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Since 1820, 12 new counties have been formed out of the country recently purchased from the Indians in the N. W. part of the state; viz. Allen, Crawford, Hancock, Hardin, Henry, Marion, Mercer, Paulding, Putnam, Seneca, Van Wert and Williams.
Rivers.] The Ohio ruos along the whole southern border; a distance of 420 miles, separating the state from Virginia and Ohio.
The principal tributaries of the Ohio, from this state, beginning in the east, are, 1. The Muskingum, which rises in Portage county, near the N E. corner of the state, and runniog in a southerly direction passes by Coshocton and Zanesville, and discharges itself into the Ohio at Marietta, after a course of 200 miles. Above Coshocton, it bears the name of T'uscarawa river. The navigation is obstructed by falls at Zanesville, but a canal and locks have been commenced around them, which will remove the difficulty. Above Zanesville, the river is navigable for large boats to Coshocton, and for small boats nearly to its source. 2. The Hockhocking, which rises in Fairfield county, and running in a southeasterly direction, discharges itself into the Ohio, at Trov, 25 miles below Marietta, after a course of 80 miles, for 70 of wirich it is navigable. 3. The Scioto, which rises in Hardin county, and running at first in a southeasterly and afterwards in a southerly direction, passes by Columbus, Circleville and Chillicothe, and discharges itself into the Ohio, at Portsmouth, after a course of 170 miles, for 130 of which it is navigable. 4. The Little Miami, which rises in Madison county, and running in a southwesterly direction, falls into the Ohio, 7 miles above Cincinnati, after a course of 70 miles. It is one of the best mill streams in the state, and 30 or 40 mills are already erected upon it. 5. The Miami or Great Miami, which rises in Hardin county, and running in a S.W. direction, falls into the Ohio, exactly in the southwestera corner of the state, after a course of more than 100 miles. It is difficult of navigation on account of the rapidity of the current, but has numerous mill seats.
The principal rivers which fall into lake Erie, from this state, are, 1. The Maumee, wbich is formed by the confluence of St. Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers at Fort Wayne, in the N. E. part of Indiana. It runs in a northeasterly direction, and falls into Maumee bay, at the western extremity of lake Erie. At the distance of 18 miles from its mouth, a series of shoals and rapids commences, and continues for 15 miles up the river. 2. Sandusky river, which rises in Crawford county, and running at first in a westerly and afterwards in a portberly direction, discharges itself into Sandusky bay after a course of 80 miles. It is navigable nearly to its source, and in one part of its conrse approaches wilbin + miles of the navigable waters of the Scioto. 3. The Cuyatuga, wbich rises in Geauga county, in the northeastern part of the state, and discharges itself into lake Erie at Cleveland, aster a circuitous course of more than 60 miles.
Face of the Country and Soil.] The interior parts of the state and the country bordering on lake Erie are generally level and
in some places marshy. About one third or one quarter of the state, comprehending the eastern and southeastern part, bordering on the Ohio river, is generally hilly and broken, but not mountainous. Immediately on the banks of the Ohio and of seyeral of its tributaries, are numerous tracts of interval land, of most exuberant fertility. On both sides of the Scioto, and of the Great and Little Miami, are perhaps the most extensive bodies mi' rich and level land. In many places are extensive prairies, particularly on the head waters of the Muskingum and Scioto, and between the Scioto and the sources of the two Miami rivers. Some of these prairies are low and marshy, and yield spontaneously a large quantity of coarse grass from two to five feet in height; others are elevated, and are frequently called barrens, not, however, on account of their sterility, for they are often fertile. The height of land which divides the waters of Ohio river from those of lake Erie, is the most marshy tract in the state, while the driest land lies along the margins of the rivers.
Productions.) Wheat is the principal production. From 70 to 100 bushels of corn are said to be frequently produced on acre. Other kinds of grain and fruits of various sorts are also cultivated. Coal is found in abundance along the Ohio in the eastern part of the state. Salt springs have been discovered and wrought on the Muskingum, a few miles below Zanesville, and in various other places.
Climate and Diseases.] The climate of Ohio has been commonly considered warmer in the same parallels than that of the Atlantic states. The difference was considered by Mr. Jefferson, as equal to what would result from three degrees of latitude. Observations, however, which have been made at Cincinnati, for a series of years, seem to prove that there is no foundation for this opinion, or, at least, if there be a difference, it cannot equal one third of what has been mentioned. The opinion that the climate on the Ohio is more liable to sudden and extreme changes, and more moist than that of the eastern states is equally erroneous. The diseases to which immigrants are most liable, are biljous and typhus fevers. This is especially the case with the natives of New-England and New-York, who in coming here undergo a change of climate greater than they seem generally to anticipate. They should, therefore, endeavor to arrive in the country late in the autumn ; and before the ensuing summer place themselves in the most healthy situations which can be found. If they are careful in this respect, and in the heat of summer shun the evening air, and the noon-day sua, and avoid what is denominated a bilious habit, very few will suffer an attack; but without such attention, a seasoning, as it is termed, will probably be experienced the first summer after an arrival from the north. In the second, whether the first be sickly or not, there is but little danger.
Chief Towns.] Cincinnati, the capital of Hamilton county and tbe largest town in the state, is situated on the north bank of Obio river, opposite Newport in Kentucky, and about 20 miles
from the mouth of the Great Miami river, at the S. W. corner of the state. It is regularly laid out, in a pleasant and healthy situation, and is one of the most flourishing towns west of the Alleghany mountains. The growth of the city has been rapid, almost without a parallel. In 1805, the population was 500; in 1810, 2.540; in 1820, 9,642. In 1819 it contained a court. bouse ; 3 brick market houses ; 4 printing offices; a steam flour mill, built of stone, 9 stories high; a steam saw mill; I woollen and 4 cotton factories ; 2 glass houses, and several other manufaeturing establisbments ; 4 banks ; a college ; and 9 or 10 houses of public worship for different der.ominations. The commerce of the town is very flourishing. About 130,000 barrels of fiour were inspected here during the year ending April 1st, 1819, and more than 120,000 bushels of salt imported. A company has been recently formed for the purpose of importing goods directly from Europe by the way of New-Orleans.
Chillicothe, the capital of Ross county, is regularly laid out on the west baok of Scioto river, 45 miles, in a direct line, from its mouth, on the border of an extensive and fertile plain, of about 10,000 acres. It contains 3 banks, 3 houses of public worship, and an academy ; and in the vicinity are many valuable mills and manufacturing establishments. Population, in 1820, 2,426.
Zanesville, the capital of Muskingum county, is situated on the east side of Muskingum river, at the falls, opposite Putnam. It is a very floorishing town, and is well situated for trade and manufactures. The navigation of the Muskingum is uninterrupted from its mouth; the falls afford numerous fine.mill seats, and the surrounding country abounds with inexhaustible beds of coal for such establishments as require the use of fuel. Here are already erected 2 glass-houses, several flour mills, an oil mill, saw mills, a nail factory, and a woollen factory. A company was incorpo. rated in 1814, for the construction of a capal and locks around ihe falls, and the work is now rapidly progressing. The expense is estimated at from 70,000 to 100,000 dollars, and the company in tend to unite with the canal extensive water works for manufacturing purposes. The population of Zanesville, in 1820, was 2,052. Putnam is a flourishing town on the west bank of Muskingum river, opposite Zanesville, and connected with it by two bridges. Population, in 1820, 512.
Columbus, the capital of the state, is regularly laid out, on a pleasant rising grouod on the east side of Scioto river, just below the confluence of the Whetstone, 45 miles north of Chillicothe. The growth of the town has been remarkably rapid. In 1812, the lots were first exposed for sale, with the timber then standing upon them, and in 1820, it contained a handsome state-house, a building for the public offices, aod a penitentiary, all of brick ; a bank; a market-house; 2 printing offices; inore than 200 houses and 1,500 inhabitants.
Steubenville, the capital of Jefferson county, is on the west bank of Ohio river, in the midst of a fertile and populous country, abounding with coal and iron ore. It was regularly laid out in
1798, and has very rapidly increased. The population in 1810, was 800; and in 1820, 2,539
Marietta, the capital of Washington county, is on the west bank of Ohio river, immediately above the mouth of the Muskingom, and 178 below Pittsburgh. Ship building was formerly carried on here to a considerable extent, and since 1816 this business has revived. The situation of the town is unfortunate; parts of it being liable to annual inundation. Population of the township, in 1820, 1,746.
Cleveland, the capital of Cuyahoga county, is situated at the mouth of Cuyahoga river, on the southern shore of lake Erie, and is a noted place of embarkation for various parts of the lake. Population, in 1820, 606. Circleville, the capital of Pickaway county, is on the east side of Scioto river, 26 miles south of Columbus apd 19 north of Chillicothe. It is situated on two ancient fortifications or mounds of earth, one circular, the other square; the areas of which, together, cover nearly 20 acres. The round fort consists of two circular but parallel walls, about 20 feet high, and at the top 50 feet asunder. There was originally but one regular opening into the circular fort, and that was on the east side, from the square fort. The latter has seven avenues leading into it, beside that which communicates with the circle. The town lies principally within the circular mound, and hence derives its name. Population, in 1820, 535. Athens, the seat of the Ohio University, is on a peninsula, formed by a large bend of Hockhocking river, 37 miles from its mouth and 40 west of Marietta. Population, in 1820, 1,094.
Canals and Roads.] It has been proposed to connect lake Erie with Obio river by means of a canal from the Cuyahoga, which empties itself into lake Erie, to the Tuscarawa, one of the upper streams of the Muskingum. Between these rivers there is now only a short portage, and so certain is it that the two rivers may be connected by a canal, that in the law of Con. gress, appropriating a portion of the public lands to the improvement of inland navigation, 100,000 acres were assigned for de. fraying the expense of carrying into effect this project. Of all the canals proposed for connecting the waters of the lakes with those of the Mississippi, this probably will be first opened, and will be a great benefit to the country through which it passes, It is supposed that lake Erie may also be connected with the Ohio by means of canals, uniting the branches of Maumee, with a branch of the Great Miami.-Three per cent of the nel proceeds of the United States' lands within the limits of Ohio, have been given by Congress to the legislature for the purpose of opening and improving its roads. The produce of this fund has hitherto been divided among so many roads, that very little of the good which was anticipated, has been derived from it.
Education) There are three institutions with the title of university in this state, viz. Cincinnati university, at Cincinnati ; the Ohio university, at Athens, on the Hockhocking; and the Miami university, at Oxford, in Butler county, near the S. W.
corner of the state. There are besides two incorporated col. leges, one at Cincinnati ; and the other at Worthington, og Whetstone river, 9 miles north of Columbus. The Cincinnoti university has existed only on paper, and may now be considered. as extinct. The Ohin university is endowed with two townships or 46,000 acres of land, and bas an annual income of 2.300 dollars. It is just commencing ite operations. In 1818 a large and convenient edifice of brick was erected for the accommodation of the institution. The Mianni university is endowed with one township of land, which produces at present an annual incompe of nearly 4,000 dollars. The funds are daily increasing in value, and the erection of buildings for the accommodation of'ibe institution has already commenced. The Cincinnati college was incorporated in 1819, and is the most Hourishing literary institution in the state. It has funds, amounting to 30,000 dollars, raised by private subscription. A medical college is connected with it. Worthington college was incorporated in 1813. All these institutions are yet in their infancy.-One section, or thirty sixth part, of every township has been granted by the government of the V. States for the support of common schools. There are also 10 incorporated academies in the state.
Population.] The population has increased with astonishing rapidity. In 1791, it was 3,000; in 1800, 42,156 ;. in 1810, 230,760; and in 1820, 581,131, none of whom were slaves. The inhabitants are made up of emigrants from every state in the Union, and from almost every country in Europe. They have not resided together long enough to form a fixed and uniform character. The majority of the emigrants have been farmers from the northern and middle states, who are in general industrious, temperate, and frugal, anil possess much intelligence and enterprise. The population will probably continue to increase rapidly for some time to come ; though not with the same rapidity as heretofore. The recent extinction of the Indian title to the northwestern quarter of the state, called the lodian reservation, will have an immediate effect on the progress of population in that quarter.
Religion.) The Presbyterians and Methodists are the prevailing denominations. In the southwestern parts of the state, and in some other places, there are a few Shakers and Quakers or Friends. There are also a few of almost every oiber denvinination.
Government.] Ohio was admitted into the onion in 1303. The legislative power is vested in a general a-sembly, consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen for one year, and their number cannot lie less than 36 oor more than 72. The senators are chosen for two years, and their number must not be more than one half, nor less than one third of the number of representatives. The executive power is vested in a goverbor, who is chosen for two years by the people.