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crosses tha southern boundary of the state into Arkansas territory and forms a junction with White river.
T'he St. Fruncis rises in the southeastern part of the state, and running in a southerly direction into Arkansas territory, falls into the Mississippi after a course of 500 miles. The navigation is obstructed by a rast of trees, brush, &c. about 250 miles from its mouth.
Face of the Country.] The lands immediately on the banks of the rivers are level, but as you recede from them towards the interior, the country rises, passing sometimes gradually and sometimes aliruptly into elevated barrens, flinty ridges and rocky cliffs. This portion of the state is, therefore, unfit for cultivation; but it is rich in mineral treasures. The highest land is in a ridge wbich commences on the banks of the Merrimack, near the head waters of the St. Francis, and extends in a south-west direction to the banks of the White river, in Arkansas territory, a distance of about 400 miles, and occasionally rises into peaks of mountain height. This ridge serves to divide the waters of the Missouri from those of the Mississippi, the streams on one side running south into the latter, and those on the other, runaing north into the former.
Soil.] The soil is either very rich or very poor; it is either bottom land or cliff, either prairie or barren ; there is very little of an intermediate goality. The lands immediately upon the banks of the rivers are generally rich, producing corn, wheat, rye, oats, flax, hemp and tobacco in great abundance.
The lands bordering on the Missouri, during its whole progress through this state, are rich beyond comparison. They consist of a stratum of black alluvial soil, of unknown depth, partaking largely of the properties of marl, and covered with a heavy growth of forest trees.
The banks of the Gasconade afford but a small proportion of arable lands, being bordered with rocks and sterile bills. The rocks are, however, cavernous and afford saltpetre, and the hills are covered with pine timber, which is sawed into boards and plank. In these two crticles the commerce of the river will always principally consist. On this stream are already situated several saw mills, where boards and plank are cut for the St. Louis m ket, and several saltpetre caves are worked.
Osage river affords in its whole length large bodies of the choicest prairie land, interspersed with wood land, and occasionally with hills. Its banks afford also exhaustless beds of coal, and some iron and lead are foand. A part of the country on this river has been recently purchased by the United States from the Indians, but there are as yet few settlements of whites.
The lands on Salt river are noted for their fertility, and the settlements on its banks are rapidly progressing. Much of the land on the Merrimack is poor; and pear its sources are large forests of pines.
There is much excellent land on the St. Francis, mised with some that is rocky, and bordered, near its mouth, with much that
is swampy, low, and overflown. The banks of Black river, and of all its tributaries, afford strips of rich alluvial land.
Climate. Situated between the 36th and 40ih degrees of north latitude, the state of Missouri enjoys a climate of remarkable serenity and temperate warmth. It is equally exempted from the hot summers of the sonth and the cold winters of the north, à medium happily calculated to favor the pursuits of agriculture, commerce and navigation. A clear blue sky is characteristic of the country, and an atmosphere of unusual dryness exempts the inhabitants from those pulmonary couplaints which are so frequent in some of the Atlantic States.
Productions. The climate is favorable to the productions of the vegetable kingdom, and it would be difficult to point out a section of country which affords a more interesting field for the botanist. The prairies and barrens are covered with a profusion of wild flowers, shrubs and plants, and the cultivated fields yield to the planter a great proportion of the useful vegetables of the 'earth. Corn succeeds remarkably well: no country surpasses the banks of the Missouri for the vigor of its crops. Wheat, rye, oats, flax, and hemp are also raised with allvantage. Tobacco is an article recently introduced, but is found to succeed well, and the lands are said to be as well adapted to its growth as those or Kentucky and Virginia. Cotton is raised in the southern part of the state for family use, but is not an advantageous crop for market. The climate and soil are also adapted to the growth of the sweet or Carolina potatoe, and to fruit trees of various kinds. The luxuriant growth of grass in the woods affords ample range for cattle and horses, and they are constantly kept fat. Hogs also are suffered to run at large, and in the fall are killed from the woods. There is perhaps no country in the world where cattle, hogs and sheep can be raised with so little trouble and expense as in some parts of this state.
Minerals.] The most remarkable feature in Missouri is its lead mines, which are probably the most extensive on the globe.. They occupy a district between 37 and 38° N. lat. and 89° and 92° W. Ion. extending in length from the head waters of St. Francis river in a N. W. direction to the Merrimack, a distance of 70 miles, and in breadth from the Mississippi, in a S.W. direction, 45 miles. They comprise a considerable part of the counties of Washington, Genevieve, Jefferson and Madison, and cover an area of more than 3,000 square miles. The ore is of the richest and purest kind, yielding in the large way from 60 to 70 per cent of pore metal. It exists in quantities sufficient to supply all the demands of the United States, and allow a large surplus for exportation. The processes of working the mines have hitherto been very imperfect, and conducted without skill, system or economy, yet Mr. Schoolcraft estimates the annual produce at more than 3,000,000 pounds, which at four cents a pound is worth $120,000. The number of mines now worked is 45, and the number of men emploved is more than 1,100.
Chief Towns.] St. Louis, the capital of St. Louis county, and the largest town in the state, stands on the west side of the Alis
sissippi, 18 miles below the mouth of the Missouri, 200 above the mouth of the Ohio, and 1,200 above New Orleans. The situation, in point of beauty, health and convenience, is rarely equalled. The bank of the river ascends gradually from the landing to the rear of the town, where it terminales in a plain which extends for 15 miles around, and consists of a stratom of rich alluvial soil, bottomed on limestone rock. The houses are principally built on three parallel streets, which extend more than 2 miles along the river, and rise each above the other.
No ioland town in the world is more advantageously situated for commerce than St. Louis. It is near the point where several of the largest rivers in America unite their waters. It is the nat ural depot for the vast and fertile regions watered by the Missouri, the Upper Mississippi, the Illinois, and their numerous tributaries ; rivers, which traverse the continent for thousands of miles in various directions, and along whose banks the tide of population is now rolling with unexampled rapidity. Measures have already been taken by the government of the United States to divert the fur trade of the north-west regions and the Upper Missouri, [wbich has been heretofore engrossed by British traders and carried on through the fakes and Montreal,] into its natural channels, the Mississippi and Missouri, and whenever it is accomplished, St. Louis will be the centre of this profitable commerce. İntercourse by steam-boats is now constantly maintained with the towns on the Ohio and Mississippi, particularly with New-Orleans. The town is in a state of very rapid improvement. Population, in 1816, 2,000; in 1820, 4,598.
Herculaneum, the capital of Jefferson county, is on the Mississippi, 30 miles below St. Louis, and 36 from the centre of the lead mine country. . Here are store-houses for the lead, and several shot towers, where shot is made. The value of lead exported from this place in 18 months, ending in June, 1818, was $170,000.
St. Genevieve, the capital of the county of the same name, is on the Mississippi, 30 miles below Herculaneum. It is one of the priocipal lead markets, and before the settlement of Herculaneum, all the lead made at the mines was shipped from this place.
St. Charles is a handsome and flourishing town, on the north side of the Missouri, 21 miles from its mouth, and 18 N. W. of St. Louis. It was originally settled by the French, but there are now many American settlers.
Franklin, the capital of Howard county, is on the Missouri, and is surrounded by one of the richest tracts of land west of the Alleghany mountains. Emigrants are now flocking 10 this country in great numbers.
Potosi, the capital of Washington county, is 60 miles W. S. W. of St. Louis, and 45 W. of St. Genevieve. It is in the centre of the mining district. Within a circle of 20 miles around it, there are about 40 lead mines.
Among the other towns are Cape Girardeau, on the Mississippi 20 miles above the mouth of the Ohio; New Madrid, on the Mississippi, 70 miles below the mouth of the Ohio ; and Caton
dalet, on the Mississippi, 6 miles below St. Louis, and nearly opposite Cabokia in Illinois.
Population.] The population, in 18.10, was 20,657; in 1820, exclusive of Indians, 66,586, of whom 10,222 were slaves. Most of the inhabitants are immigrants, who have arrived within the last seven years. They consist of people from various parts of the United States and from Europe. A large proportion are from Tennessee, Kentucky, New York, and New-England. The original inhabitants were French and Spanish. There are few of the latter remaining, but the former constitute a respectable proportion of the population.
Education and Internal improvement.] Missouri was admitted into the Union in 1821. In the act of admission, Congress granted to the state one section or thirty sixth part of every township for the support of common schools ; and one township for the support of a college. Five per cent of the nett proceeds of the sale of public lands was also appropriated to making roads and canals, for the benefit of the state.
Antiquities.] Several skeletons were discovered in the fall of 1818, on the baoks of the river Merrimack, which indicate a stature unusally small, and are supposed by many to be the remains of an extinct race of human beings, of dwarfish origio, who inhabited the country at a former period. None of the graves exceed four feet in length, and some are less than two feet. In one, which by actual measurement, was only 23 inches, the teeth of the skeleton indicated that the person had arrived to the age of maturity.
Commerce.] The exports are lead, shot, whiskey, flour, corn, hemp, flax, low cloth, furs and provisions. Horses also may be ranked among the exports, considerable droves being annually driven off to Kentucky, Red river and other places.-Commerce is now carried on chiefly with the cities of New Orleans, Philadelphia, New-York and Pittsburgh. The lead is taken down the Mississippi io boats to New Orleans, and there either sold, or shipped to Pbiladelphia or New-York. The dry goods with which this country is supplied are principally purchased at Philadelphia, and transported across the Alleghany mountains to Pittsburgh, and thence taken down the Ohio and up the Mississippi in boats. The groceries are principally purchased at New-Orleans, and brought up in boats. Steam boats have lately engrossed this business, and should they continue to multiply at the rate now indicated, will in a few years throw keel boats and ,barges entirely out of employment.
Situation and Extent.] Michigan territory is bounded N. by Jake Superior; E. by lakes Horon, St. Clair and Erie ; S. by Obio and lodiapa; and W. by the Northwest territory. On the
north and east, the boundary is the same with that of the United States; on the south it is the same with the northern boundaries of Ohio and Indiana; on the west, the line begins at the southern extremity of lake Michigan, and runs due north to lake Superior. The territory extends from 41° 31' to 46° 39' N. lat. and from 82° to about 86° W. lon. It is 350 miles long from north to south, and 212 broad on the southern boundary. The area is estimated at 40,000 square miles.
Divisions.] The territory is divided by lake Michigan into two parts. The eastern and much the largest division is a peninsula, bounded on three sides by lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair and Erie, and on the south side by the states of Ohio and Indiana. The western division is also a peninsula, inclosed between lake Superior, lake Michigan and the western boundary of the territory. Tbe part of Michigan to which the Indian title has been extinguished is a tract in the S. E. along the banks of lake Erie, iake St. Clair, and lake Huron, extending as far north as Thunder bay river, and back to the westward about 80 miles ; besides some small tracts at the head of Green bay, at the straits of St. Mary, and around Michillimackinac. In 1820 the territory was divided into 7 counties, Counties.
Pop in 1820. Chief towns,
952 Green bay settlement.
898 Mount Clemens. Michillimackinac, 819 Michillimackinac, Monroe,
1,831 Monroe. Oakland,
330 Pontiac. Wayne,
Total, 8,896. Lakes and Bays.] Lake Michigan lies wholly within this territory. It is 260 miles long, 55 broad and 800 in circumference, containing, according to Hutchins, 16,200 square miles. On the N. E. it communicates with lalie Huron through the straits of Michillimackinac, and on the N. W. it branches out into two bays, one called Noquet's bay, and the other Green bay. The lake is navigable for ships of any burden. Green bay extends in a S. W. direction 90 miles, and is 15 or 20 miles wide. It is nayigable for vessels of 200 tons.
Lake Huron lies partly in this territory and partly in Upper Canada. On its N. W. side it receives the waters of lake Superior through the river St. Mary's, and is connected with lake Michigan by the straits of Michillimackinac. It discharges itself at its southern extremity, through St. Clair river, into Jake St. Clair. Saganaw bay sets up from the lake in a southerly direction, between Point aux Barques on the south, and Point au Sable on the north. It is 60 miles long, and 30 wide at its mouth.
Lake St. Clair, lying between Jake Huron and lake Erie, is about 90 miles in circumference. It receives the waters of lake