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mountains, and running in a northerly direction forms the bourdary between Virginia and Kentucky, and falls into the Ohio, after a course of 200 miles. Cumberland river rises in the Cumberland mountains, near the sources of the Big Sandy, and running in a southwesterly direction, crosses the southern boundary of the state into Tennessee, where it makes a great bend, suming a northwesterly direction returns to Kentucky, and discharges itself into the Ohio, 10 miles above the mouth of Tennessee river, after a course of 600 miles, for 500 of which it is navigable for boats.
The principal rivers which lie wholly within the state, beginning in the east, are, 1. Licking river, which rises in the Cumberland mountains, and running in a N. W. direction, discharges itself into the Ohio at Newport, opposite Cincinnati, after a course of 180 miles. In spring floods, it is navigable for 100 miles from its mouth, but for ten months out of twelve its nav. igation is of little value. 2. The Kentucky, which rises in the Cumberland mountains, near the sources of the Cumberland and the Licking, and running in a N. W. direction, for 280 miles, discharges itself into the Ohio at Port William, 77 miles above the rapids at Louisville. It is navigable for boats of considerable size 180 miles, in the winter floods. Its principal tributary is the Elkhorn, which joins it 8 miles below Frankfort. 3. Salt river, which falls into the Ohio 20 miles below Louisville, and is navigable 65 miles. On its banks are numerous salt licks. 4. Green river, which rises near the centre of the state, and running in a westerly direction for 280 miles, discharges itself into the Ohio. 120 miles below Louisville and 50 above the mouth of the Cumberland. It is narigable for boats nearly 200 miles.
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.] The only mountains are the Cumberland range, which separate Kentucky from Virginia. The eastern counties are mountainous. A tract along the banks of the Ohio, from 5 to 20 miles wide, and extending through the whole length of the state, has a good soil, but is hilly and broken, except the lands immediately on the Ohio, for about one mile in width on an average, which are bottom lands, and subject to periodical inundations. Between this tract, the eastern counties and Green river, lies a fine country, which has been called the garden of the state. It is about 150 miles long, and from 50 to 100 miles wide, and comprises the counties of Mason, Fleming, Montgomery, Clarke, Bourbon, Fayette, Scott, Harrison, Franklin, Woodford, Mercer, Jessamine, Madison, Garrard, Casey, Lincoln, Washington and Green. The surface of this district is agreeably undulating, and the soil black and fertile. The country between Green and Cumberland rivers is called “the bar. rens.” In 1800 the legislature of Kentucky made a grant of this tract to actual settlers, under the impression that it was of littie value, but it proves to be excellent land; and hogs and cattle are raised here in abundance.
The whole state, below the mountains, rests op an immense bed of lime stone, usually about 8 feet below the surface. There
are every where apertures in this limestone, through which the waters of the rivers sink into the earth. The large rivers of Kentucky, for this reason, are more diminished during the dry season, than those of any part of the United States, and the small streams entirely disappear.
The banks of the rivers are gatural curiosities. They have generally worn very deep channels in the calcareous rocks over which they flow. The precipices formed by Kentucky river are in many places awfully sublime,presenting perpendicular banks of 300 feet of solid limestone, surmounted with a steep and difficult ascent, four times as high. In the S. W. part of the state, between Green river and the Cumberland, there are several wonderful caves : one, called the Mammoth cave, is said to be 8 or 10 miles long.
The principal productions of Kentucky are hemp, tobacco, wheat and Indian corn. Salt springs are numerous, and supply pot only this state, but a great part of Ohio and Tennessee with this mineral. Iron ore abounds in various places, but the metal is not of a good quality.
Chief Towns.] Frankfort, the capital of the state, is regularly laid out on the east side of Kentucky river, 60 miles above its confluence with the Ohio. The site of the town is a semicircular alluvial plain, from 150 to 200 feet lower than the table land in its rear. The river is here about 80 yards wide, and after heavy rains frequently rises 60 feet. Opposite Frankfort, and connected with it by a bridge, is South Frankfort, which is rapidly increasing. Steam boats of 300 tons come up the river as far as this place when the water is high, and most of the foreign goods consumed in Kentucky are landed here or at Louisville. Population, in 1820, 1,679.
Lexington, the largest town in the state, and the seat of Transylvania university, is delightfully situated, in a beautiful valley, on Town fork, a small stream which falls into the south branch of Elkhorn river, 25 miles E. S. E. of Frankfort. It is regularly laid ont, and contains 3 banks; and 7 houses of public worship, 3 for Presbyterians, and one each, for Episcopalians, Baptists, Methodists and Roman Catholics. The growih of the town has been exceedingly rapid. In 1797, it contained only about 50 houses, and the best farmers lived in log cabins. It is now' a large and beautiful town, covered with stately and elegant buildings, and in wealth and refinement is not surpassed by any place in the western country. The country around Lexington is much admired for the beauty of its scenery, and is adorned with more than 50 handsome country seats. The population of the town, in 1820, was 5,279.
Louisville is pleasantly situated on an elevated and beautiful plain, on the south bank of the Ohin, immediately above the rapids, and 50 miles west of Frankfort. It contains 3 banks; a theatre; and 3 houses of public worship, 1 for Roman Catho'ics, I for Presbyterians and i for Methodists. Among the mmolacturing establishments is a distillery, which yields 1200 gallons
a day, and is the most extensive establishment of the kind in the United States. Here are also 5 tobacco manufactories; a factory for the construction of steam engines, in which about 60 workmen are employed; a soap and candle manufactory, supposed to be the largest in the western country; a sugar refinery; a steam flour mill, and two steam saw mills. The commerce of Louis ville and of Shippingport, which lies adjacent, has increased rapidly within a few years. There are now upwards of 25 steam boats, measuring together 6,050 tons, employed in their commerce. The population of Louisville, in 1820, was 4,012.
Shippingport is on the Ohio, 2 miles below Louisville, at the foot of the rapids, on a beautiful plain. It is the natural harbor and landing place for all vessels ascending the Ohio. During three-fourths of the year they of necessity stop bere, which they can do with perfect safety, as there is a basin immediately in front of the town, capable of containing any number of vessels, of
Russellville, the capital of Logan county, is a flourishing town, in the midst of a very fertile country, and contained, in 1820, 1,712 inhabitanis. Newport, the capital of Campbell county, is on the Ohio, immediately above the mouth of Licking river, and opposite Cincinnati. An arsenal has been established here by the United States, with barracks for 2 or 3 regiments of soldiers. Bardstown, the capital of Nelson county, is on a branch of Salt river, 35 miles S. W. of Frankfort. Here is a large Roman Catholic cathedral.
Canal.] The Ohio, at the rapids in Louis ville, descends 22 feet in about two miles. Boats ascend, lont not without difficulty. The legislature of Kentucky, several years since, incorporated a company for opening a canal around these rapids ; and, in 1816, the ground was surveyed, and the expense of a canal for vessels of 30 tons, was estimated at $240,000.
Education.] Transylvania university, in Lexington, was orig. inally incorporated before the separation of Kentucky from Virgioiu. In 1818, it was re-organized under a board of 13 trustees, who are chosen bienojally by the legislature. In 1820, its officers were a president and 8 professors, of whom 4 were medical professors ; 3 tutors; 2 assistant tutors, and the principal of the preparatory department. The number of students was 235, of whom 34 were medical students, and 99 in the preparatory department. T'he library contains about 3,000 volumes, and a considerable sum has been expended in the purchase of a chemical
and philosophical apparatus.--A college was established, in 1819, at Danville, 33 miles S. S. W. of Lexington. It has 2 professors.
Respectable schools aod academies are increasing in the state, the result of individual exertions.
Population and Religion. The population of the state, in -1790, was 73,677 ; in 1800, 220,959 ; in 1810, 406,611 ; and, in 1820, 564,317; having increased nearly eighifold in 30 years, of the whole population in 1820, 126,732 were slaves. The principal religious denopinations are Baptists, Presbyterians and
Methodists. There are a few Catholics and some Episcopalians. The Catholic bishop resides at Bardstown.
Government. The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen for one year and cannot be less than 58 nor more than 100 in number. The senate consists of not less than 24 nor more thau 38 members, who hold their office for 4 years, one fourth part being chosen annually. The executive power is vested in a governor, who holds hie office for four years, but is ineligible for seven years afier the expiration of the time for which he shail bave been elected.
Commerce and Manufactures.] Hemp, tobacco and wheat are the principal exports. These are carried down the Ohio and Mississippi to New Orleans, and foreigngoods are received from the same place in return. Louisville is the centre of this trade. The pripcipal manufactures are cloth, spirits, cordage, salt, and maple sugar. The value of the manufactures, in 1810, was estimated at $6,181,024.
Curiosity.] In Big Bone valley, about 20 miles S.W. of Newport, larger quantities of huge animal remains have been discovered than in any other part of the United States. It is now more than balf a century since these first attracted the attention of European travellers, and so many of the bones have been carried away, that a few fragments only remain to excite the feelings which are naturally produced by a view of this tomb of the mammoths.
Situarion and Extent.) Ohio is bounded N. by the Michigan territory and lake Erie ; E. by Pennsylvania ; S. E. by Virginia ; S by. Kentucky, and W. by Indiana. It extends from 38° 30' to 42° N. lat, and from 80° 32 to 84o 50 W. loo. The area is estimated at 39,000 square miles.
Divisions.] In 1820 there were 59 counties, and 742 towns: Counties. Towns. Pop. Pop. Chief lowns.
in 1810. in 1820. Adams,
9 9,434 10,406 West Uoion. Ashtabula, 19
7,382 Jefferson. Atbens,
13,356 Ripley. Butler,
12 11,150 21,746 Hamilton. Champaign, 10 6,303 8,479 Urbana. Clarke, 10
9,538 Springfield. Clermont, 11 9,965 15,820
T 2,674 8,085 Wilmington Colombiana, 23 10,878 22,033 New Lisbon. Coshoctor, 14
8 20 14
7 17 1.1 18
8 14 12
4 22 10 11 11 10 21
5 10 14 10 12 7 9 14 20
6 28 11 21 14
. in 1820. 6,328 3,717 7,639 16,633
6,316 10,292 7,098 7,791 10,529
9,292 31,764 , 14,345 12,308 2,130 6,675 3,746 18,531 8,326 3,499 11,861 3,131 4,799 3,082 4,480 8,851 4,645 15,999
4,253 10,095 10,327
852 5,750 2,106 12,406 15,546 8,328 1,996 17,837 10,425 11,933
20 31 14 3 9 17 22 1
Pop. in 1810. 1,459
2,000 4,361 1,854 3,486 4,181 2,917 5,870 3,051 15,258