet, on the Mississippi, 6 miles below St. Louis, and nearly opposite Cabokia in Illinois.
Population.] The population, in 18.10, was 20,657; in 1820, exclusive of Indians, 66,586, of whom 10,222 were slaves. Most of the inhabitants are immigrants, who have arrived within the last seven years. They consist of people from various parts of the United States and from Europe. A large proportion are from Tennessee, Kentucky, New York, and New-England. The original inhabitants were French and Spanish. There are few of the latter remaining, but the former constitute a respectable proportion of the population.
Education and Internal improvement.] Missouri was admitted into the Union in 1821. In the act of admission, Congress granted to the state one section or thirty sixth part of every township for the support of common schools ; and one township for the support of a college. Five per cent of the nett proceeds of the sale of public lands was also appropriated to making roads and canals, for the benefit of the state.
Antiquities.] Several skeletons were discovered in the fall of 1818, on the baoks of the river Merrimack, which indicate a stature unusally small, and are supposed by many to be the remains of an extinct race of human beings, of dwarfish origio, who inhabited the country at a former period. None of the graves exceed four feet in length, and some are less than two feet. In one, which by actual measurement, was only 23 inches, the teeth of the skeleton indicated that the person had arrived to the age of maturity.
Commerce.] The exports are lead, shot, whiskey, flour, corn, hemp, flax, low cloth, furs and provisions. Horses also may be ranked among the exports, considerable droves being annually driven off to Kentucky, Red river and other places.-Commerce is now carried on chiefly with the cities of New Orleans, Philadelphia, New-York and Pittsburgh. The lead is taken down the Mississippi io boats to New Orleans, and there either sold, or shipped to Pbiladelphia or New-York. The dry goods with which this country is supplied are principally purchased at Philadelphia, and transported across the Alleghany mountains to Pittsburgh, and thence taken down the Ohio and up the Mississippi in boats. The groceries are principally purchased at New-Orleans, and brought up in boats. Steam boats have lately engrossed this business, and should they continue to multiply at the rate now indicated, will in a few years throw keel boats and ,barges entirely out of employment.
Situation and Extent.] Michigan territory is bounded N. by Jake Superior; E. by lakes Horon, St. Clair and Erie ; S. by Obio and lodiapa; and W. by the Northwest territory. On the
north and east, the boundary is the same with that of the United States; on the south it is the same with the northern boundaries of Ohio and Indiana; on the west, the line begins at the southern extremity of lake Michigan, and runs due north to lake Superior. The territory extends from 41° 31' to 46° 39' N. lat. and from 82° to about 86° W. lon. It is 350 miles long from north to south, and 212 broad on the southern boundary. The area is estimated at 40,000 square miles.
Divisions.] The territory is divided by lake Michigan into two parts. The eastern and much the largest division is a peninsula, bounded on three sides by lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair and Erie, and on the south side by the states of Ohio and Indiana. The western division is also a peninsula, inclosed between lake Superior, lake Michigan and the western boundary of the territory. Tbe part of Michigan to which the Indian title has been extinguished is a tract in the S. E. along the banks of lake Erie, iake St. Clair, and lake Huron, extending as far north as Thunder bay river, and back to the westward about 80 miles ; besides some small tracts at the head of Green bay, at the straits of St. Mary, and around Michillimackinac. In 1820 the territory was divided into 7 counties, Counties.
Pop in 1820. Chief towns,
952 Green bay settlement.
898 Mount Clemens. Michillimackinac, 819 Michillimackinac, Monroe,
1,831 Monroe. Oakland,
330 Pontiac. Wayne,
Total, 8,896. Lakes and Bays.] Lake Michigan lies wholly within this territory. It is 260 miles long, 55 broad and 800 in circumference, containing, according to Hutchins, 16,200 square miles. On the N. E. it communicates with lalie Huron through the straits of Michillimackinac, and on the N. W. it branches out into two bays, one called Noquet's bay, and the other Green bay. The lake is navigable for ships of any burden. Green bay extends in a S. W. direction 90 miles, and is 15 or 20 miles wide. It is nayigable for vessels of 200 tons.
Lake Huron lies partly in this territory and partly in Upper Canada. On its N. W. side it receives the waters of lake Superior through the river St. Mary's, and is connected with lake Michigan by the straits of Michillimackinac. It discharges itself at its southern extremity, through St. Clair river, into Jake St. Clair. Saganaw bay sets up from the lake in a southerly direction, between Point aux Barques on the south, and Point au Sable on the north. It is 60 miles long, and 30 wide at its mouth.
Lake St. Clair, lying between Jake Huron and lake Erie, is about 90 miles in circumference. It receives the waters of lake
Huron through St. Clair river, and discharges itself into lake Erie through Detroit river. Lake Erie touches upon the territory in the S. E.
Rivers.] St. Mary's river or strait, which connects lake Superior with lake Huron, is about 30 miles long. The fall, or Sault de St. Marie, is near the head of the strait, fifteen miles from lake Superior. The river here descends 92 (eet 10 inches in 900 yards, and cannot be ascended at any season with large vessels, but canoes and barges are towed up along the bank without much difficulty or danger. The Indians are drawn hither in great numbers by the advantages for taking white-fish, which are so abundant at the foot of the rapids, that a skilful fisherman will take 500 in two hours.
The principal rivers which discharge themselves from the eastern shore of the territory are, 1. Saganaw river, a large and deep stream which falls joto Saganaw bay, at its southern extremity. 2. 'The Huron, which discharges itself into lake St. Clair, 20 miles north of Detroit, aster an easterly course of 60 or 70 miles. 3. The Raisin, which runs into lake Erie, 15 miles from the mouth of Detroit river, after an easterly course of 60 or 70 miles. It is navigable for small vessels 7 miles, to Monroe, where there are rapids.
Numerous small rivers discharge themselves into lake Michi. gan from its eastern shore, the most noted of which are, 1. St. Joseph river, which rises in Indiana, near the sources of the Maumee, and running in a north-westerly direction falls into the lake near its southern extremily ; and, 2. Grand river, which rises near the sources of the Saganaw and the Raisin, and running in a westerly direction falls into the lake about 60 miles north of the St. Joseph: it is navigable for boats nearly to ils source, and a capal, connecting it with Saganaw river, it is said could be opened at a small expense.
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.) A ridge of highlands divides the waters flowing into lake Michigan from those which fall into lakes Huron, St. Clair and Erie. The country along the eastern shore of lake Michigan, and extending into the interior as far as the dividing ridge, consists of sand bills, sometimes crowned with a few stinted trees, and a scanty vegetation, but generally bare, and thrown by the wind into a thousand fantastic shapes. The whole of this tract has been gained from the lake, and the land is still continually encroaching upon the water; every storm throwing up new quantities of alluvion. The eastern part of the territory, consisting of lands ceded by the Indians, has never till recently been brought into notice. It is now ascertained to be a fertile region, well fitted for wheat and fruit of all kinds, generally level and watered by tine rivers, most of which present facilities for the transportation of produce from the interior. Since the laods were offered for sale by the U. States' goverpment, in 1818, emigrants have flocked hither in great numbers, and perhaps in uo country, north of the cotton and sugar climate, could the farmer find a better fielu for enterprise or a surer pross pect of reward. The lands on Saganaw river and bay, which were ceded by the Indians in 1819, are represented to be of an excellent quality and beautifully situated.
Climate.] The climate is healthful, and much milder than in the Atlantic states in the same latitude. In the eastern part it resembles that of the western counties of New-York and Pennsylvania ; towards the southern boundary it is much milder, but upon the coast of lake Huron, and even that of St. Clair, it is more
Animals.] No state in the Union is so bountifully supplied with fish, aquatic fowis, and wild game. The trout of Michillimackinac have a superior relish : they weigh from 10 to 70 pounds, and are taken at all seasons. White fish are caught in prodigious numbers in the straits of St. Mary, the river Detroit and lake St. Clair. Sturgeon are common to lakes Erie, St. Clair, Huron and Michigan. The beaver frequents the rivers running into lake Michigan ; bears, wolves, elk, deer and foxes are also found in the forests.
Chief Towns and Forts. The city of Detroit, the capital of the territory, is regularly laid out on the west bank of Detroit river, 9 miles from lake St. Clair. It contains about 250 houses, and in 1820, had a population of 1,422, exclusive of the garrison. It is finely situated for commerce, and was settled as early as 1683, by the French from Canada, for the purposes of the fur trade. At present, its commerce is chiefly with Ohio and NewYork, and with the military posts on the Upper lakes.
Michillimackinac, commonly called Mackinaw, is on an island in the straits of the same name. The island is about 9 miles in circuinference, and the village is on the S. E. side, on a small cove, which is surrounded with a steep cliff 150 feet high. On the top of the cliff stands the fort. Behind the fort, at the distance of half a mile, is another suimit, 150 feet higher, and 300 feet above the level of the lake, on which fort Holmes is erected; and from this spot there is an extensive prospect inlo lake Huron and lake Michigan. The figure of the island suggested to the Indians the appropriate name of Michi-Mackinaw or Great Turtle. It exhibits a beautiful appearance as seen from the lake. During the summer Mackinaw is the resort of many fur traders, and sereral thousand Indians from the north-west and south-west, visit the island on their way to Drummond's island, at the mouth of St. Mary's river, where the British have an establishment, agd annually distribute presents to the Indiang to the amount of £4,000.
St. Mary's village is at the foot of the rapids in St. Mary's river. dt contains 15 or 20 buildings, occupied by five or six French and English families, and there was formerly a French fort within half a mile of the rapids. As a military and trading post this position is of the first importance, being at the head of ship pavigation on the great lakes, and the grand thoroughfare of communication with the Indians of the upper counties as far as the Arctic circle; all the fur trade of the north-west being compelled