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Antiquities. The monuments of the ancient population of Ohio consist of fortifications, and mounds or embankments, of various forms and dimensions. Among them all, there is not a single edifice, nor any ruins which prove the existence, in former ages, of a building composed of imperishable materials. No fragment of a column, no brick, nor a single hewn stone, Jarge enough to have been incorporated into a wall has been discovered. The mounds of earth are found interspersed over almost the whole face of the country; but the forts, as they are called, are not so numerous.
The mounds vary greatly in shape and magnitude : some are of a conical figure, ending on the top in a point, and as steep on the sides, as the earth could be made to lie; others are of the same form except that they present a fat area on the top, like a cone cut off at some distance from its vertex, by a plane parallel with its base; and others again are of a semiglobular shape. The fortifications consist of a circular wall, composed of earth, and usually very steep on the sides. Their height is various ; some are so low as to be scarcely perceptible; some are from 20 to 30 feet in perpendicular height; while others again are of an intermediate elevation. The walls are generally single, but, in a few instances, they consist of two, which are parallel and adjacent to each other. The space inclosed within the walls varies from a few perches to nearly 100 acres. The number of entrances or gateways varies in different forts from one to eight or more, according to the magnitude of the inclosure.
Mounds and fortifications of the above description are not confined to the state of Ohio, but are found scattered over the whole country west of the Alleghany mountains from the great lakes on the north nearly to the southern extremity of North America. They are found of the greatest magnitude and grandeur in some of the southern provinces of Mexico. From that country, indeed, they seem to decrease in size, beauty and regularity, in a ratio corresponding directly to the distance. They are generally found in the vallies of the larger streams; and on the most elevated plains or terraces, which are provincially termed the second and third banks, counting from the river. They are undoubtedly of great antiquity: the forests over them exhibit no appearance of more recent growth than in other places. Trees, beveral hundred years old, are in many places seen growing out of the ruins of others, which appear to have been of equal size. There have been various conjectures concerning the time when these monuments were erected, the people hy whom they were built, and the design of their erection. Those called forts are generally in the strongest military positions of the country, and were perhaps, without exception, designed for defence in war. The mounds were probably burying places, as human bones have frequently been discovered in them.
Commerce and Manufactures.] The principal exports from this state are horses, cattle, swine, whiskey and flour. Large herds of swine are driven in the autumn to Philadelphia, Balti
more and other eastern markets; Detroiť and other military posts on the northern frontier are also supplied with provisions principally from Ohio. The markets for the northern part of the state and for many of the interior counties are Montreal and New-York. In all the southern part of the state the produce is boated down the Ohio and Misssissippi rivers to New-Orleans. The value of the manufactures of this state, in 1810, was $2,894,290.
Situation and Extent.] Indiana is bounded N. by the state of Illinois, lake Michigan and Michigan territory; E. by the state of Ohio ; S. by Kentucky; and W. by the state of Illinois. The boundary line commences in Ohio river at the mouth of the Wabash, and proceeds up the last mentioned river to the point where the meridian of Vincennes cuts the river for the last time; theace, north, along that meridian, to a point 10 miles north of the southern extremity of lake Michigan ; thence, due east, to the point of intersection with the western line of the state of Ohio; thence, south, along that line, to the mouth of the Great Miami ; and thence, down the Ohio, to the place of beginning. It extends from 37° 45' to 41° 50' N. lat, and from 84° 42' to 870 49' W. lon. The area is estimated at 36,000 square miles.
Divisions.] The northern half of the state is in possession of the lodians. The part occupied by the wbites is divided into 35 counties.
Clark, Crawford, Davies, Dearborn, Delaware, Dubois, Fayette, Floyd, Franklin, Gibson, Harrison, Jackson, Jefferson, Jennings, Knox, Lawrence, Martin, Monroe, Orange,
Pop, Chief lowns. Counties. Pop.
Chief towns, in 1820.
in 1820. 8,709 Charlestown,
Perry, 2,339 Troy.
Ripley, 1,822 5,950
Spencer, 1,882 10,763 Brookville. Sullivan, 3,498 Fort Harrison 3,876 Princeton. Switzerland, 3,934 Vevay. 7,875 Corydon. Vanderburgh 1,798 4,010 Brownstown, Vigo,
3,390 8,038 Madison.
147 2,000 Vernon.
Warwick, 1,749 Darlington 5,437 Vincennes, Washington, 9,039 Salem. 4,116
12,119 Salisbury. 1,032 2,679
Total, 147,178 5,368 Paoli.
Riters] The Ohio forms the southern boundary of the state, from the mouth of the Great Miami to that of the Wabash.
The Wabush rises in the northeastern part of the state, and flowing in a southwesterly direction, falls into the Ohio 30 iniles above the mouih of Cumberland river, after a course of 500 miles, for the last 250 of which it forms the boundary between Indiana and Illinois, It is navigable for keel boats 400 iniles, to Quitanon, where there are rapids. Above the rapids small boats can ascend nearly in its source. The current is gentie above Vincennes; helow that town there are several rapids, but not of sufficient magnitude to prevent boats from ascending. Its principal tributaries from this state, are, 1. White river, which rises in the eastern part of the state, and running in a southwesterly direction through nearly the wbole breadth of the state, parallel with the Ohio, at the distance oj from 460 to 60 iniles, receives # large branch from the north, and soon after discharges itself into the Wabash, 16 miles below Vincennes. 2. The Tippecanoe, which rises in the northern part of the state, and running in a souiberly direction, joins the Wabash 140 rniles above Vincennes. The banks of this river are celebrated for a severe battle fought in November 1811 between the United States' troopis and the Indians, in which the former were victorious.
Whitewater river rises in this state, and running in a S. E. di. rection, receives numerous tributaries, and falls into the Miami, in Ohio, 5 miles above the junction of that river with the Ohio. It is a beautiful transparent stream, and abounds with tine seats for mills, many of which are already erected upou it. It can easily be made navigable to Brookville, 20 miles from its mouth.
St. Mary's river rises in the state of Ohio, near the sources of the Miami, and running in a direction west of norıb, før 70 miles, joins the St. Joseph's river, at Fort Wayne, in this state, to form the Maumee. It is navigable for boats nearly to its source, from which there is only a short portage to Loramie's creek, a branch of the Miami.
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.] A ridge of hills commences near the mouth of the Wabash, and runs in a N. E. direction, nearly parallel with the Ohio, at no great distance, producing a broken and uneven country. North of these hills lie the flat woods, 70 miles wide. Bordering on all the priocipal streams, except the Ohio, there are strips of bottom and prairie land, of a rich soil, and usually from 3 to 6 miles in width. The prairies on the Wabash are the finest land in the state. Remote from the rivers the country is broken and the soil light. Bes tween the Wabash and lake Michigan, the laud is mostly level, and interspersed with woodlands, prairies, lakes and swamps.
The principal productions are wheat, lodian corn, oals, rye, flax, hemp, potatoes and tobacco. In the southeastern part of the stale, near Vevay, on the Ohio, the vine is cultivated with
On the banks of the Wabash, in the upper part of its course, the best kind of coal is found in inexhaustible quantities ;
and near the sources of several of the navigable rivers, there are salt springs from which salt inabundance may be procured. Near Corydon, in the southern part of the state, is a large cave abounding with Epsom salts and saltpetre.
Chief Towns.) Vincennes, the largest town, is on the east bank of the Wabash, 100 miles from its junction with the Ohio, in a direct line, but nearly 200 by the course of the river. The settlement was commenced about a century ago by the French from Lower Canada, many of whom intermarried with the Indians, and gradually approximated to the savage state. Within a few years American emigrants have flocked hither in great numbers, and the society is rapidly improving. In 1810 the population was 883, and in 1818 the town contained 250 dwelling houses and stores; a bank, with a capital of $1,500,000; and a college.
Madison, the capital of Jefferson county, is on the Ohio, 45 miles above the falls, and 75 below Cincinnati. It has grown very rapidly for several years past, and is now the second town in size in the state. The population, in 1819, was estimated at 1,300.
Corydon, the temporary capital of the state, is on Indian creek, 15 miles from its junction with the Ohio, and 27 west of Louisville in Kentucky. It is to be the seat of government till 1825. Population, in 1819, about 1,000. Jeffersonville is on Ohio river, just above the falls, and opposite Louisville in Kentucky. A company has been incorporated to cut a canal around the falle, on the Indiana side of the river, commencing just above this place. Should this canal be formed, Jeffersonville would become a place of importance. Vevay, the capital of Switzerland county, is pleasantly situated on the Ohio, nearly equidistant from Cincin. nati, Lexington and Louisville, 45 miles from each. The inhabitants are emigrants from Switzerland. In 1814 the site of the town was a forest, but in 1817 it contained 84 dwelling houses, a courthouse, jail, market-house, church and printing office. Half a mile below the village are the Swiss vineyards, where the culture of the vine has been successfully introduced.
Inland Navigation.] About 8 miles from fort Wayne, in the northeast part of the state, one of the brancbes of the Wabash approaches within a short distance of St. Mary's river, a navigable branch of the Maumee which falls into lake Erie. When the waters are very high these rivers overflow the intervening laods to such a depth, that loaded boats pass over with facility. Of the praceicability, therefore, of connecting them by a canal there can be no doubt; and in a law of Congress appropriating a portion of the public lands to the improvement of inland navigation, 100,000 acres were assigned for defraying the expense of this project.
Education. In the act of Congress admitting this state into the Union, one section, or thirty sixth part, of each township was given for the support of schools. One entire township, or 23.040, acres, said to be worth, on an average, 10 dollars ap
acre, was also given for the support of a college. The college is located at Vincennes, and a large brick building is already erected.
Population.] The population in 1800 was 2,500; in 1810, 21,520 ; in 1815, 68,784 ; and in 1820, 147,178, of whom 190 were slaves and 1,230 free blacks. A majority of the inhabitants are fiom Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and the Carolinas ; the remainder are from every other state in the Union, and from almost every nation in Europe. The Indian title to large tracts of fine land has been recently extinguished by the United States, and the number of immigrants is, in consequence, rapidly increasing.
Government. The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen annually by counties, and their number can never be less than 36 nor more than 100. The senators are chosen for three years, and their number can never be less than one third, nor more than one half of the number of representatives. The executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen by the people for three years, but he cannot hold his office longer than six years in any term of nine years.
Judiciary power.] The judiciary power is vested in a supreme court and such inferior courts as the general assembly may, from time to time, direct and establish. The judges of the supreme court are appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate. The judges of the inferior courts are chosen partly by the general assembly, and partly by the people in their respective counties. The justices of the peace are elected by the people in the several towns, and hold their offices for five years. The judges of the supreme court as well as of the inferior courts hold their offices for seven years.
Situation and Extent.] Mlinois is bounded N. by the NorthWest teritory; E. by lake Michigan and Indiana ; S. by Kentucky ; and W. by Mississippi river, which separates it from the state of Missouri and Missoori territory. The boundary begins in Ohio river at the mouth of the Wabash, and proceeds, thence, up the same, and with the line of Indiana, to the north-west cor. ner of said state ; thence, east, with the line of the same state, to the middle of lake Michigan; thence, north, along the middle of said lake, to the parallel of 42° 30' N. lat. ; thence, west, along that parallel, to the middle of the Mississippi river; and thence, down along the middle of that river, to its confluence with the Ohio river; and thence, up the latter river, along its north-western shore, to the place of beginning. It extends from 37° to 420