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Fase of the Country, Soil and Productions.] The Camberland mountains, wbich consist of stupendous piles of craggy rocks, ton from N. E. to S. W. through the centre of the state, dividing it into East Tennessee and West Tennessee. East Tennessee is intersected hy several ranges of mountains, but the vallies between the ridges are extensive and fertile. West Tennessee is partly level and partly billy, and contains much fertile scil, particularly on the banks of the rivers. The principal productions are cotton, tobacco, wheat, hemp, and Indian corn.

Climate. The climate of Tennessee is generally healthy. The season of vegetation generally commences 6 or 7 weeks sooner than in New Hampshire, and continues as much later. Snow falls seldom, and does not lie long. Ten inches is a deep snow, and 10 days an extraordinary term for its duration. Cumberland river has been frozen but 3 or 4 times since the settlement of the country,

Rivers. The Mississippi forms the western boundary. Its principal trihutaries from his state are Obian, Chickasaw, Forked Deer, and Wolf rivers, all of whic!, are small streams. Cumberland river comes from Kentucky, and making a circular bende passes into Kentucky again.

The Tennessee, properly speaking, rises in Virginia, under the Dame of the Holston, which runs in a S. W. direction, and crossing the northern boundary of this state receives the IVatanga from North Carolina, ani, near Knoxville, French Broad river, Through a part of the same state, from South Carolina. A little below Xnoxville the Holston unites with the Tennessce, which rises in South Carolina, and is comparatively speaking a sma! river, toatable only 30 or 40 miles. Soon after this junction, the united stream, now bearing the name of Tennessee, receives from the north Clinch river, which rises in Virginia, and is boatable 200 miles. From this grand confluence, the Tenneseee, rolling on in a S. W. direction, receives the Iliwassee from Georgia ; crosses the southern boundary of Tennessee into the N. E. corner of Alabama; torms the arc of a circle in that state of about 130 miles chord, usually called the Great Bend ; recrosses the boundary near the N. W. corner of Alabama ; crosses West Tennessee in a northerly direction, and enters Ohio river in the western part of Kentucky, 57 miles from the Mississippi, by a mouth 600 yards wide. It is navigable to the Muscle shoals, in Alabama, 250 miles from its mouth, at all seasons of the year, for the largest row boats. Here it spreads out and becomes so shallow tbat it is difficult for boats to pass when the water is low. Above the shoals there is no obstruction for 250 miles, till you come to the Suck or Whirl, where the river breaks through the Cumberland mountains. The stream, which a few miles above, is balf a mile wide, is here compressed to the width of about 70 yards. Just as it enters the mountain, a large rocķ projects from the northern shore, which causes a sudden bend in the river; the water is thrown with great violence and rapidity against the southern shore, whence it rebounds around the point of the rock,

and produces the whirl. The whirl is passed without muchi danger or difficulty, the situation of the shore being such, that boats ascending the river may be towed up.-Thc principal tributary of Tennessee river in West Tennessee is Duck river, which rises in the Cumberland mountains, and running in a direction N. of W. waters a considerable tract of country included between the Cumberland and the southern boundary of the state. It is navigable for boats 90 miles..

Chief Torons.] Nushville, the capital of Davidson county, is situated on the south side of Cumberland river, in the midst of a very fertile and populous country, and is the largest and most fourishing town in the state. The Cumberland is navigable to this place for vessels of 30 or 40 tuns during the greater part of the year, and in the highest foods for vessels of 400 tons. Steam bouts ply between Nashville and New Orleans. The towo contains 2 banks, several manufactories and about 3,000 johabitants.

Knoxville is on the north bank of the Holston, 22 miles above its junction with the Tennessee, 4 below the mouth of French Broad river, and 200 east of Nashville. It is regularly laid out, and contains a bank, a respectable academy, 3 houses of public worship, and about 2,000 inhabitants.

Murfreesborough, the capital of the State, is in Rutherford county, 32 miles S. E. of Nashville. It was made the seat of government in 1817. The surrounding country is level, and very fertile, abounding with wheat, cotton, and tobacco. PopuLition, about 1,000.

Education. There is a flourishing college at Greenville, in E ist Tennessee, on French Broad river, 81 miles east of Knoxville. It was incorporated in 1794, and has between 70 and 80 students. Two other colleges were also incorporated in East Tennessee, in 1794; one in Washington county, and the other in Knox, but they are not at present in operation. In West Tennessee there is a college at Nashville, called Cumberland college, under the direction of a president and one tutor.

Population and Religion.] The population in 1790 was 35,691; in 1800, 105,602 ; in 1810, 261,727, and in 1820, 422,813, of whom 80,095, or nearly one fifth part, were slaves. The slares are most numerous in the western part of the state. In East Tennessee they constitute less than one tenth part of the population. The most numerous denominations of Christians are Methodists, Baptists and Presbyterians.

Indians.] The Cherokees inhabit an extensive country, included within the chartered limits of North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee, and containing between 15 and 16,000 square miles. They live thinly dispersed over the country, in log cabins, not much inferior to those of the whites in the neighboring setilements. A considerable number of whites reside in the nation, and many have obtained all the privileges of citizenship by marrying female natives. These intermarriages have been so long practised that a considerable part of the tribe are


of mixed blood. The mixed breed can generally speak English, and a few send their children to the white settlements for educa. tion. As to their persons, the Cherokees are well formed and of a good appearance. Some of them have as fine countenances as can easily be found in any country. The children are almost universally active and healthy, and as apt to learn as the children of civilized people. Some of the half-breeds have large plantations, which they cultivate with the aid of slaves, but the fullblooded Cherokees do not carry on agriculture with much vigor. A short time since the number of the Cherokees was 12,395. Within a few years, however, many of the tribe have emigrated to the country on Arkansas river, on the west side of the Mississippi; the government of the United States having assigned them lands on that river, in exchange for a part of the Cherokee country. In the treaty which was made on this occasion, the government appropriated ahout 100,000 acres of the land ceded by the Cherokees, for a perpetual, school fund, to be applied under the direction of the President of the United States, to the instruction of the Cherokees who remain on this side of the Mississippi.

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign missions established a inission among the Cherokees in 1817. The principal station is at Brainerd, on the western side of Chickamaugah creek, 2 miles from the southern boundary of the state, and 30, in an easterly direction, from the N. W. corner of Georgia. Schools have been established in various other places. In 1820, numerous buildings had been erected for the accommodation of the mission, a farm of 60 acres was under cultivation, and more than 200 pupils were receiving instruction in the various schools. Besides being taught reading, writing, arithmetic, and the principles of Christianity, the children are instructed in the most useful arts of civilized life. The boys learn the use of the hoe and the axe, while the girls learn the use of the spinning wheel and the needle. The Cherokees are much pleased with the missionaries. Throughout the nation there is a general and strong sentiment in favor of having their children instructed. There is another respectable missionary station, established in this nation in 1801, by the Moravians, at Springplace, in Geor. gia, 35 miles S. E. of Brainerd.

The Chickasaws, a few years since, occupied an extensive country, lying within the chartered limits of the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi and Alabama; and bounded E. by Tennessee river; N. by the Ohio ; W. by the Mississippi, and S. by the Choctaw country. The part of this tract lying in Tennessee and Kentucky has recently been ceded to the United States. The Chickasaws, in most respects, resemble their neighbors the Choctaws and Cherokees. The number of the tribe, according to an official statement, is 6,456.

Government.) The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a sepate and house of representatives, both chosen for two years. The house of representatives cannot consist of more than 40 members, and the senate can never be less

than one third nor more than one half of the number of repre-sentatives. The executive power is vested in a governor, who also holds his office for two years. The judges of the several courts of law are appointed by the general assembly, and bold their offices during good behavior.

Commerce.] The principal exports are cotton, tobacco and wheat. The usual route to a market is down the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers to the Ohio, and thence down the Ohio and Mississippi to New Orleans. This course is very circuitoas, and it is expected that a road or canal will soon be formed, connect ing Teonessee river with some of the branches of the Tombigbee, which will shorten the distance to the gulf of Mexico more than one half. Cattle are raised in large numbers in East Tennessee, and sent to the seaports in the Atlantic states. Foreign goods have hitherto been brought from Philadelphia and Baltimore to East Tennessee, in wagons ; and to West Tennessee, principally in wagons as far as Pittsburgh, and thence by water down the Ohio and up the Cumberland.


Situation and Extent.] Kentucky is bounded on the N. W. and N. by the states of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, from which it is separated by Obio river; E. by Virginia, from which it is separated by Big Sandy river and the Cumberland mountains ; S. by Ten. nessee ; and W. by the state of Missouri, from which it is separated by the Mississippi river. It extends froin 36° 30' to 39 10' N. lat. and from 81° 60 to 89° 26' W. lon. It is 300 miles long on the southern line. The area is estimated at 42,000 square miles..

Divisions.] The state is divided into 87 counties. Counties.


Pop. . Slares in 1810. in 1820. in 1820.

Chiof towns. Adair,

6,011 8,765 1,509 Columbia, Allen,


723 Scottsville. Barren,

11,286 10,328 2,446 Glasgow. Bath,

7,961 1,224 Boone,

3,008 6,542 1,296 Burlington. Bourbon, 18,000 17,664


Paris. Bracken, 3,706 5,280

676 Augusta. Breckenridge, 3,430 7,485

1,267 Bullitt,

4,311 5,831 1,245 Butler, 2,181 3,083

472 Caldwell, 4,268 9,022 1,444 Campbell, 3,473 7,022

897 Newport. Casey, 3,285 4,349

456 Liber!y. Christian, 11,020 10,459 3,491 Hopkinsville, Clarke,

11,519 11,449 3,463 Winchester. Clay,


285 Manchester

Pop. in 1810.


Chief lorons Burksville. Owensborough.


2,082 21,370 8,947 3,485 8,013 3,307 9,186

Prestonville, Frankfort. Port William Lancaster.

2,301 6,735 2,369 7,531





Counties. Cumberland, Davies, Estill, Fayette, Fleming, Floyd, Franklin, Gallatin, Garrard, Grant, Grayson, Greene, Greenup Hardin, Harlan, Harrison, Hart, Henderson, Henry, Hopkins, Jefferson, Jessamine, Knox, Lewis, Lincoln, Livingston, Logan, Madison, Mason, Mercer, Monroe, Montgomery, Mublenburg, Nelson, Nicholas, Ohio, Owen, Pendleton, Pulaski, Rockcastle, Scott, Shelby, Simpson, Todd, Trigg, Union, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Whitley, Woodford,

4,703 6,777 2,964 13,399 8,377 5,875 2,357 8,676 3,674 12,123 15,540 12,459 12,630

Slaves in 1820. 1,332


281 9,274 1,144

197 3,550 1,242 2,918


184 3,241

566 1,466

108 2,137

596 2,265 2,004

982 6,886 2,802


464 3,053 1,020 4,698 4,154 3,366 3,825

498 2,054

675 3,875

919 468 207 328 637

155 4,620 5,158

803 1,729

816 1,035 2,554 3,734


Henderson. Newcastle, Madisonville. Louisville, Nickolasville, Barboursville. Clarksburg Stanford. Smithland. Russellville. Richmond. Washington. Danville.


4,181 14,078 4,898 3,792

Mount Sterling Greenville. Bardstown.


Falmouth. Somerset.

3,061 6,897 1,731 12,419 14,877

Georgetown. Shelbyville.

11,937 13,248

Bowling Green, Springfield. Monticello,


[blocks in formation]

Pop. in 1820. 8,058 3,876 3,507 23,250 12,186

8,207 11,024

7,075 10,851 1,805 4,055 11,943

4,311 10,498

1,961 12,278 4,184 5,714 10,816

5,322 20,768 9,297 3,661 3,973 9,979 5,824 14,423 15,954 13,588 15,587 4,956 9,587 4,979 16,273 7,973 3,879 2,031 3,086 7,597 2,249 14,219 21,047 4,852 5,089 3,874 3,470 11,776 15,947 7,951 2,340 12,207







Rivers.) Kentucky is almost insulated by navigable rivers, The Big Sandy, the Ohio and the Mississippi form its boundary on three sides, while the Cumberland, in iwo places, intersects its southern border. The Big Sandy rises in the Cumberland

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