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30' N. lat., and from 87° 17' to 91° 50' W. Jon. The area is estimated at 52,000 square miles.
Divisions.] Illinois is divided into 19 counties.
Counties, Pop. Chief lowns. | Counties.
Chief towns. in 1820.
in 1820. Alexander, 626 America. Monroe, 1,537 Harrisonville. Bond, 2,931 Perrysville. Pope, 2,610 Golconda. Clark, 931
Randolph, 3,492 Kaskaskia. Crawford, 3,022
5,253 Belleville. Edwards, 3,444 Palmyra. Union, 2,362 Jonesburg. Franklin, 1,763
Washington, 1,517 Covington. Gallatin, 3,155 Shawneetown. Wayne, 1,114 Jackson, 1,542 Brownsville. White, 4,828 Carnii, Jefferson, 691 Johnson, 843 Vienna.
Total, 55,211 Madison, 13,550 Edwardsville.
Rivers.] This state is well provided with navigable waters. It is bordered on three sides by the great rivers Wabash, Ohio and Mississippi ; its N. E. corner touches upon lake Michigan, and it is intersected by the Minois and Kuskaskia, which run from N. E. to S. W. through the heart of the state.
The Illinois is formed by the Kankakee and the Desplanes, which unite in the N. E. part of the state. After their union, the river roos in a S. W. dircction nearly 400 miles, and falls into the Mississippi 18 miles above the mouth of the Missouri. It has a gentle current, and is navigable for boats nearly to its source. The Illinois has numerous tributaries, sereral of which are nayi. gable for boats more than 100 miles.
The Kaskaskia rises in the eastern part of the state, between the Illinois and Wabash, and running in a south-westerly direction, falls into the Mississippi 84 miles below the mouth of the Illinois, atter a course of 150 miles, for 130 of which it is pavigable.
The other considerable rivers, beginning in the N. W. are, 1. Rocky river, which rises near the oorthern boundary of the state, and running in a S. W. direction, enters the Mississippi 160 miles above the mouth of the Illinois, after a course of 200 miles. 2. The Au Vase, which runs into the Mississippi, 55 miles above the mouth of the Ohio. It is navigable for boats 60 miles. 3. Saline river, which empties itself into the Ohio, 26 miles be. low the mouth of the Wabash. It is navigable 30 iniles. There are salt works, belonging to the United States, on this stream, 20 miles from its mouth. 4. The Little Wabash, which runs into the Wabash, a few miles from Ohio river, after a southerly course of more than 100 miles. 5. The Chicago, which empties itself into Jake Michigan, at its southern extremity. The portage from Chicago river to the Desplanes, one of the head branches of the Illinois, is only 9 miles, and the land here is so low as often to be covered with water and passed in boats.
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.) The greater part of the state is either flat or rolling. Extensive prairies are
spread over two thirds of its surface. The soil may be divided into six classes. 1. Bottoms, bearing a beavy growih of timber, This land is of the first quality, and is found on all the principal rivers. It varies in width from 50 rods to 2 miles, and is of inexhaustible fertility. 2. Newly formed land, found at the mouths of rivers. There are many thousand acres of this land at the mouth of the Wabash, and at the confluence of the Ohio with the Mississippi. It is annually inundated, and is very unhealthy, 3. Dry prairies, near the rivers, bordering on the bottom land, but elevated from 30 to 100 feet. The prairies of the Ilinois river are the most extensive of any east of the Mississippi, and have alone been estimated at 1,200,000 acres. This soil is not inferior to the first rate river bottoms. 4. Wet prairie, found remote from rivers or at their sources. The soil is generally cold and barren, abounding with swamps and ponds, and covered with a tall coarse grass. 5. Timbered land, moderately billy, well watered, and of a rich soil. 6. Hills, of a sterile soil, and destitute of timber, or covered with stinted oaks aod pines.
Corn is at present the staple production. Wheat does well, except on the bottoms, where the soil is too rich. Tobacco grows to great perfection. Flax, hemp, oats, Irish and sweet potatoes do as well as in Kentucky.
Military Bounty Lands.) In 1817 there were in Illinois upwards of 16,000,000 acres of land belonging to the United States, obtained by purchase from the Indians. The portion of these lands lying between the Illinois and the Mississippi has been assigned by Congress, as bounty lands, to the soldiers who enlisted during the late war. The whole amount surveyed is about 5,530,000 acres, equal to 8,640 square miles, and is divided into 240 townships. This land is represented to be of an excellent quality.
Chief Towns.) Kaskaskia, the seat of government, is on the right bank of Kaskaskia river, 11 miles from its mouth, and 150 S. W. of Vincennes. It contains about 160 houses scattered over an extensive plain. The town was settled upwards of 100 years ago from Lower Canada, and about one balf of the inhabitants are of French origin.
Cahokia is on a small river of the same name, which discharges itself into the Mississippi one mile below the town, 4 miles south of St. Louis, on the opposite side of the river, and 52 N. W. of Kaskaskia. It contains about 1,000 inhabitants, most of whom are of French origin.
Shawncetown,, the capital of Gallatin county, is on the north bank of Ohio river, 12 miles below the mouth of the Wabash, and 12 E. of the salt works belonging to the United States, on Saline creek. The inhabitants are supported priocipally by the profits of the salt trade.
Edwardsville, the capital of Madison County, is a flourishing town, on Cahokia river, 22 miles N. E. of St. Louis. Cairu is sita, uated at the junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi,
Canals and Roads.) A canal has been projected to unite the head waters of the Illinois with lake Michigan. The Illinois, and the Chicago, a river of lake Michigan, are so connected, that in freshets boats pass readily from one to the other. For the improvement of this navigation the government of the United States bas appropriated 100,000 acres of land. This canal will open, probably at less expense than any other, a communication between the great lakes and the Mississippi ; but as there are no settlements of any importance on the shores of lake Michigan, it will probably be some time before this communication will be opened,
Two per cent of the nett proceeds of the United States' lands, lying within the state, are to be expended under the direction of Congress, in making roads leading to the state.
Education.] At ihe time of the admission of Ulinois into the Union, in 1818, the government of the United States granted to the state, on certain conditions, one section or thirty-sixth part of every township for the support of schools ; and three per cent. of the nett proceeds of the United States' lands, lying within the state, for the encouragement of learning, of which one sixth part must be bestowed on a college or university.
As a farther provision for the university, two entire townships have been given to the legislature.
As the condition of these grants, the convention, which formed the constitution of the state, was required to provide, by an ordibance which is irrevocable without the consent of Congress, that all lands sold by the United States shall be exempt from every species of taxation for five years from the day of sale; also, that the bounty lands granted for military services during the late war, shall, if they continue to be held by the patentees, or their heirs, remain exempt from taxes for three years from the date of the patents ; and that the lands belonging to the citizens of the United States residing without the state, shall never be laxed higher than lands belonging to persons residing therein.---Similar provisions are required of all the new states as the condition 'on which they receive grants of land and money for the support (t' schools, roads and canals. It is also usually required that all the Davigable waters of the state shall be common highways, and for ever free of toll or duty to all citizens of the United States.
Population.] The population has increased very rapidly within a few years.
In 1810 it was 12,282 ; in 1818, 35,220; and in 1820, 55,211 ; of whom, 917 were slaves. The settiemeats at present are principally confined to the banks of the Mississippi, the Kaskaskia and its branches. There are a few also on the Wabash ant the Ohio. The constitution provides that no more slaves shall be introduced into the state.
Indians.] There are about 15,000 Indians in this state and Jodiana. The principal tribes are the Sacs, 3,400 in number, on Rocky river, of miles E. of the Mississippi, and 400 above Si. Louis; the Poitawatamies, 2.000 in number, around the souchern part of lake Michigan; the Delawares and several other tribes, on
White river in Indiana ; and the Miamies and Eel river Indians, in Indiana, on branches of ibe Wabash.
Government.] The legislative power is vested in a general as sembly consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen for two years and the senators for four years. The number of representatives cannot be less than 27 nor more than 36, until the number of inhabitants shall amount to 100,000 ; and the number of sepators can never be less than one third nor more than one half of the number of representatives. The executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen by the people for four years, but he is pot eligible for more than four years in any term of eight years. In all elections, every white male inhabitant, having resided in the state six months, is allowed to vote, and tbe constitution requires that all votes shall be given viva voce.
Judiciary power. The judiciary power is vested in a supreme court and such inferior courts as the general assembly shall from time to time ordain and establish. The judges are appointed by the assembly and hold their offices during good behaviour, or till removed by the governor on the address of two thirds of each branch of the general assembly.
Minerals.] Copper and lead are found in some parts of the state. Coal has been discovered on the banks of Au Vase river; on the Illinois, 260 miles from its mouth, and in places near Kaskaskia and Edwardsville. Salt is made at the United States' saline, on Saline river, to the amount of 200,000 bushels annually, and is sold at the works for 50 and 75 cents a bushel. These salt works supply the states of Indiana and Illinois.
Situation and Ectent. Missouri is bounded E. by Mississippi river, which separates it from Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee ; S. by Arkansas territory ; W. and N. by Missouri territory. The boundary line runs as follows : beginning in the Mississippi river in lat. 36° N. it runs due west along that parallel to the river St. Francis ; thence, up that river, to the parallel of 36° 30' north latitude ; thence, west, along that parallel, till it meets the meridian, which passes through the mouth of Kansas river; thence, north, along that meridian, till it meets the parallel of latitude, which pitsses through the mouth of Des Moines river; thence, east, along that parallel to the Mississippi river; and thence, down the middle of the Mississippi to the place of beginning. It extends from 36° to about 40° 30 N. lat. and from 89° to 940 10 W. lon. The area is estimated at 60,000 square miles.
Divisions. The state is divided into 15 counties,
Rivers.] The Mississippi washes the eastern bonndary of the state from the month of the Des Moines almost to that of the St. Francis, a distance of more than 500 iniles. The Missouri crosses the western boundary, and running in an easterly direction through the heart of the state, discharges itself into the Mississippi, 18 miles below the mouth of the Illinois, and 193 above that of the Ohio.
The principal tributaries of the Mississippi from this state, are, 1. Sait river, which joins it 73 miles above the mouth of the Illinois, after a course of several hundred miles, for 200 of which it is navigable. 2. The Missouri. 3. The Merrimack, which enters it 18 miles below St. Louis, after a N. E. course of more than 300 miles. It is only navigable about 50 miles, except in high floods in the spring and fall, when most of its tributaries may be ascended with boats.
The principal tributaries of the Missouri from this state, are, 1. The Gasconade, which enters it about 100 miles from its conAuence with the Mississippi, after a nortberly course of 200 miles. The current is rapid, and affords by its fall many mill seats; boats and rafts may descend with ease, but the ascent is attended with great labor. 2. the Osage, which rises in Missouri territory near the 96th degree of west longitude, aboot 100 miles north of the banks of the Arkansas, and after meandering in an east and northeast directiop for a distance of 900 miles, unites with the Missouri, 133 miles from its confluence with the Mississippi. It is bavigable for boats 600 miles. 3. Grand river, which rises in Missouri territory, and running in a southeasterly direction, joids the Missouri about 100 miles above the mouth of the Osage. It is navigable for boats 600 miles.
Black river rises near the sources af the Merrimack and the Gasconade, and running in a southerly direction is joined by Corrent, Thomas, Spring and Strawberry rivers, after which it